S 1607 This is when Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. S 1776



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1. This is when Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America was founded in Virginia. S

1607
2. This is when Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. S

1776
3. This is when the Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and James Madison wrote the Constitution. S 1787
4. This is when Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France and doubled the size of the United States. S 1803
5. These are the years that the Civil War was fought. S

1861-1865
6. Which era in U.S. History included the following: Establishment of the 13 colonies, Representative Democracy, Mercantilism, Religious freedom? R

COLONIZATION

7. Which era in U.S. History included the following: Great Awakening, Acts such as the Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, Tea Act, the Boston Tea Party, Taxation without Representation, Unalienable rights, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga and Yorktown, Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation? R



REVOLUTION

8. Which Era in U.S. History included the following: Philadelphia Convention of 1787, Great Compromise, Three-fifths Compromise, Anti-Federalist vs. Federalist, Federalist papers and Bill of Rights? R



CONSTITUTION
9. Which era in U.S. History included the following: George Washington’s Presidency, Political Parties-Democratic-Republicans and Federalists, Louisiana Purchase(1803), Jeffersonian Democracy, Monroe Doctrine, War of 1812, and Judicial Review-Marbury v. Madison? R

EARLY REPUBLIC

10. Which era in U.S. History included the following: Indian policies, Indian removal Act, Trail of Tears, Bank crisis, Jacksonian Democracy/expanded suffrage and Nullification Crisis? R



AGE OF JACKSON
11. Which era in U.S. History included the following: Westward Expansion, War with Mexico, Annexation of Texas, California Gold Rush, and Gadsden Purchase? R

MANIFEST DESTINY
12. Which era in U.S. History included the following: factory system, population shift to cities, inventions, expansion of slavery, slave rebellions, reform movements, and immigration? R

INDUSTRIALISM
13. Which era in U.S. History included the following: Abolition, Women’s rights, Education, Care of the disabled and mentally ill, Prisons, and Temperance? R

REFORM

14. Which Era in U.S. History included the following: Protective tariffs, Division between North and South, Manufacturing society v. Plantation society, Kansas Nebraska Act, Missouri Compromise, Civil War, Secession, Slavery and states’ rights, Abraham Lincoln, Confederate States of America, and the Union? R



CIVIL WAR
15. Which era in U.S. History included the following: 13th, 14th, and 15th, Amendments, Radical Reconstruction, Andrew Johnson, Sharecropping, Carpetbaggers and scalawags? R

RECONSTRUCTION

16. Religion (God), Wealth (Gold) Fame (Glory) National Pride, Curiosity, and Faster, cheaper trade route to Asia were _______________________ R



REASONS FOR EXPLORATION
17. Religious freedom, Political freedom, Economic opportunity (mercantilism) Social mobility and a better way of life were __________________________ R

REASONS FOR COLONIZATION
18. Spain and France had many colonies in the Americas. Would competition with these two countries be a political, social or economic reason for establishing the 13 colonies? S ECONOMIC
19. Would increase trade and markets for English exports (mercantilism), and using the colonies as a source of raw materials be an economic, political, religious or social reason for colonization? S ECONOMIC
20. Would opportunity for adventure, Overcrowded in England, and settlers desiring to own land be an economic, political, social, or religious reason for establishing the 13 colonies? S SOCIAL

21. What does the following describe: the distance from England created a need for colonists to make their own laws, colonists were accustomed to English traditions, and most colonies were self-governing and elected members of their community to a general assembly to make their laws? R



DEVELOPMENT OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT

22. What was an agreement that was signed by the Pilgrims and established the idea of self-government in the colonies? S MAYFLOWER COMPACT

23. What was the first written constitution in the colonies that stated that people had the right to elect governors, judges and a legislature or lawmaking body? S

FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT
24. What was the first representative assembly in the American colonies? Representatives immediately began to enact laws to safeguard individual rights? S

VIRGINIA HOUSE OF BURGESSES

25. What does the following describe: Religious freedom was a main cause for the establishment of the American colonies?

Religious groups such as the Pilgrims, Puritans, and Quakers, etc.) created communities that were self- governed and William Penn established Pennsylvania for Quakers? S

