Satyagraha: An Innovation for Change through Non-Violent Resistance



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Satyagraha:

An Innovation for Change through Non-Violent Resistance


Jennifer Lor

Norma Romero-Rodriguez


Senior Division

Group Documentary



Process Paper

Last year, Jennifer did a exhibit on Bayard Rustin’s nonviolent campaigns in the Civil Rights Movement, where she learned of Satyagraha. Satyagraha became the innovation for our project because it was something that inspired us and has made a difference

We first interviewed Professor Jack Nelson-Pallymeyer from St. Thomas University’s Justice & Peace Studies Department and Elizabeth Dyson who grew up in India during the 1930s. Professor Peter Rachleff of Macalester referred us to Professors Jim Laine, chair of Macalester’s Religious Studies Department, and Brendon LaRocque of the History Department at Carleton College. We studied at Carleton’s Gould Library and often bussed to the Wilson Library of the University of Minnesota, where we used The Times London microfilms and the Ames Library of South Asia’s collection of books about Gandhi. We also contacted Mel Duncan, founder of the Nonviolent Peaceforce, and interviewed him. Duncan referred us to Michael Nagler, professor emeritus at the University of California Berkley, whom we interviewed using Skype. He is the founder of the Peace & Conflicts Studies at Berkley, and of Metta Center, a program that promotes Gandhian non-violence. We also interviewed Colman McCarthy, a journalist, teacher, and non-violent activist who has written for the Washington Post for 28 years.

When we were trying to understand the violence in India’s partition after independence was achieved through non-violent methods, we hypothesized that Satyagraha is effective when there is a group of oppressed individuals fighting against a government or people with higher authority and power. We asked some of the professors and activists whom we had interviewed if they could recall a moment in history where two groups of equal power had settled their differences using Satyagraha. When they couldn’t disprove this theory, we did more research and when we couldn’t disprove, we decided to incorporate that into our video.

We decided to make a documentary because it allowed us to include a lot of information in a form that is easy for the audience to follow. However, even though a documentary let us include more information than an exhibit, we were forced to cut back on a lot of the information that supported our thesis, such as the many movements that used Satyagraha in India.

Our project relates to the National History Day theme, “Innovation in History: Impact and Change,” because Satyagraha was a new method of combating oppression introduced by Gandhi. Gandhi expanded on Tolstoy and Thoreau’s principles of pacifism and individual civil disobedience, to develop a theory of collective non-violent resistance. Satyagraha had immediate impact in South Africa by forcing the South African government to grant more rights to Indians and in securing Indian independence from Great Britain. Satyagraha has impacted the lives of many people in nations where it has been used to gain rights. Satyagraha has changed the way people view power, and has brought equality and justice through non-violence in places such as the United States, Poland, South Africa, Chile and Argentina.



Annotated Bibliography



Primary Resources
Archive
Papers Relating to the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom”. 1963-1964, 1980-1993 Minnesota Historical Society Archives

In this box, there were a lot of posters, letters, and reviews about the March on Washington. It provided many. This was helpful to use because we were able to experience the excitement of the event. It gave us many details about the organizing, and expanded our knowledge on how many people actually attended the March.


Books
Bose, Subhas Chandra. The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose/ edited by Sisir K and Sugata Bose. New Dehli, India: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Subhas Chandra Bose was elected president of the Indian National Committee for two terms, but because of conflict with Gandhi, he departed from the Committee. Bose was one of the earliest leaders who advocated for India’s independence. He was imprisoned eleven times. In the writings of Bose, he often referred to Satyagraha as active resistance, and didn’t oppose its use. However, he felt that it wasn’t an effective strategy, and that time after time, it only succeeded to bring more dilemmas to India’s independence struggle. He decided to advocate violent resistance, to try and force full and immediate independence from the British government. Bose opposed the Gandhi—Irwin Pact and developed his own political party, called the All Indian Forward Bloc to continue fighting violently for India’s independence. He traveled to Germany, Soviet Union, and Japan to form an alliance with the purpose of attacking Britain. Bose’s writings and point of view helped us by providing a point of reference to Satyagraha in India in our documentary and bettering our understanding of Gandhi’s public role.


