Roman Empire Gupta Empire



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Roman Empire

Gupta Empire

Han China

Political Organization





-republic: ruled by aristocrats

-no monarchy

-Senate most powerful

-later on empire: non hereditary, choosen by the Senate

-strong military organization

-focuses on law of courts

-well crafted laws


-political authority less important than caste membership and group allegances

-leadership appointed by gods

-“theater state” techniques

-the “Golden Age” spreads law



-Confucianism replaced a legalist government

-expanded bureaucracy

-strong centralized government supported by educated shi

-not militaristic


Intellectual

Advancements



-Simplified writing system.

-Roman arches

-Plumbing

-Aqueducts

-Roads

-12 Tables



-1000 diseases identified

-decimal sytem

-c-section

-500 known healing plants identified

-concept of 0

-solar calendar

-round earth


-calendar 365.5 days

-compass


-many different philosophies..confucanism

-mathematics of music


Religious

Organization


POLYTHEISM, DERIVATIVE FROM GREEKS, BUT RELIGION NOT REALLY IMPORTANT TO THE AVERAGE ROMAN. CHRISTANITY DEVELOPED, BUT WAS NOT DOMINANT UNTIL VERY LATE.

Aryan religious stories written down into Vedas. Hunduism became the dominant religion- believed in reincarnation, karma, dharma, Moksha, etc.

Confucianism dominated social and political structures in Han China. Buddhism appeared. Buddhism believed that women and every social class was capable of reaching Nirvana. It put a lot of emphasis on the Eightfold Path to Righteousness and the Four Noble Truths.

Artistic

Achievements



~poetry, music, dance, and drama

~architecture; three types of colomns(doric ionic and corinthian) Athletic performances



~stupas (dome shaped Buddhist shrines)

~Apreciation of nature and joy of life

~Celebrated religion


~Calligraphy and many artistic writing forms

~Artistic pottery with many pictures

~carved Jade (a greenish blue stone which was often carved into the shape of Buddha)





Roman Empire

Gupta Empire

Han Dynasty

Technological

Advancements



-roads

-Harbors


-Military transportation

-Aquaducts

-Public baths

-Sewer system



-Plastic surgery

-Bone setting

-concept of “0”

-Negative numbers

-Pi


-Medicine

-Ox-drawn plow/collar for animals

-Iron smithing and mining

-Water powered mills

-Paper


Economic

Organization



Very influential in trading between the central Asian nomads. Romans traded horses, alfalfa, grapes, melons, walnuts. They received silk, peaches, apricot, pottery and paper.

Part of the silk road and Indian ocean trade set up many stations to trade. Trade was essential to economy. Traded between the Romans.

Helped expand the silk road as a part of the economic stimulus. Traded mostly horses, created the stirrup. Asian nomads were the centralized part of the overall trade in the area.

Social Organization

Paterfamalies-Male dominated families. Wealth based on land ownership. Middle class of merchants grew during the empire as well as inequality

Guptan society was based off the caste system’s social hierarchy. Women’s status declined during the empire.

Family was the basic unit in Han society. Wealth was based on the amount of land a person owned. Rural and urban areas were extremely divided. The society was basically Patriarchal and reinforced be Confucianism

Geographic

Expansion


Rome gained total control of the Meditarranean in the Punic wars. Began in the Italian Peninsula.

Northern India, Central India, not as far south as the Mauryan dynasty

Extended Borders, opened trade into the Meditarranean

Decline of

The Empire


Began after about 180 CE

Decline in population because of growing difficulties

Most discrivitce of all dynasties

Series of weak emperors

Plague

Had to hire German soldiers which cost more money



Invasions of nomads

Many invaders integrated to warrior catse of India

Gupta lost control of their local princes


Invasions of the Huns

Deterioration of political institutions

Protection/ maintenance of borders

Diseases from trade

Social Disorder

Mandate of Heaven was supposed to end the dynasty




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