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RUTGERS UNIVERSITY-NEWARK

SOCIAL WORK/WELFARE DEPT
HISTORY OF SOCIAL WELFARE POLICIES & PROGRAMS TO 1930’S

62:910:341:sec Q1 Fall 2008

A Designated WRITING INTENSIVE COURSE
Instructor: Prof. Paul G Shane; Office: Hill 417; Ph. 973/353-5174; fax: X-1423

E-mail: pgshane@andromeda.rutgers.edu Class Page: www.blackboard.rutgers.edu

Office hours: Monday 10:30-2:30pm; Wednesday 10:30-1pm, 2:30-4pm, after 7pm by appointment.

COURSE DESCRIPTION
The course is for students who are interested in major social issues related to social welfare and how the society has developed responses to them. It is required for social work majors and social welfare minors. The historical, economic and theoretical foundations of American social welfare policies will be explored. The focus is on what has happened to the general and specific subsets of the population at different periods of time through exploring the history and development of American social welfare policies. This includes attitudes towards vulnerable populations, values, public and private programs and the profession of social work and its values from the beginning of the society in the 1600s through the Great Depression of the 1930s. The interplay of values, traditions, politics, economics and social changes that occurred in the society and produced the responses to social needs and social problems will be examined. Ecological systems, problem solving and historical - structural frameworks will be the basis of analysis.

Particular attention will be given to developing student’s critical abilities and thinking by exploring the role of social movements and the developing profession and values of social work in changing and effecting social policy and programs. Relevance for what is happening today will be explored. Student’s ideas and opinions are welcome and respected. Respectful disagreement is expected and welcomed. The goal is to explore the various facets of theory, relate them to recurrent social issues and personalize them to understand better how they relate to one's life and experience.
COURSE PREREQUISITES: WRITING REQUIREMENT

This course is a designated writing course and may be used as one of the two courses needed to satisfy the NCAS writing requirement. Students must have taken and passed Eng 101/2.
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY – Students are expected to conduct themselves and prepare their work according to the accepted standards of academic integrity. Plagiary and passing other’s work as your own is unacceptable. Any student violating the University's academic integrity policy will be subject to appropriate sanctions. The University's complete academic integrity policy is available in the University and Departmental Student Handbooks and on the Learning and Advising Center's website. Academic resources, including information on citation and documentation for all written work and presentations, are also available.

T” or “IN” GRADES WITH INSTRUCTOR’S BY PRIOR AGREEMENT ONLY.



COURSE OBJECTIVES

As a result of taking this course students:

  1. Should be familiar with the historic development of social welfare policies and programs and the profession and values of social work in the United States from their beginnings through the 1930's. In particular the course will examine the genesis of both private and governmental social welfare policies and services from Biblical and Elizabethan sources, the period of post-Civil War Reconstruction, the Progressive era and the New Deal.

Should understand the difference between residual and universal social programs.

  1. Should learn about the interplay of values, traditions, diversity, politics, economics and social change that affected the American response to social needs and social problems. These in particular in relationship to at-risk populations, such as the elderly, children, women, disadvantaged minorities and the poor.

Should be able to apply the problem solving method to critically analyze and understand the development of social welfare policies and programs.

Should understand the effect of social movements and professional social work in these developments and identify possible roles for the professional and themselves in engaging in the development of future policies and programs in terms of enhancing social justice.

Will practice writing as a professional skill and its importance in communication and work.
EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES

Students as a result of taking this course should be able to:

1) Identify and set out the components of the main philosophic value systems operating in and influencing American society and their effects upon responses to social needs.

2) Set out the components of the values inherent in social work practice and philosophy and understand the difference between residual and universal programs.

3) Identify and follow the main concepts of the Elizabethan Poor Laws as they were institutionalized in social policies throughout American history.

4) Define and understand the difference between policy and program, in social welfare and its components and be able to critically analyze them.