Carbado, Devon W., and Donald Weise. Time on Two Crosses: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin. San Fransisco, Ca: Cleis Press Inc., 2003.

Bayard Rustin was a civil rights activist who worked as an adviser to Martin Luther King, Jr. and a civil rights strategist/organizer for A. Philip Randolph. Rustin was a homosexual and had a background as a conscientious objector, and an ex-Communist. Often, he worked “behind the scenes” of the Civil Rights Movement and was a part of many civil rights organizations, such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Rustin had many entries that discussed of non-violent strategies. He often talked about using them for campaigns, such as the Journey of Reconciliation and the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. In some of his writings, he also talks about his experience with non-violence and how it had taught him how to think strategically.


Gandhi, Mahatma. All Men Are Brothers: Life and Thoughts of Gandhi as told In His Own Words. First ed. Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Publishing House, 1960.

This book consisted of entries from a journal that Gandhi wrote. Eventually, it turned into an autobiographical type of literary work, but Gandhi said it was not an attempt to write an autobiography. It was, instead, written to reveal his ways of thinking of Ahimsa and truth. The sections with Gandhi’s writings helped us understand his theory of Satyagraha and his opinion on the things involved in his everyday struggles. It also helped us see that Gandhi was never impressed with his work, and always pushed harder to do better because he believed that was the only way to make a difference.


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. First ed. IV. Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Trust; The Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India 1960.

The collected works of Gandhi is a collection of Gandhi’s personal writings. His voice and thoughts are vivid through out all 100 volumes. Volume IV helped us identify influences on Gandhi. It was clear that the Bengal’s non-violent movement against partition, the non-violent strikes at the beginning of the 1905 Russian Revolution, and the Chinese boycott against American goods influenced him and his thoughts of several movements at the time. The writing was a trustworthy source we could use to double-check our information.


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 1st Ed. V. Navajivan Trust, Ahmedabad; The Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India, 1961.

Volume V of Gandhi’s collected works is an extension of volume IV. Gandhi writes about the other movements that happened later on in that year, as well as other things that influenced him. Volume IV and V are Gandhi’s writings during the process of redefining Satyagraha before he used it on South Africa. These series of volumes help us identify the assembling of Satyagraha in Gandhi’s point of view.


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (August 1918-July 1919). First ed. XV. India: Navajivan Press; The Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India, 1963.

In this volume of Gandhi’s collected works, we read what he wrote about Satyagraha tactics and the smaller campaigns that used Satyagraha as a technique. It has helped us to understand Satyagraha in a clearer way, furthering our knowledge of what Satyagraha is.


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (October 1917-July 1918). First ed. XIV. Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Trust; The Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India, 1965.

Along with the citation above, these writings chronicle campaigns in India, which were trying to end poverty, cure alcoholism, and banish untouchability. These articles allowed us to develop the history of Gandhi’s continuing work between his departing of South Africa after gaining better civil rights for the Indians, and returning to India to reside in his homeland.


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (March-June 1930). First ed. XLIII. Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Trust; The Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India, 1971.

These entries captured the excitement of the Salt March and kept track of the days that he marched the total of 241 miles to Dandi, Gujarat to make illegal salt. To see footage of him was intriguing, but reading about his everyday experiences was more helpful because it allowed us to understand the purpose behind the March and the goals he set to be achieved with the movement. He also wrote about thoughts that passed his mind and letters to colleagues and people who were important in the evolving areas of his life.


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (August 1, 1947-Novemeber 10, 1947). First ed. LXXXIX. Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Trust; The Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India, 1983.

The works included in this volume talked a lot about the Gandhi’s grand ideas. He planned many protest events, and managed to lead a movement for the independence of a country. There were speeches in here that he gave from the time the decision was made for partition and the actual dissolution of the British Empire. By reading this book of his compiled work, we were able to understand his philosophy better and interpret it into our own words, coming to a conclusion that Satyagraha is numerous actions of non-violent demonstrations.


