|Study Guide Answers for Chapter 22
The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan
samurai: a powerful warrior class in Japan
code of conduct: rules of behavior
shogun: the head of the military government of Japan in the era of the samurai
daimyo: a local lord in Japan in the era of the samurai
martial arts: styles of fighting or self-defense, such as modern day judo or karate, that mostly
began in Asia
haiku: a Japanese form of short poetry with three lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables
Amida Buddhism: a form of Buddhism that teaches that all people can reach paradise by relying
on the mercy of Amida Buddha
Zen Buddhism: a form of Buddhism that emphasizes effort and discipline
code of Bushido: a code of conduct that governed samurai life; called for honesty, fairness, and
fearlessness in the face of death
seppuku: ritual suicide
kamikazes: World War II Japanese suicide pilots; “divine winds”
1. Military rule was established in Japan during the 12th century when Minamoto Yoritomo
took power in 1185. In 1192, Yoritomo took the title of shogun, or commander in chief.
More samurais became part of the ruling class.
2. The military government in Japan was ranked according to shoguns, daimyos, and samurais.
• Shogun: commander in chief
• Daimyos: warrior-lords; loyal to the shogun and supported by samurais
• Samurai: professional warriors
3. Samurai warriors wore heavy armor with a helmet, iron mask, shoulder and shin guards, and
metal sleeves. As weapons, samurai used swords, bows and arrows, and spears. Samurai
warriors were physically prepared for battle by training under masters. They learned fencing,
horseback riding, and martial arts. They prepared mentally by learning how to endure pain
and suffering and developing a “sixth sense” about danger.
4. Japanese culture was evident in samurai training in the study of writing and literature, tea
ceremony, and Buddhism. Samurai practiced calligraphy and wrote poetry. They studied the
tea ceremony, which fostered a spirit of harmony, reverence, and calm, and practiced
Buddhism, which taught discipline and focus.
5. Amida Buddhism was developed by Amida, an Indian prince. According to Amida
Buddhism, Amida became a Buddha and set up a western paradise called the Pure Land.
Samurai were drawn to Zen Buddhism because of its emphasis on effort and discipline.
6. The Bushido code of conduct governed the samurai’s life. The code called for samurai to be
honest, fair, and fearless in the face of death. Samurai values and traditions influence modern
Japanese society. Japanese soldiers in World War II were observing this code of conduct
when they killed themselves rather than surrender, and martial arts are still studied
throughout Japan and the rest of the world.
7. As the warrior culture developed, the position of samurai women declined. Samurai men
became unquestioned lords of their households and women lost authority. They were
expected to obey first their fathers, then their husbands, and then their sons. Women did not
choose their own husbands and were sometimes even expected to kill themselves when their
8. Medieval Japan and medieval Europe had both differences and commonalities. Both cultures
were based on ties of loyalty and obligation between lords and vassals. Both had rulers who
rose to power as military chiefs. In Europe, however, the ruler was the king, whereas in Japan
the shogun ruled in the name of the emperor. Also, the code of conduct was stricter in Japan,
where a samurai sometimes had to kill himself to maintain his honor.
Rise of Yoritomo to power as first shogun 1192 C.E.
New capital established in Edo (present-day 1603 C.E
Final form of samurai code, Bushido 17th century C.E.