HOW RELIGION CONTRIBUTED TO THE GROWTH OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT

26. What was a cause of the American Revolution in which colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains? Colonists were angered because they wanted to settle in the fertile Ohio River Valley? R PROCLAMATION OF 1763


27. In 1774, the British reacted to the Boston Tea Party by closing the port of Boston until the tea was paid for, quartering troops in Boston, sent British official accused of a crime to England for trial, colonists boycotted British Goods and the First Continental Congress was held. The colonists referred to this Act as the ______________________ R INTOLERABLE ACTS
28. In 1765 Parliament passed a law that required all legal documents(diplomas, wills, newspapers, etc) to have an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid; British used this to generate revenue to help cover the cost of the French and Indian War, Colonists reacted by rioting. This law became known as the ________________. R STAMP ACT
29. A cause of the American Revolution was the economic system that England used to increase its wealth by making the colonies a source of raw materials, increasing its wealth by obtaining gold and silver from the colonies and colonies could purchase goods from England only. This system was called_________________. R

MERCANTILISM

30. How did lack of representation in Parliament lead to the American Revolution? R



COLONISTS DID NOT HAVE DIRECT REPRESENTATION IN BRITAINS LAW-MAKING BODY (PARLIAMENT). FELT SHOULD NOT PAY TAXES WITHOUT REPRESENTATON –TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION

31. Who was the wife of John Adam, served as his confidant and support while he was at the Constitutional Convention and always reminded him to take care of the women(“Remember the ladies”)? S



ABIGAIL ADAMS
32. Who was a member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence, spent most of the period of the American Revolution in France, negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1783, and was an inventor and scientist? S BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

33. Who was the ruler of England during the Revolution who feared that the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others? He maintained a very aggressive policy against colonial resistance. S



KING GEORGE III

34. Who was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, spoke against the Stamp Act and said, “Give me liberty or give me death?” S PATRICK HENRY


35. Who was the primary author or writer of the Declaration of Independence, bought Louisiana from France which doubled the size of the

U. S.? S THOMAS JEFFERSON


36. Who was a French aristocrat who fought in the American Revolution and commanded forces as a major-general in the colonial army? S MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE
37. Who wrote the pamphlet, Common Sense, to persuade Americans to separate from England? S THOMAS PAINE
38. Who was a resident of Virginia, a surveyor, planter, soldier in the French and Indian War, delegate to the First and Second Continental Congress, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the Revolution, and Chairman of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and first President of the U.S.? S

GEORGE WASHINGTON
39. What document was written as a reaction to King George’s refusal to acknowledge colonial requests, stated that all men are created equal, listed the unalienable rights of Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness and listed grievances (complaints) against the King of England? R

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
40. This document was written at the Second Continental Congress in 1776 and created the first form of government or CONSTITUTION for the independent colonies, including one branch – a Congress with one representative from each of the former colonies. R

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
41. What were the first battles of the American Revolution; referred to as “The shot heard round the world”) R LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
42. What was the turning point of the American Revolution; France joined the colonists after this major victory? R BATTLES OF SARATOGA
43. After suffering several defeats, where did Washington and his men spend the harsh winter of 1777 where the troops were trained and suffered from starvation and frostbite? R

VALLEY FORGE
44. What do the following describe:

  • U.S. recognized as an independent nation

  • Canada became Northern boundary

  • Mississippi River became Western boundary

  • Florida became Southern boundary R

TREATY OF PARIS 1783
45. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787 what was the large state plan that proposed representation based on population? S VIRGINIA PLAN
46. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, what was the small state plan that proposed equal representation among all states? S NEW JERSEY PLAN
47. To solve the issue of representation the Constitution resulted in a two-house legislature with the House of Representatives based on population and the Senate equal representation from all states. What was this agreement called? S GREAT COMPROMISE
48. How was the issue regarding counting of slaves for representation and taxation purposes resolved during the Constitutional Convention of 1787?

S THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE
49. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which group supported ratification of the Constitution and a stronger national government because the Articles of Confederation were too weak? R

FEDERALIST
50. During the Constitutional Convention which group opposed ratification of the Constitution because they felt the states should remain more powerful, feared a strong central government and wanted a Bill of Rights added to safeguard or protect individual rights? R

ANTI-FEDERALIST
51. Created by the Founding Fathers. Foundation or outline of the United States government today. R CONSTITUTION
52. Allows future generations to make CHANGES to the U.S. Constitution.

2 step process- Proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses or 2/3 of states at a convention. Ratified (Approved) by ¾ of state legislatures or ¾ of states must approve. R



AMENDMENT PROCESS
53. 1732-1799 First President of the United States. In Farewell Address urged citizens to stay neutral in foreign affairs. “Steer Clear of permanent alliances with foreign countries.” S GEORGE WASHINGTON
54. The idea that each of the three branches of government will monitor or keep an eye on the other branch of government to make sure your rights are not taken away.

Example: the Judicial Branch declaring laws unconstitutional, the Executive Branch vetoing laws passed by the Legislative Branch, or the Executive Branch appointing the Supreme Court Justices (With Legislative approval) R CHECKS AND BALANCES


55. This principle of the Constitution means the sharing of power between the national and state governments. R FEDERALISM
56. No one is above the law and everyone including the government must follow the rules. R

LIMITED GOVERNMENT
57. The idea that the people have the POWER in the government, or that the ultimate boss of government is the PEOPLE. WE THE PEOPLE RULE!!!!! R

POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
58. The idea that citizens exercise their power in government by voting in elections and electing representatives. R REPUBLICANISM
59. Power is divided among different branches. Legislative – makes the laws. Executive – enforces or carries out the laws and Judicial – (Courts) interpret laws or can decide if constitutional or unconstitutional. R

SEPARATION OF POWERS
60. First 10 amendments to the Constitution that protect basic liberties and rights. These include Religion, Assembly, Press, Petition, Speech. RAPPS. R

BILL OF RIGHTS
61. Principle of the Constitution that protect the rights of the people. EX. The Bill of Rights. R

INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS
62. During the Early Republic what domestic problem does the following describe: farmers in western Pennsylvania staged a rebellion against a government tax on whiskey and the grain it was made from. Washington sent troops to put down the uprising and the rebels fled. This event proved that the U.S. had a strong Central government. R WHISKEY REBELLION
63. In which event did France offer the Americans a bribe in order to stop seizing their ships to keep the U.S. from trading with Britain? R XYZ AFFAIR
64. Based on the elastic clause in the U.S. Constitution, what did Alexander Hamilton create to stabilize the economy? R NATIONAL BANK OR BANK OF THE UNITED STATES
65. What are high tariffs that protect domestic or U.S. manufacturers from foreign competition who sell their products at a lower price? S PROTECTIVE TARIFFS
66. Which section of the U.S. favored higher tariffs on foreign goods because their economy was based on manufacturing? S NORTH
67. Which section of the U.S. opposed higher tariffs because of the large amount of goods that they purchased? R SOUTH
68. What issue caused the origin of the first two political parties? R

DISAGREEMENTS OVER HOW MUCH POWER THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD HAVE
69. What were the first two political parties in the United States? R

FEDERALIST AND DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN
70. Which political party was in favor of a strong central government, a loose interpretation of the Constitution, a national bank, Manufacturing, and was led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams and was supported by Northern merchants and manufacturers. R

FEDERALIST
71. Which political party was in favor of a strong state government, a strict interpretation of the Constitution, promoted Agriculture, and did NOT want a national bank and supported states’ rights? It was led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison and supported by farmers and workers? R

DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN
72. Which political Party was led by Alexander Hamilton, supported by the wealthy, encouraged the development of industry, wanted a strong central government and supported a national bank. R

FEDERALIST
73. Territorial acquisition that was purchased from France in 1803 and doubled the size of the United States. S LOUISIANA PURCHASE
74. The following describe the causes of which event in U.S. History. S

  • Impressment of U.S. sailors

  • British interference with American shipping

  • British support of Native American resistance

  • War Hawks supported a declaration of war against Britain

WAR OF 1812
75. The following events occurred during which conflict in U.S. History: S

  • Attack on Washington D.C.