Gandhi, Prabhudas. My Childhood With Gandhi. First ed. Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Publishing House, 1957.

This book was an intimate description of the author's great-uncle, Prabhudas Gandhi. We were able to see Gandhi from a family view. It was interesting to learn about Gandhi as a family man, because he was seen as such a powerful man. It took us through the background of Gandhi's life at home and the great wave of love he had for everybody in his family. His family was influenced by Gandhi's campaign against foreign fabric, taking up Gandhi's way of wearing homespun cloth.


Mkhondo, Rich. Reporting South Africa. First Ed. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1993.

Mkhondo covered a lot of basic information about the anti-apartheid movement and rallies on South Africa’s blacks. It gave us the basic information of who led non-violent movements and Mandela’s imprisonment and early movement with the African National Congress.


Murthy, B. Srinivasa. Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters. Long Beach, CA: Navijan Trust Ahamedabad, India, 1987. Print.

Gandhi and Tolstoy exchanged multiple letters. To view these letters was something that benefited our view about how Tolstoy influenced Gandhi. They exchanged views about world events. Gandhi sent the first letter to Tolstoy while he was in South Africa, and mentioned the situation there to Tolstoy. These letters supported what knew about in Gandhi and Tolstoy’s biographies. They helped us identify the kind of relationship they had.


Rustin, Bayard. Down the Line. East Delaware Place, Chicago: Quadrangle Books, Inc., 1971.

This book taught us a lot about Rustin’s beliefs and his struggle to change racism. It gave us a lot of information about the work he did with the FOR, CORE, and King, It also helped us to understand who he was and why his devotion to non-violence resulted in the largest political rally in the United States.


Shridharani, Krishnalal. War Without Violence: A Study of Gandhi's Methods and its

Accomplishments. First. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939. 

Shridharani indicated the intentions of Gandhi and allowed us to come out of this book with our own definition of Gandhi’s movement and innovation of Satyagraha: peaceful resolution. Also while reading this book, it allowed us to think outside the box and dig deeper into his text, helping us clarify Satyagraha and understand it in our own words.


Thoreau, Henry David. Civil Disobedience. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1986. 431.

This essay was very important because of the significance it had with Gandhi. Gandhi was inspired by what Thoreau said in this essay, and used some of his philosophies to redefine non-violence. In this essay Thoreau talks in depth about how a government is best when there is no government at all and his opinion on the American government is clear, since he criticizes them for the Mexican war. He was against men leaving for war because of government flaws and talks about his disobedience of the law, by refusing to pay his taxes and going to jail for it. His strong ideas were what influenced Gandhi.


Walesa, Lech. The Struggle and the Triumph. New York, NY: Arcade Publishing, Inc., 1992.

Because Walesa wrote this book, it talked a lot about his family so it helped us to see his family through his leadership and his movement. It seems he had a dream to create a better future for his children and his people, so that is what he did by pushing for victory and recognition of trade unions. It also helped us because it gave us some of the thoughts of his plans and his ideas about how to gain a free Poland.


Interviews
Duncan, Mel. Personal Interview by Jennifer Lor and Norma Romero-Rodriguez. 11 Feb 2010.

Mel Duncan is the founder of the Nonviolent Peaceforce, and the father of an Open school alumni. The Nonviolent Peaceforce is located in Minneapolis, Minnesota and works in places around the world, such as Sri Lanka, Mindanao, and the Philippines. Because Duncan’s foundation, Nonviolent Peaceforce, is greatly influenced by Gandhi. Duncan told us he started the foundation with the influence of Gandhi. The Nonviolent Peaceforce does a lot of peace work in countries such as Sri Lanka, Guatemala, Mindanao and India. The work they do has helped us by letting us know that they are continuing Gandhi’s work and promoting his legacy. He also gave us the names of David Hartsough and Michael Nagler to contact.



Duncan, Mel. "Satyagraha." Message to Jennifer Lor. 07 Apr 2010. E-mail.

When we asked Duncan about their hypothesis of Satyagraha not working between equal powers, he confirmed that there was never a movement in history that he knew of where it had worked. It helped further support our hypothesis.


