CHAPTER 9 LESSON 2 NOTES:
ROYAL POWER IN SPAIN AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
powerful Catholic monarchs provides enough strength to push out the last Muslim
stronghold in Granada on the Iberian Peninsula by the year 1492
Religious toleration ends under their policy, “One monarchy, one law, one religion;”
use of the Inquisition (Catholic Church courts to try heretics) causing extreme cruelty
to Jews and Moors; Spanish economy declines when these educated ethnic groups
are forced to leave the Iberian Peninsula.
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
300 German/Italian states loosely headed by Holy Roman emperors, title
reserved for the descendants of the first king of German lands, Otto I: “holy”
because ever since Otto I, the emperors have always been crowned by a pope.
(Charlemagne was the 1st unofficial Holy Roman Emperor because he too ruled German
lands, but the name “Holy Roman Empire” did not exist at the time he ruled as “Emperor
of the Romans”)
German Emperor Henry IV is excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII for the
king’s lay investiture policies (emperor, instead of pope, appoints church officials in the
empire); a treaty called the Concordat (agreement) of Worms ends the lay investiture
problem between pope and Emperor but the power struggle continues.
Frederick Barbarossa (the Red Beard) attempts to secure an empire that
includes wealthy northern Italian cities but the pope and the Italian cities join together
in an alliance called the Lombard League to successfully defeat the emperor.
Frederick II continues to pursue ambitions in Italy while German feudal princes
gain support against the emperor from the German middle class called burghers
(from the German word “burg” meaning “town”).
Unlike England, France, and Spain, whose royal power continued to grow, the
Holy Roman Empire (H.R.E.) would not unify for another 600 years when the country of
Germany is established in 1871.
____________________1. Identify “A”
_____________________2. Identify “B”
_____________________3. Identify “C”
_____________________4. Identify “D”
_____________________5. Identify “E”
_____________________6. Which Phoenician city is represented by the black dot?
_____________________7. Which Spanish kingdom, located closest to N. Africa,
had once been a stronghold of the Muslims?
_____________________8. Name the sea that is partially surrounded by the Byzantine