  • Fire set to many public buildings including the White House’

  • Francis Scott Key writes the “Star Spangled Banner

  • Battle of New Orleans – Andrew Jackson defeated the British and becomes a National hero

  • Treaty of Ghent ended the war

WAR OF 1812
76. What do the following describe:

  • U.S gained international respect

  • Increased Nationalism

  • Growth in MANUFACTURING

More cotton manufactured S

RESULTS OF THE WAR OF 1812
77. Which foreign policy was supported by George Washington? R

NEUTRALITY
78. Which President avoided war with France, refused to pay France a bribe (XYZ Affair) and passed the Alien and Sedition Acts? R JOHN ADAMS
79. Which President tried to avoid foreign involvement as Washington advised, passed the Embargo Act of 1807 which hurt the American economy. R

THOMAS JEFFERSON
80. How did the Embargo Act hurt the American economy? R

STOPPED TRADE WITH FOREIGN COUNTRIES
81. Who was Commander in Chief during the War of 1812, which ended the conflict between Britain and U.S. R JAMES MADISON
82. What statement proclaimed that European powers should no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the nations of the Americas, especially Latin America? TOLD EUROPE TO KEEP OUT OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE. R MONROE DOCTRINE
83. What document urged the United States to be neutral and steer clear of permanent alliances with foreign nations? R WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRRESS
84. In his Farewell Address, George Washington told the nation to avoid these because they would weaken the nation. R POLITICAL PARTIES
85. The impact of the _____ _____ was that the U.S. saw itself as a world power and protector of Latin America and prevented other nations from colonizing in America even today. R

MONROE DOCTRINE
86. The election of which president signaled a shift of power to the common man? Rise of the Common man because it expanded the suffrage (voting) rights? S

ANDREW JACKSON
87. In 1828, with Andrew Jackson, we see the beginning of the modern ______ party where more COMMON MEN VOTED R DEMOCRATIC PARTY

88. 1751-1836. Principal author of the Constitution, Coauthor of Federalist Papers, elected President in 1808 and 1812, Led U.S. into War of 1812, Repealed Embargo Act, Set up Protective Tariff 1816 S



JAMES MADISON
89. Landmark Supreme Court Decision which established the principle of judicial review- that the Supreme Court has the final say in Constitutional matters. S

MARBURY V. MADISON
90. Invented by Robert Fulton. Helped make river travel more efficient. R

STEAMBOAT

91. Invention by Eli Whitney which caused seeds to be more easily removed from cotton. INCREASED THE NEED FOR MORE SLAVE LABOR. R COTTON GIN


92. 1758 – 1831- 5th President of the United States. President during the Era of Good Feelings (much nationalism after the War of 1812) Issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 S

JAMES MONROE
93. Known as the Great Compromiser. Promoted higher tariffs and internal

improvements at government expense. Devised the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and the Compromise Tariff of 1833. S HENRY CLAY


94. Idea that America was meant to stretch from coast to coast(Atlantic to Pacific ). Caused a huge number of people to settle westward. WESTWARD EXPANSION. R

MANIFEST DESTINY
95. Proposed by President Andrew Jackson, Forced removal of Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi River. Many died. Done to make room for westward expansion. CAUSED THE TRAIL OF TEAR

INDIAN REMOVAL ACT 1830
96. 1782 – 1850 – Vice-President for John Adams and Andrew Jackson. led movement to nullify or REJECT THE 1828 tariff of abominations in South Carolina. S

JOHN C. CALHOUN
97. 1832 – Jackson was President. South Carolina passed a law voiding a tariff set by the federal government and threatened to secede (withdraw) from the Union when tariffs were raised.