Dyson, Elizabeth 'Betty'. Personal Interview by Jennifer Lor. 01 Nov 2009.

Elizabeth Dyson is grew up in India during the. Dyson’s parents were in India at the time of Gandhi’s movements and were Presbyterian missionaries. We started out with little information and not much of an understanding of what Satyagraha was. During my interview with Dyson, she was able to help me understand what Satyagraha was and provided me with more background information on British India. It was extremely helpful because my knowledge of India's history was unclear at that point.


Hartsough, David. "Interview." Message to Jennifer Lor. 26 Apr 2010. E-mail.

David Hartsough is the cofounder of the Nonviolent Peaceforce, and works in partnership with Mel Duncan. Hartsough was a part of the nonviolent workshops in the South and the nonviolent lunch counter sit-ins in Maryland and Virginia. Jennifer exchanged e-mails with David Hartsough, and learned about his non-violent actions in Maryland and Virginia during the American Civil Rights Movement. He gave us an essay that he wrote about his experiences and helped us by providing us with an in depth example of how Satyagraha was used in the non-violent demonstrations.


Hartsough, David. Internet Videoconference Interview by Jennifer Lor and Norma Romero-Rodriguez. 21 May 2010.

Hartsough was a student at the time of the Nashville lunch counter sit-ins in Virginia, and participated as a student at lunch counters in Virginia and Maryland during the Civil Rights Movement. As a peer of James Lawson, Hartsough also learned from him and practiced the non-violent techniques that were taught in the non-violent workshops at the time. His actions have helped us because they are an example of how the leaders who had traveled to India came back to serve to the community non-violently and righteously.


McCarthy, Colman. Telephone Interview by Jennifer Lor and Norma Romero-Rodriguez. 20 Apr 2010.

Colman McCarthy is a peace activist along with a lecturer and a journalist. He has been columnist for the Washington Post, and the New Yorker and other publications. He has also taught non-violence and started non-violence programs in many schools, including Georgetown University Law Center, University of Maryland, American University, and at least three high schools. Michael Nagler suggested Colman McCarthy as someone that could help us with our project. McCarthy was very helpful when we called him. He told us about the material he introduces in his non-violence classes, and how Satyagraha has influenced his courses. He talked about the essence of non-violence and how it is important to learn about it so we could live in a more peaceful world, helping us to further our understanding of Satyagraha in the present.


Nagler, Michael E. Internet Videoconference Interview by Norma Romero-Rodriguez and Jennifer Lor. 04 Mar 2010.

Nagler is a professor emeritus at the University of California Berkeley. During his time at the University, he established the Peace and Conflicts Studies program, which certifies participants in Gandhian study. Now, he works at Metta Center and teaches about Gandhi. He also got an award for promoting Gandhian history. We interviewed Nagler on Skype. He helped us by giving us information from the point of view of a Satyagrahi. Like Duncan and the Nonviolent Peaceforce, he gave us reasons for why he’s doing what he is doing and why he is teaching it to people. Michael Nagler was extremely helpful when we were looking for people to interview.


Nagler, Michael. "Satyagraha." Message to Norma Romero-Rodriguez. 29 Apr 2010. E-mail.

We kept in close contact with Nagler after the interview. He was very helpful when we had more questions. After we had thought out our hypothesis, that Satyagraha does not work well between with two equal groups. He helped us clarify it and agreed with it. He explained to us the way “power” was seen in these situations, and how Satyagraha worked. Nagler agreed that it works with two of unequal power, and suggested that we post the question in the Metta center website. Nagler could not think of a time where our hypothesis was proved wrong, and to this date we haven’t heard of anyone who has thought of a time in history when two equal groups have used Satyagraha and it worked.


Manuscripts
Hartsough, David. "Sit ins 421." 26 Apr 2010. Manuscript.