5) Explicate major historical developments in social welfare policies and programs and social movements and special groups and the reciprocal effects between them in the society. Specific issues of the realm of private, voluntary and public responsibilities should be understood.

6) Set out the major historical processes in America, such as immigration, slavery, economic development, expansion, urbanization, industrialization, and others and relate them to developments of social policies and programs. The role of these during the post-Civil War, Progressive and Great Depression eras are of particular importance.

7) Understand and explain how selected policies, written and unwritten, and programs effected specific populations.

8) Analyze the effectiveness of welfare policies and programs as they related to specific populations.

9) Understand the role of social work and social workers in the development and implementation of social policies and programs.

10) Identify the various routes by which social policy is developed and affected in the society, the multiple levels of government, alternative routes, private versus public, etc.

11) Identify economic and social factors underlying social issues.

12) Improve writing skills through presenting issues and analyses of social welfare policies and services.

MEANS OF EVALUATING STUDENTS

GROUP PROJECTS ON PAGE 4

All work must be done using a computer and word processing, saved either in Word or Rich Text format. It should be written in standard expository English with full citations and references where appropriate. Grades will be based upon written assignments and class participation. Papers must be submitted via Blackboard.Rutgers.edu, except for initial and summaries and questions. Students will be encouraged to rewrite papers when there is a possibility of improving them in their presentation and in contents. THE FOCUS OF ALL PAPERS AND READING IS THE SOCIAL WELFARE ISSUES, RELEVANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE MATERIAL. Papers must have full references and citations.

DUE DATES: All work, except the first one, due immediately, must be handed in within one week of the due date. No work will be accepted after the last Wednesday of the class. Three main papers are due at the end of each full month of the course. ALL WORK MUST BE PROOF READ, DOUBLE SPACED AND ON TIME. REFERENCES AND CITATIONS MUST BE FULL AND CHECKABLE. LATE WORK WILL BE PENALIZED AND IF VERY LATE NOT ACCEPTED. NO STUDENT MAY HAND IN ALL WORK AT THE END OF THE SEMESTER.
The written assignments and questions are described in more detail below. Papers should be written using the MLA (Modern Language Association) style as taught in Expository Writing courses at Rutgers – Newark or equivalent. Written assignments will be due one at the end of each month (Feb, Mar & April). Keep the graded disk copy of each paper until after you are satisfied with the final grade for the course and to insure that they have been correctly recorded.
INITIAL ASSIGNMENTS (REQUIRED – GRADED ON TIMELINESS - COMMENTS MADE):

1) PHILOSOPHICAL VALUES -MAXIMUM TWO PAGES - Due fourth class on paper. Discuss a philosophical (religious or not) system, in particular it’s vision of the goal of human life, the basic nature of people, the responsibility of individuals to others and society to its members, what kinds of social welfare policies would result from the above.

2) VALUES FROM FAMILY -THREE PAGES – Due fifth class on paper. Analysis of students’ own family, one aspect of which addresses social class/economic security, and how these have affected family roles, relationships, etc. This is a “developmental autobiography” that examines among other things, the effects of social class on the students upbringing, values, life goals, identity, etc.
The following assignments are to focus on social conditions and social welfare implications of material. Alternative approaches to resolution of issues are to be discussed.
PAPERS: THREE, ONE A MONTH, GRADED - 7 to 10 pages, should focus on issue of student’s choice, raised in specific units. The first paper is about the period up to the Civil War including Post-Civil War Reconstruction, the second is about the period between the Civil War and the Depression of 1928-9 and the last paper is about the Depression and the New Deal. For the first two you can pick any smaller period within the main time period and any issue or population group. The focus after historical background is on social welfare issues, policies developed or not developed and what would have impacted the situation for the better.

The three papers will consist of separate parts (see below). The papers can discuss a particular area or change foci from one paper to the next. In other words you can examine issues of children, for example, in the three periods or women in one, immigrants in another and African-Americans in the third. (These are examples, you choose the focus.) Papers should include a discussion of relevant ethical and value issues. Due at the end of each full month of the course, Feb, Mar &Apr

Each in four sections should:

  1. Have a brief summary of information about the subject of the paper.

Relate to the time period under discussion. Each paper is about the specific time period of the assignment. The historical information should be brief and focus on social welfare policies and programs but should include general history.

