Roots of Misconception

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Journals 1889-1949, tr. by Justin O’Brien (New York: Vintage Books, 1956), Vol. I, p. 177, 181.

50 Burton was so much engaged in assuming a local identity that he presented himself as a Muslim doctor of Indian descent. His Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to al-Madinah and Meccah (1855-1856) bears testimony to his knowledge of Arabic language and Islamic culture.

51 Sir John Chardin, Travels in Persia 1673-1677 (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1988), pp. 184 and 187.

52 Edward Said, Orientalism, p. 49ff.

53 Lane’s An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, published first in 1836, is even more important than his Lexicon in revealing his approach to the Arab-Islamic world.

54 Albert Hourani provides a very fine analysis of these and other minor figures in his Islam in European Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 18-34.

55 According to one estimate quoted by Said, close to 60,000 thousand books about the New Orient were written between 1800 and 1950. Cf. E. Said, Orientalism, p. 204.

56 For I. Goldziher, C. S. Hurgronje, C. H. Becker, D. B. Macdonald, L. Massignon, see Jean Jacques Waardenburg, L'Islam dans le miroir de l'Occident. Comment quelques orientalistes occidentaux se sont penches sur l'Islam et se sont forme une image de cette religion, (Paris, Mouton, 1963). See also A. J. Arberry, Oriental Essays: Portraits of Seven Scholars (Surrey: Curzon Press, 1997; first published in 1960) and Maxime Rodinson, Europe and the Mystique of Islam (Seattle/London: University of Washington Press, 1987), pp. 83-129.

57 A. J. Arberry, Oriental Essays (Great Britain: Curzon Press, 1997; first published in 1960), p. 7.

58 A classical example of the Orientalist construction of an Islamic orthodoxy is I. Goldziher’s “Stellung der alten islamichen Orthodoxie zu den antiken Wissenchaften,” Abhandlungen der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenchaften, Jahrgang, 1915 (Berlin: Verlag der Akademie, 1916) where Goldziher establishes the kalam and fiqh critiques of philosophy especially by the Hanbalite scholars as the official position of ‘Islamic orthodoxy’ against the pre-Islamic traditions. This article has been translated into English by M. L. Swartz in his Studies on Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981), pp. 185-215.

59 T. J. De Boer’s work has been translated into English by E. R. Jones as The History of Philosophy in Islam (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1967).

60 Gustave E. von Grunebaum, Medieval Islam, p. 294. This theme is further articulated in a collection of essays edited by von Grunebaum as Unity and Variety in Muslim Civilization (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1955).

61 Sam Keen, Faces of the Enemy (Cambridge: Harper and Row, 1986), pp. 29, 30, quoted in J. Shaheen, Arab and Muslim Stereotyping, p.12.

62 Cf. Jack Shaheen, The TV Arab (Ohio: The Popular Press, 1984) and Arab and Muslim Stereotyping in American Popular Culture (Washington D.C.: Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, 1997). See also Michael Hudson and Ronald G. Wolfe (eds.), The American Media and the Arabs (Washington D.C.: Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, 1980).

63 J. Shaheen, p. 3.

64 Michael Suleiman, American Images of Middle East Peoples: Impact of the High Schools (New York: Middle East Studies Association, 1977), quoted in Fred R. von. Der Mehden, “American Perceptions of Islam” in Voices of Resurgent Islam ed by John L. Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 21.

65 Jerusalem Post, April 7, 2002

66 P. Johnson, “’Relentlessly and Thoroughly’: The Only Way to Respond,” National Review, October 15, 2001, p. 20.

67 F. Fukuyama, “The West Has Won,” The Guardian, October 11, 2002.

68 Quoted in Fawaz A. Gerges, America and Political Islam: Clash of Cultures or Clash of Interests? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 69-70.

69 The Washington Post, February 22, 2002, A02. This is as if taken verbatim from Renan: “Islam was liberal [tolerant] when it was weak and was violent when it became strong.” L’Islamisme et la science, (Paris: 1883), p. 18.


71 Another powerful myth often invoked to exclude Islam from the Judeo-Christian tradition is the stupendous idea that Muslims believe in a God other than what Jews and Christians believe. One may recall here the so-called “moon-god Allah” story according to which Muslims worship the ‘Moon God’, a pagan deity. This myth has been popularized by Dr. Robert Morey in his lectures and publications including The Moon-god Allah, Islam the Religion of the Moon God, Behind the Veil: Unmasking Islam and The Islamic Invasion: Confronting the World’s Fastest Growing Religion.

72 Nicholas D. Kristof, “Bigotry in Islam – And Here” New York Times, July 9, 2002.

73 For Zwemer, who founded and edited the Muslim World for nearly four decades, and other missionary views of Islam in the modern period, see Jane I. Smith, “Christian Missionary Views of Islam in the 19th-20th Centuries” in Zafar Ishaq Ansari and John L. Esposito (eds.), Muslims and the West: Encounter and Dialogue (Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 2001), pp. 146-177.

74 December 7, 2002 “Coming Clash of Civilizations?” at

75 March 5, 2002, at

76 Bernard Lewis, “The Roots of Muslim Rage,” The Atlantic Monthly (September 1990), pp. 47-60.

77 Lewis, ibid. See also Lewis’ “Islam and Liberal Democracy,” The Atlantic Monthly (February, 1993), p. 93.

78 L. Massignon, La Crise de l'autorite religieuse et le Califat en Islam, (Paris: 1925), p. 80-81; E. Tyan, Institutions du droit public musulman, (Paris: 1954) Vol. II, p. 302; Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1955), p. 53 and 170; ibidem, "International Law" in Law in the Middle East, M. Khadduri and H. J. Liebesny (eds.), (Washington D.C.: Middle East Institute, 1955), pp. 349-370. Cf. also the Encyclopedia of Islam entry ‘dar al-harb’ reprinted in Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam, ed. by H. A. R. Gibb and J. H. Kramers , (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, n.d.), pp. 68-69.