David Hartsough was a part of the Maryland and Virginia lunch counter sit-ins during the time of the Nashville counter sit ins. Hartsough attended the non-violent workshops led by James Lawson and studied non-violent tactics. His first successful sit-in led to the integrating of a lunch counter in Virginia. Mr. Hartsough’s article has helped us by giving us information about the widespread non-violent workshops in the Civil Rights Movements.


Microfilm Periodicals
"American View of India; "No Tears Wasted on Gandhi." Times London 11 Aug 1942: 4931 Col E.

There were many people who disagreed on tactics with Gandhi, and because many of them were from outside of India, they often sent anonymous complaints to be published in the Times. In this article, the anonymous article complains about Gandhi’s “out of control,” behavior and how he feels the British should have more power over him. This was an example of opposition to Gandhi’s role as India’s leader.


"Birth of Two New Dominions." Times London Aug 15 1947: Pg. 4.

This article focuses on the two new countries that emerged after India’s independence, an independent India, and Pakistan. Both countries would have their own major religion, Hinduism for India and Muslim for Pakistan. This article talks about the partition and the arrangements being done on the day the independence of India is being signed.


"Boycott in India: Mr. Gandhi's Influence Overrated, The Economic Reasons." Times London 14 Jul 1931: pg. 15 col F.

After Gandhi led the march to Dandi, thousands of Indians followed in Gandhi’s footsteps and began to make illegal salt, going continuously to the sea to make salt. After a while, the economic purchases of salt had dropped to the lowest percentages yet, and created an uproar with non-violent non-cooperation, publicizing the Dharasana Salt Works raid. The British published this article, saying that Gandhi has too much authority and respect in the Indian communities, and they felt that it was dangerous to allow Gandhi to continue his leadership. This article helped us by showing us the impact of Gandhi’s individual actions and how the world responded to his demonstrations.


"Chinese Boycott of American Goods." Times London 23 Jul 1905.

The Chinese used a boycott against American goods in the 1905 in search of new exporting policies. The way they organized this boycott caught his attention. The boycott was unsuccessful and had no permanent impact on the regulations they were looking for.

The Chinese were protesting American immigration policies.  This article goes into detail about how they went about it with a boycott.
"Civil Disobedience in India: Mr. Gandhi and His Plans." Times London 18 Feb 1930: pg. 16 col B.

When Gandhi announced his plans to lead a Salt Satyagraha, the British published this article, reporting Gandhi’s threat. The British saw it as no threat, and questioned its success. This article contributed to our project by showing the doubts in his individual actions.


"India's First Day of Independence; Jubilant Scenes in Delhi, Public Ovation for Lord Mountbatten." Times London 16 Aug 1947: pg. 4 col A.

India’s Independence ended the 200 yearlong rule the British had over India. After a long time of riots and deaths between the Muslims and Hindus, Indians celebrated independence and the success that non-violent resistance had brought to India. Although violent during the time of Partition’s first announcement, the report of this day seemed to be lively, Indian’s expressing joy and happiness for the success of a non-violent struggle.


"Indian Affairs:  The Partition of Bengal" Times London 11 Jul 1905.

In India during 1905 there was a partition of the nation. Bengal was forced to leave because it was overcrowded and poor. At this time many people did not want a partition, they used tactics like boycotts and marches. Unfortunately these demonstrations were not planned well, and had very little success. This newspaper article covers the story and the indignation of the people due to the partition.


"Indian Army Partition." Times London 04 Jul 1947: Pg. 3.

This article was written in response to a British general’s comments in the July 03, 1947 newspaper. This article shows the British take on the partition of India. It talked about the date the partition would go into affect and how it relates to Indian independence. The British were in favor of the partition, and did not mention anything ill about it. The media helps identify the friendship India and Britain had established by opting not to speak of the violence that was foreseen in the partition, and focuses on the facts, such as that both countries are building up their armies.


"Indian Cotton Duties." Times London 13 Mar 1930: Pg. 13.

In this article, it talks about the new laws implemented by the British to control the boycott against cotton in India. The new law was to increase taxes so that the cotton boycotts would lose power. Britain’s plan was to increase the taxes to maintain the revenue they had with the textiles before the boycotts broke out. Because the Indians were spinning cloth as a way to remove the British textile monopoly, the British sought to stop the boycotts and passed the law. This article was useful because it showed the power the movements had on the British government.