  1. Have a critical discussion of what social welfare policies were, who was to implement them, how they were carried out and how they might have effected the population under discussion from your understanding and own perspective. Discuss how the policy might have been improved, or discontinued, or re-instituted today; or why it was doomed to failure, or bound for success in light of current concepts in the discipline and/or cultural commonplaces. 

  2. Conclude with your ideas about the subject.


Analyses and Questions : For each reading assignment students will prepare a two-page analysis of the reading including the main issues and ideas related to social welfare policies and issues. Briefly draw connections between the text and other texts in the course.  This should be done in
substantive, integrated fashion. At end should be questions or issues raised by the material. This is to be turned in, as a hard copy, the second day of the unit. The analyses will be graded in aggregate for being handed in on time. (If all are handed in on time the grade will be “A,” if all are handed in at end of semester the grade will be “D” if none or very few “F.”)

GROUP REPORTS and class discussions.

Students will select a book among the ancillary readings for group reports and class discussion. Students will be required to pick one book, “Freedom Road, Oliver Twist, The Jungle” and so forth to report on to class and lead a class discussion. The focus should be the social conditions and social welfare implications of them. Each book will be discussed on a specific class day led by the members of the group .
All assignments will be judged on content, writing and timeliness. There must be references and citations of all data and quotes or paraphrases. In the case of problems with the first two, the papers will be returned with comments and should be revised and handed in again, up to three times. The student has up to two weeks to complete revisions. This will not affect the grade unless the paper becomes overdue. Papers must be completed before the next assignment is due. BEING ON TIME COUNTS TOWARDS GRADE.
REQUIRED READINGS

Blackmon, Douglas, SLAVERY BY ANOTHER NAME: THE REENSLAVEMENT OF BLACK AMERICANS FROM THE CIVIL WAR TO WWII. , NY 2008
Foner, Eric, A SHORT HISTORY OF RECONSTRUCTION, Harper Row, NY, 1990
Johnson, Paul, A SHOPKEEPERS' MILLENIUM, Hill & Wang, NY, 1978
(Text) Day, Phyllis, A NEW HISTORY OF SOCIAL WELFARE, 6TH ED., Allyn & Bacon, Boston, 2007
Wagner, David, THE POORHOUSE: America’s Forgotten Institution, Rowman & Littlefield, Boulder, CO, 2005
Watkins, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, Little, Brown & Co, NY, 1993

The following upon which the group reports and class discussions will be based can be bought in paperback or found at a public library in any edition. All students are responsible for reading in each of them.

Blackmon, Douglas, SLAVERY BY ANOTHER NAME. Caldwell, Erskin, TOBACCO ROAD. Dickens, Charles, OLIVER TWIST. Dickson & Allen, THE BONUS ARMY. Fast, Howard, FREEDOM ROAD. Hindman, Hugh, CHILD LABOR. O’Connor, Stephen, ORPHAN TRAINS. Riis, Jacob, HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES. Sinclair, Upton, THE JUNGLE. Von Drehle, David, TRIANGLE. Wagner, David, THE POORHOUSE. Worster, Donald, DUST BOWL.
SUPPORT READINGS & WEB SITES:

Blight, David, RACE & REUNION: THE CIVIL WAR IN AMERICAN MEMORY, Harvard U, Cambridge, MA 2001
Hindman, Hugh, CHILD LABOR: AN AMERICAN HISTORY, M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY

2002.
O’Connor, Stephen, ORPHAN TRAINS: THE STORY OF CHARLES LORING BRACE AND THE CHILDREN HE SAVED AND FAILED, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 2001
Karger, Howard, et al. CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES IN SOCIAL POLICY, 2ND Ed, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, 2003
Lindsay, Duncan, THE WELFARE OF CHILDREN, 2nd ED. Oxford U Press, 2004
Von Drehle, David, TRIANGLE: the fire that changed America, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003.
Worster, Donald. DUST BOWL: THE SOUTHERN PLAINS IN THE 1930’S, Oxford Un Press, NY, NY, 1979
Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963 [.pdf]
http://www.uic.edu/jaddams/hull/urbanexp/contents.htm Sponsored by the Jane Addams Hull House Museum and the University of Illinois at Chicago, this online project contains a variety of primary source documents, documentary photographs, and scholarly essays that explore the legacy of social reform movements in Chicago and the community's history. There are several ways to proceed through the exhibit, though visitors may want to read the introductory essay in order to better understand the general layout of the site. Most of the substantive material on the site is contained within the 11 chapters that constitute the Historical Narrative section. Looking through any one of the chapters provides visitors with the opportunity to read a brief orientation essay, and proceed to a closer examination of the primary documents for a more multifaceted understanding of the social welfare and reform movements. Finally, there is a search engine for the entire database, which can be queried by author, keywords, date, and publication type.
COURSE OUTLINE
Unit I. - weeks 1 & 2 Writing as a necessary skill in social welfare, library skills

and Values in the American tradition and their effects upon social welfare policies and programs. There will be a library and writing session during the second and third sessions of the class.

1, Scientific-Humanist; 2, Roman Catholic & Orthodox Christian;

3, Protestant - Calvinist; 4, Judaic; 5, Social Work.

Readings - Johnson, SHOPKEEPERS' MILLIENIUM; Day, Ch 1 or Trattner, Ch 1; First assignment due.
Unit II. - Weeks 3-4

Social Welfare Policy - Factors in the development of social policy including an overview of current social policies and issues.

1, American political and economic system. 2, Routes of political influence and change.

3, Making of social policy, past and current. 4, Influence of social policy on people.

5, Residual vs. Universal responses to social issues

Readings - political science text; Day, Ch 2 or Trattner, prefaces; Shane, ch 2 &4. 2nd assignment due.
Unit III. - Weeks 4-7

Historical background – Biblical antecedents; The Elizabethan Poor Laws, colonial era and the 19th C, the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution, poverty, immigration, expansion, Blacks, slavery, child labor, women, reform movements, etc. The Civil War and Reconstruction as a forerunner of modern social policy is a particular focus.

Readings - Day, Chs 3-7; Foner, RECONSTRUCTION; Johnson, THE SHOPKEEPERS MILLENIUM. Dickens, OLIVER TWIST; Fast, FREEDOM ROAD;

Blight, RACE & REUNION. 1st paper due through digital drop box of Blackboard website
Unit IV. - Weeks 7-9

1870-1929 - Immigration, Industrialization & Urbanization, The Progressive Era, WWI, the 20's, Reform & Reaction. Issues: urbanization, economic conditions, poverty, immigration, child labor, segregation, women's status and role, development of reform and radical movements, development of private social welfare, beginnings of major social welfare movements and social work as a profession in the last quarter of the 19th C and 1st quarter of the 20th C.

Readings - Day, Chs 7 & 8; Blackmon, SLAVERY BY ANOTHER NAME; Sinclair, THE JUNGLE; Riis, HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES (films: Women of Hull House; Orphan Trains); O’Connor, ORPHAN TRAINS; Caldwell, TOBACCO ROAD; Von Drehle, TRIANGLE. 2nd paper due through digital drop box.
Unit V. - weeks 10-14

The Great Depression and the New Deal - 1928 - 1940

Issues: economics, unemployment, poverty, minorities, rural problems, changes in values, government response to need and national social policy, partnership between voluntary agencies and government, changes in role of social work. 3rd paper due through digital drop box.

Special assignment : If possible interview a relative or family friend about conditions and experiences during the depression. Ask what they knew about the New Deal and government programs, what they thought of them, did they experience any of them? Connect with material in texts, and class discussions.