NULLIFICATION CRISIS
98. Believed in “Civil Disobedience”. An author who refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and the Mexican-American War. S HENRY DAVID THOREAU
99. Power given to the states. Idea that individual states have the ability to make own laws and reject federal laws. A cause of the Civil War. R STATES’ RIGHTS

100. Reasons for this were religious freedom, political persecution, and poverty. The problems that it caused were hostility, poor working conditions, low wages, isolation and ghettos. S



IMMIGRATION
101. Causes of this were tensions between Mexico and the United States over the United States annexation of Texas in 1845. R UNITED STATES/MEXICAN WAR

102. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in 1848. Mexico recognized the Rio Grande as Texas border, sold California, Utah, Nevada, and part of New

Mexico, Arizona Wyoming and Colorado to the U.S. (Known as the MEXICAN CESSION) R

RESLUTS OF THE MEXICAN WAR

103. Louisiana Purchased from France, Republic of Texas from Mexico, Florida from Spain, Gadsden Purchase from Mexico, Mexican Cession from Mexico, Oregon Country from Great Britain. S



LAND ACQUIRED BY UNITED STATES TO GAIN MANIFEST DESTINY

104. 1830 – a major reform movement, 1831 William Lloyd Garrison established “The Liberator” an abolitionist newspaper, 1831 Nat Turner’s Rebellion, 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written S ABOLITION

105. 1818 – 1895 most famous African American who played role in the abolitionist movement. Escaped from slavery, published the north star. S

FREDERICK DOUGLASS
106. The movement to end slavery in the united States. Well known

abolitionists were frederick douglass, sojourner truth, and the grimke sisters. R



ABOLITION
107. the movement to end alcohol abuse in the united States. R

TEMPERANCE

108. this man was the leader of the fight for better public education in the united states. R



HORACE MANN
109. Important leader of American women’s rights, she organized the seneca falls convention where people organized a plan to fight

for women’s rights, the declaration of sentiments was written there. R



WOMEN’S RIGHTS
110. the growth of cities, when factories were built. it caused

cities to grow around them. S INDUSTRIALISM


111. Began in 1700s in great britain in the textile industry. increased speed of production. moved production from home to the factory. from hand-made to machines. R

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
112. Basis of the economy of the u.s. government plays a limited role in economy. businesses are owned by private individuals. S

FREE ENTERPRISE
113. 1857 supreme court case in which chief justice taney ruled that slaves were property and not citizens. big step leading toward civil war S

DRED SCOTT DECISION
114. 1809 – 1865 16th president of the United States. a Republican who believed the states had never legally left the union. Assassinated in 1865 by john wilkes booth. S

ABRAHAM LINCOLN
115. Brillant general of the confederate army. his defeat at the battle of gettysburg was the turning point of the civil war in favor of the north. he surrendered to grant at appomattox courthouse in 1865 S ROBERT E. LEE
116. president of the confederate states of america(confederacy) S

JEFFERSON DAVIS
117. Site of the first shots of the civil war. S

FORT SUMTER
118. President Abraham Lincoln issued in 1862 and freed slaves in states that were rebelling against the union. Many african americans rushed to join the union army S

EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
119. involved most soldiers and produced most deaths in the civil war, site of lincoln’s famous address. turning point of the civil war in favor of north R

BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
120. stressed concept of national unity, denied secession’s legality, promised not to interfere with slavery in border states where slavery existed, stated “malice toward none, charity for allS lINCOLN’S fIRST iNAUGURAL aDDRESS
121. Union took control of the mississippi river cutting the south off from the west. R

BATTLE OF VICKSBURG
122. period after the civil war. south was in political, social, and economic turmoil and eleven states had seceded. south created the black codes. 13th, 14th 15th amendments were passed. S RECONSTRUCTION

123. 1865 – banned slavery in america (freed the slaves) R



13TH AMENDMENT

124. 1868 – former slaves became citizens. R



14TH AMENDMENT

125. 1870 – voting will not be denied based upon race. R



15TH AMDENDMENT

126. tax placed on imported goods to make foreign goods more expensive to encourage people to buy u.s. products instead…this allows u.s. factories to make more $$$$



PROTECTIVE TARIFF
127. Explain the causes of the Civil War. R

  • sECTIONALISM

  • STATES’ RIGHTS

  • SECESSION

  • SLAVERY

  • UNCLE TOM’S CABIN – NOVEL BY HARRIET BEECHER STOWE

  • KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT

  • DRED SCOTT DECISION


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