"Irwin-Gandhi Pact Passes Final Test." New York Times 31 Mar 1931: 14

Gandhi was able to talk to Lord Irwin, and made him understand that the British could no longer continue to rule India. After several meeting, Gandhi and the Viceroy agreed on the terms of this pact. Although this pact was a step closer to independence it still did not grant India’s independence.


"Fatal Labour Riots in Russia." Times London 10 Jan 1905.

This article reports the violence within the strikes in Russia, and talks about how deathly the riots became. Originally non-violent, the strikes turned violent and caused the death of many factory workers and bystanders. This article helped us and gave us the sense of failure within a demonstration and the reason to why Gandhi was inspired by the original integrity of this revolution.


Lord Mountbatten on a Friendly Parting." Times London Aug 15 1947: Pg. 4.

After Lord Irwin, Lord Mountbatten became the viceroy and saluted the independence of India, signing the Indian Independence Act of 1947, to allow India’s freedom from Great Britain, overseeing the creations of Pakistan and India as independent states. After independence, the title of viceroy was abolished and was converted to “Governor General.” Thus Lord Mountbatten became the first governor General of independent India. This article helped us understand the power that Satyagraha carries.



"Many Amendments." Times London 13 Mar 1930: Pg. 13.

This was a follow-up on the Indian Cotton Duties newspaper article, talking about the Nationalist Party. The Nationalist Party opposed the new laws being implemented to tax cotton goods. The Nationalist party was the party that looked for Indian rights. This article gives insight to what the Indian people were doing and how the British press viewed it.


"Mr. Gandhi's Death." Times London 31 Jan 1948, pg. 3 col G

Tragically, Gandhi was assassinated on the walk to pray in the garden. The person responsible was a Hindu extremist who opposed Gandhi’s decisions to allow the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. His death shocked the nation. It was a sad ending for his country. Many people were devastated. This showed us the impact of his death and how beloved he was to the country.


"Mr. Gandhi's March." Times London 15 Mar 1930: Pg. 12.

In this very short article we viewed the difference in news coverage the British media gave to Gandhi’s planned public demonstrations. This article gave a very quick summary of Gandhi’s plan to organize a Salt March. It seemed clear that the British wanted to keep the public demonstrations out of the public eye.



"Mr. Gandhi's New Proposals; Defense of "Free" India, No Assurance of Aid." Times London 23 June 1942: p. 3 col A.

Reporting the plans of Gandhi’s, “Quit India,” movement, the British again published an article with doubt of his success. This article showed an opposition to Gandhi’s actions, for they felt that he had no real leadership due to most of the riots erupting in violence.


"More Riots in India: Destruction by Hooligans, Whippings as a Punishment." Times London 12 Aug 1942: pg. 4 col G.

The riots in India due to the Quit India movement resulted in a lot of violence and destruction within the city. The British opposed the movement and called all of the participants hooligans, due to interruption of the economy.


"Motorized Patrols." Times London 09 Jul 1947: Pg. 4.

This article was about the violence that broke out in India during the partition of India and Pakistan. It talked about the level of policemen that was being used to stop the riots. The level of enforcement being used by the police to stop the riots signifies the violence that happened during the partition. This article outlined the damages done, and the level of violence that was going on in the city before Gandhi’s fast.


"New Disorders in Calcutta." Times London 09 Jul 1947: Pg. 4.

This is the first article in The Times London that talks about the riots breaking out in India. This article was limited to the violence in India and its pain and suffering, but did not mention the independence of India, which was soon to be signed and sealed. This article shows its significance through the tone the newspaper had, where they were compassionate about what was going on in India. This is important because it helps identify the long lasting, peaceful relationship that Britain and India develop.


New York Times 11 Mar 1930: 11. Print.