Reading - Day, Ch 9; Watkins; (films: The Helping Hand, King of the Hill); Dickson & Allen, THE BONUS ARMY, Walker & Co, NY, 2004
SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY
SPECIAL SUBJECTS:
BLACKS/AFRICAN-AMERICANS :
Bird, Caroline, THE INVISIBLE SCAR, McKay, NY 1966
Fox, Daniel M, KEY ISSUES IN THE AFRO-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, NY 1971
Sternsher, B, NEGROES & THE GREAT DEPRESSION, Un of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL 1969
ETHNICITY:
Davis Allen & Mark Haller, Eds, THE PEOPLES OF PHILADELPHIA: A HISTORY OF ETHNIC GROUPS AND LOWER CLASS LIFE, 1790-1940, Temple Univ Press, Phila, 1973
Wenk, M, S M Tomasi & G. Baroni, PIECES OF A DREAM, Center for Migration Studies, NY 1977
WOMEN:
Jensen, Noah M & Sue Davidson, Eds, A NEEDLE, A BOBBIN, A STRIKE: WOMEN NEEDLEWORKERS IN AMERICA, Temple Univ Press, Phila, 1984
Kerber, Linda K, WOMEN OF THE REPUBLIC, U of N Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1984
Miller, Eleanor M, STREET WOMAN, Temple Univ Press, Phila, 1986
Norton, Mary Beth, LIBERTY'S DAUGHTERS, Little Brown, NY, 1985
Peiss, Kathy, CHEAP AMUSEMENTS: WORKING WOMEN & LEISURE IN TURN-OF-CENTURY NY, Temple Univ Press, Phila, 1984
Stansell, C., CITY OF WOMEN: SEX & CLASS IN NY 1789-1860, Temple U Pr, Phila, 1986
Ware, Susan, HOLDING THEIR OWN: AMERICAN WOMEN IN THE 1930'S, Twayne, Boston, 1982
THE DEPRESSION & THE NEW DEAL:
Caputo, Richard, WELFARE AND FREEDOM AMERICAN STYLE: THE ROLE OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 1900-1940, VOL 1, Univ Press of America, Lanham, MD, Feb 1991
Fisher Jacob, THE RESPONSE OF SOCIAL WORK TO THE DEPRESSION, Great Hall & Co, Boston, 1980
Freidel, Frank, THE NEW DEAL & THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, Prentice Hall, NY, 1964
Hacker, Louis M, A SHORT HISTORY OF THE NEW DEAL, NY Press, NY 1955
Kindelberger, Charles, THE WORLD IN DEPRESSION 1929-1939, Univ of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1973
Sitkoff, Harvard, Ed, FIFTY YRS LATER: THE NEW DEAL EVALUATED, Knopf, NY 1985
GENERAL SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Barker, Paul, ed. FOUNDERS OF THE WELFARE STATE, Avebury, Brookfield, VT, 1985
Beverly, David & Edward McSweeney, SOCIAL WELFARE & SOCIAL JUSTICE, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1987
Brecher, Jeremy, STRIKE: HISTORY OF THE US LABOR MOVEMENT, South End Press, Boston, MA 1991
Foner, Eric, RECONSTRUCTION: AMERICA'S UNFINISHED REVOLUTION 1863-1877, Harper Row, NY, 1988
MacNicol, John, THE MOVEMENT FOR FAMILY ALLOWANCES 1918-1945, Avebury, Brookfield, VT, 1980
NASW SOCIAL POLICY POSITION PAPERS
Ryan, William, BLAMING THE VICTIM, Vintage Books, NY 1976
Skocpol, Theda, PROTECTING SOLDIERS AND MOTHERS: THE POLIT. ORIGINS OF SOC POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES, Belknap Press/Harvard U Press, Cambridge, 1993
Walters, Ronald, AMERICAN REFORMERS 1815-60, Hill & Wang, NY 1978


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