79 For some of the classical sources on the subject, see Ahmad al-Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, (Istanbul: Dar al-da’wah, 1912), Vol. 30, p. 33; Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Ahkam ahl al-dhimmah, (Damascus: 1381 (A.H.), Vol. I, p. 5; and Ibn Abidin, Radd al-mukhtar, (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-‘ilmiyyah, 1415/1994), Vol. III, p. 247, 253. For an excellent survey of the classical sources, see Ahmet Ozel, Islam Hukukunda Ulke Kavrami: Daru’l-islam, Daru’l-harb, Daru’l-sulh (Istanbul: Iz Yayincilik, 1998).

80 Bat Ye’or’s The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam (Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1985) from the Preface.

81 Quoted in Paul Findley, Silent No More: Confronting America’s False Images of Islam (Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications, 2001, p. 65.

82 The Wall Street Journal, 10/4/1984.

83 Ernest Renan, L’Islamisme et la science, p. 3.

84 For full analysis of the traditional Islamic interpretation of Jihad see Dr. Reza Shah Kazemi’s “Rediscovering the Spirit of Jihad” in this volume.

85 The Wall Street Journal, 6/25/1993. After 9/11, Emerson added a new item to his attacks and defamations with his book American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us (New York: Free Press, 2002). For a similar approach, see Daniel Pipes, “Fighting Militant Islam, Without Bias” City Journal (Autumn, 2001).

86 San Diego Union Tribune, 6/8/1993 quoted in P. Findley, p. 71.

87 Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), p. 258 quoted in John Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 127.

88 Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart, “Islam and the West: Testing the Clash of Civilizations Thesis,” John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Working Paper Number RWP02-015, April 22, 2002.

89 Ibid., p. 126.

90 Mark Juergensmeyer’s work Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley/London: University of California Press, 2000) contains much valuable material on modern justifications of the use of violence in the name of religion and shows the extent to which violence can take on various names and identities.

91 Lewis, “Islam and Liberal Democracy,” p. 93.

92 Gilles Kepel, The Revenge of God: The Resurgence of Islam, Christianity and Judaism in the Modern World (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994), p. 194.

93 Michael E. Salla, “Political Islam and the West: A New Cold War or Convergence?”, Third World Quarterly, December 1997, vol. 18, issue 4, pp.729-743.

94 Robin Wright, “Islam, Democracy and the West”, Foreign Affairs (Summer 1992), pp. 137-8 quoted in Gerges, America and Political Islam, pp. 29-30.

95 There is an ever-growing literature on Islam and democracy, pointing to the vibrancy of the debate in the Islamic world. For a brief discussion of the cases of Malaysia, Indonesia and Iran, see John Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 133-145. See also J. L. Esposito and John Voll, Islam and Democracy (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); A. Soroush, Reason, Freedom, & Democracy in Islam: Essential Writings of `Abdolkarim Soroush, translated and edited with a critical introduction by Mahmoud Sadri, Ahmad Sadri (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); Azzam S. Tamimi, Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat within Islamism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001); and Fatima Mernissi, Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World (Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1992).

96 Martin Indyk, “Back to the Bazaar”, Foreign Affairs, February 2002, vol. 81, issue 1, pp.75-89.

97 Quoted in Ralph Braibanti, The Nature and Structure of the Islamic World (Chicago: International Strategy and Policy Institute, 1995), p. 6.

98 The columnist Mona Charen quoted in Robert Fisk, “Fear and Learning in America”, Independent, April 17, 2002.

99 Graham Fuller, “The Future of Political Islam”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 81, Issue 2 (March/April, 2002), p. 59.

100 Cf. Peter L. Berger (ed.), The Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1999). See also the essays by John Keane, P. Berger, Abdelwahab Elmessiri and Ahmet Davutoglu in Islam and Secularism in the Middle East ed. by J. L. Esposito and A. Tamimi (New York: New York University Press, 2000) and William E. Connolly, Why I am Not a Secularist (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999).

101 For a treatment of the 18th and 19th century Islamic movements within the context of European colonialism, see John Voll, “Foundations for Renewal and Reform” in The Oxford History of Islam, ed. by J. L. Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 509-547. See also John L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 168-212.

102 Cf. al-Jabarti’s narration of the French invasion of Egypt and his cultural response to Napoleon in Al-Jabarti’s Chronicle of the French Occupation 1798: Napoleon in Egypt, tr. by Shmuel Moreh (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1997, 3rd printing).

103 Cf. S. V. R. Nasr, “European Colonialism and the Emergence of Modern Muslim States” in The Oxford History of Islam, pp. 549-599.

104 Cf. Bruce B. Lawrence, Shattering the Myth: Islam Beyond Violence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), pp. 40-50 and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, “Islamism: A Designer Ideology for Resistance, Change and Empowerment” in Muslims and the West: Encounter and Dialogue, pp. 274-295.

105 Cf. my “Deconstructing Monolithic Perceptions: A Conversation with Professor John Esposito” The Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs (April 2001), pp. 155-163.

106 For an analysis of these scholars from the point of view of US foreign policy decisions, see Mohommed A. Muqtedar Khan, 'US Foreign Policy and Political Islam: Interests, Ideas, and Ideology', Security Dialogue, Vol. 29 (4), 1998, s. 449-462.

107 For the policy recommendations of the accommodationist wing, see Gerges, America and Political Islam, pp. 28-36.

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