A lot of people at the time disagreed with Gandhi’s use of non-violence. America thought that the British should take action. In these articles Gandhi is highly criticized because of what he is doing against the British. A lot of the articles were shown in a negative light. They were also very pessimistic about his doings. The New York Times covered Gandhi’s strikes and movements. These movements were seen as annoying. The press had a negative viewpoint of him, especially in places like America who sympathized with the British.


"Officials Urged to Strike." Times London 15 Mar 1930: Pg. 12.

This article showed the British impotence in the public demonstrations being held in India. It discussed the strikes, and the limitations on what the British could do. This article helped signify the strength the strikes and public demonstrations had on the British.


"Power Handed Over in India." Times London Aug 15 1947: Pg. 4.

This article is the newspaper coverage of India’s independence. In the title of the article, “Power Handed Over in India,” it is easy to realize the way Satyagraha made it easy for the British to leave without humiliating them. Satyagraha made it impossible for them to stay, as well as making it easy for them to leave.


"Rioting Increases in Punjab Capitol; Death in Lahore Reach 153 as Flames Sweep the City and Looting Spreads." New York Times 24 Aug 1942.

The Muslims and the Hindus were at constant war since the partition was announced. After the Muslims had agreed to leave India, they were promised money. The Hindus in India refused to pay the money and during the migration violence spreads. Many people die, and neither refuses to stop fighting, because they are being just as evil to each other.


"Spread of Riots in India; Communal Revenge, Danger of Further Outbreaks." Times London 05 Nov 1946: pg. 4 col E.

The author reports in this article that the violent riots between the Muslims and Hindis were now spreading and erupting in different locations. Along with the spread of violence, there were a large number of deaths, rapes, and slaughters reported. The British lean toward the fact that Gandhi is not an efficient leader and does not have the power to end the uncontrollable riots. Continuance of the riots concerned the British for the health of their colony.


"The End of The Struggle In Sight: Negotiations Between General Smuts and Gandhi." Indian Opinion 29 Apr 1911.

Written to announce the negotiations between General Jan Christiaan Smuts and Gandhi, this article declared the compromise of equality and for more civil rights to the Indians in South Africa. After Indians crossed illegal borders in the march led by Gandhi, the South African government saw it as a threat to the government and compromised with Gandhi to better treat Indians, and to allow them more equal rights. This article was used in our documentary as a representation of the pact between the two men.


"The Indian Budget." Times London 01 Mar 1930: Pg. 1.

This article showed the importance that India had in Britain’s economy. In the 1930’s India did not import enough textiles. As a result Britain’s textile business was affected, but Britain’s economy was still saved due to the Germans paying reparations. This article also showed Britain’s point of view during the demonstrations. This article also reinforced the significance of the symbols used by Gandhi.


"The Scene in Delhi." The Times London Aug 15 1947: Pg. 4.

This article marked the celebration of Indians independence. It was a day of celebration of their newfound freedom, but aside from that it was also a day where Gandhi was unhappy because of the partition. This article not only talks about the freedom in India but the sadness and violence in India.


"The Strikes in Russia." Times London 4 Jul 1905.

The strikes in Russia began for a fight of government representation and for worker’s rights. Many Russians participated in strikes and refused to work until promised a better work environment. This article helped us to represent the influences from Gandhi.


"The Strike of Chinese Labour." Times London 28 Jun 1905.

The Chinese went on various strikes, in search of a better policy that would make exporting easier for them. These strikes gave them public attention, which gave Gandhi an idea of what he wanted for his movement. These strikes were successful, but did not give the Chinese what they were looking for.


"The Transvaal Indian Protest." Indian Opinion 22 Sep 1906.

In Transvaal, Indians protested discriminatory laws and burned their registration cards to civilly disobey the government. They continued many non-violent demonstrations and participated in the march led across the borders of Transvaal. This article contributed and helped us better our understanding of early non-violent actions led by Gandhi.



Online Articles



Butturini, Paula. "Poles Learn they Must Compromise." Chicago Tribune, 25 Jan 1989. Web. 26 Apr 2010. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=24552872&Fmt=3&clientId=2256&RQT=309&VName=PQD

In order to solve the problems of Poland, the Solidarity labor union and the Polish government realized that they had to agree with each other. This is an example of creating friendship and has helped us by making us realize that the Polish movement was not only fueled by argumentative remarks, but friendship.


Cowell, Alan. "Black Activist on the Run in South Africa: There is Nowhere Safe." The Ottawa Citizen. p., 27 Jun 1986. Web. 26 Apr 2010. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=168931361&Fmt=3&clientId=2256&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Due to the Second State of Emergency in South Africa, many anti-apartheid leaders had gone into hiding due to the rise of violence, mainly leaders like Mkhuseli Jack. This article showed the intensity of the movement and what had happened due to rioting. It helped us because it showed us that the movement was not non-violent at specific times.


Davidson, Joe. "South Africa Blacks Plan to Protest Emergency Rule With a Rent Boycott." Wall Street Journal (1986): pp. 1. Web. 26 Apr 2010. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=27250929&Fmt=3&clientId=2256&RQT=309&VName=PQD

In attempt to combat apartheid, many leaders of the United Democratic Front, protested the state of emergency act with a rent boycott. UDF leaders who had gone into hiding also participated. This article helped our project by helping us to understand the many small movements that allowed the South African blacks to defeat apartheid.


"Gdansk Strikes End; Walesa to Delay Offensive." Los Angeles Times, 10 Nov 1988. Web. 26 Apr 2010. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=59842580&Fmt=3&clientId=2256&RQT=309&VName=PQD

After the strikes of many young radical shipyard workers, Walesa ended the strikes and postponed further action. His plan was to wait for any gain, and if not, he would launch another movement in the spring. This article showed Walesa’s organizational skills and how he followed Gandhi’s techniques.


Kentworthy, E.W. "200,000 March For Civil Rights In Orderly Washington Rally; President Sees Gain For Negro." The New York Times 29 Aug 1963 12 Mar 2010 http://0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.alpha.stpaul.lib.mn.us/.

President Kennedy saw that the March on Washington was a clear success and admitted to seeing a good future for Negroes. He says that what King, Farmer, Randolph, and many other political leaders spoke about were so mesmerizing that they fully convinced him. The attendance at the March impressed many leaders, and showed us how important of an event it was.


Seward G., Deborah. "Polish Workers End Shipyard Walkouts; Union Head Walesa Urges Reconciliation as Proper Pathway." Boston Globe, 10 Nov 1988. Web. 26 Apr 2010. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=59676171&Fmt=2&clientId=2256&RQT=309&VName=PQD

In regard to the dropping of strikes in shipyards, Walesa urged for cooperation with the government in order to have a working future. This example of non-violent resistance shows the impact of Walesa words. Walesa’s actions in this article show us that he worked like Gandhi to form a powerful movement.


"Walesa Backs Solidarity's Negotiations." The Washington Post, 21 Jan 1989. Web. 26 Apr 2010. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=87533216&Fmt=3&clientId=2256&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Lech Walesa urged Solidarity to accept participation in discussing Poland’s discussion of negotiations as a way to reach agreement over Solidarity’s legalization. This article helped us to understand the level of commitment when agreements of a labor union are set. It also helped us to see the lever of fairness in the agreements that were made for the citizens of Poland.


Withers, Kay. "Poland; Solidarity on Closer Key Issues." St. Petersburg Times, 8 Mar 1989. Web. 26 Apr 2010.

http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=50415815&Fmt=3&clientId=2256&RQT=309&VName=PQD

The Polish government and the Solidarity labor union came to agreement after a month of feuding. This article helped us see the cooperation between the Communists and the labor unions. It led to the recognition of labor unions in a Communist country.


Speeches
"MLK Commemoration Speech Nobel Prize." You Tube - MLK Commemoration. Web. 25 Apr 2010. .

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1964 for recognition of his non-violent tactics and leadership in the struggle of the Civil Rights Movement. This has helped us by being evidence of the scope of non-violence’s impact and strength. It also helped us by giving us a way to show Satyagraha’s impact and change with King’s voice as the final thought of our documentary.



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