Ring of Fire – Connecting Volcanoes to Plate Boundaries



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  1. Title of this lesson: Ring of Fire – Connecting Volcanoes to Plate Boundaries



  1. Summary of this lesson


Generative Question(s): Why are some Volcanoes more dangerous to human life than others?
In this lesson students use a world bathymetric map and a sampling of the world’s active volcanoes to map the volcanoes and classify them according to type. The locations are placed on the map by way of colored adhesive dots in three colors to represent stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, and cinder cones. The definitions and characteristics of volcano types have not yet been introduced or explained to students, nor the fact that most stratovolcanoes are located along subduction zones. The goal of this lesson is to raise important questions that will be answered in the course of subsequent inquiry-based lessons on viscosity, gas pressure, volcanic eruptions and individual volcano studies.



  1. Objective(s)/Learning Goal(s)/ Key Student Learning(s) of this lesson


Students will understand (content knowledge):

  1. There is a ring of volcanoes that circles the Pacific Ocean and this circle is known as the Ring of Fire.

  2. There are several different subduction zones that border the Pacific.

Students will be able to (process skills):

  1. Chart the volcanoes on a world map with latitude and longitude, and identify which geographic areas are associated with which kind of volcanoes.

  2. Identify the most geologically-significant tectonic plate boundaries, and begin to associate specific plate movements with volcano types.




  1. Teacher Background Knowledge for this lesson

In this activity students will describe the plate boundaries located along the edges of the Pacific Ocean and identify an area known as the Ring of Fire. Students have already studied a unit on plate tectonics and have learned about the three types of plate boundaries and about subduction zones. It follows a unit on earthquakes and students have had experience charting epicenters using longitude and latitude. If the volcano unit is done first, a review of longitude and latitude may be necessary.



  1. Prior knowledge that students need to understand this lesson - with an assessment to determine what they already know (if appropriate).


Students will have knowledge that the crust of the Earth is broken into about 12 major tectonic plates and that the edges of these plates meet at transform, divergent and convergent boundaries. They know that convergence leads to both mountain building and subduction, and that sea-floor spreading is the process that creates new rock at divergent plate boundaries.



  1. Standards covered in this lesson

Current California Science Standards

1a, d, e; 2b; and 7 b and e.

NGSS -


MS-ESS 2.2, 2.3, 2A and 2B
Crosscutting concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models
Science and Engineering Practices: Analyzing and Interpreting Data
CCSS that apply

ELA/Literacy – RST.6-8.1, 6-8.7, WHST 6-8.2, SL 8.5

Mathematics – MP.2, MP.4, 6.RP.A.1, 7.RP.A.1


  1. Suggested time to complete this lesson: 50 minutes



  1. Materials Used in this lesson typed in a bulleted list with quantities (e.g., 10 beakers; water – 2 liters)



  • World map that shows longitude and latitude. (We are using a bathymetric map from CPO science), 1 for every two students

  • Volcano location chart with exit questions, 1 per student

  • Connecting Volcanoes to Plate Boundaries” handout, 1 for every two students

  • One ruler per student

  • Small color adhesive dots, ¼ “ size

  • Large color adhesive dots, ½” size, same colors as ¼”, but for the large map

  • Black marking pen

  • CPO Science student book (or other materials showing plate boundaries and movement and picture of the Ring of Fire.)

  • Classroom world map or large bathymetric map




  1. Materials Prep for this lesson



  • Make copies of “Connecting Volcanoes to Plate Boundaries” (1 for every student)

  • Remove bathymetric maps from pad, 1 per every two students



  1. Lesson Plandetailed, numbered, step-by-step plans.


Lesson:

Engage students by having them enter the classroom while the chorus from Johnny Cash’s song, Ring of Fire, is playing in the background. Curriculum group determined that this song is inappropriate and needs to be replaced.

Another alternative is to spend 1-2 days watching the documentary, “Ring of Fire,” which is highly informative, explains the process of subduction, contains video footage of active volcanoes and good animations of volcanism. The video is also a window into how several world cultures weave local mythology into their commemoration of historic eruptions.

WarmUp. Have students do a quick KWL about anything they know or think they now about the Ring of Fire, subduction, or volcano myths.

Do Now: Ask students to listen to the song and write down as many volcano words as possible

Time

5 min

T: Teacher will chart responses from the Warm Up. Make no comments about the responses, just accept. Explain that today we will do an activity that will help them learn more about the Ring of Fire.

10 min

T says: Today we are going to learn how to locate volcanoes on a world map. Facilitate the activity by explaining the directions and modeling how to chart the volcano locations using longitude and latitude.




Activity: T. passes out world map with latitude and longitude along with chart.

Students chart the volcanoes on a world map.

Students should work in pairs. For 6th grade students it is difficult for students to move down and across in straight lines, so one tip would be for one student in the pair to find the latitude and put their ruler across the map. Next the partner puts their ruler down the longitude and students mark the point where the rulers meet. This technique helps move the activity along and keeps the students from getting frustrated. At the end of the activity, pairs should discuss the answers to the follow up question, but each one should write down their answers individually in their lab notebook.

20 min

Debrief the activity by answering the follow up questions.

10 min

Exit Card: What type of volcano seems to be most common in the Ring of Fire?

5 min

Follow-Up: Read Section 10.2, “Where Are Volcanoes Found?,” in the CPO Science book. Use a Jigsaw or Give One Get One protocol to have students read the Chapter Section and report back to their table on important terms and key concepts. Have students number off from 1-4 at their table. These students then move to tables with similar number and read their assigned section together. Ones read pg. 209 Volcanoes at plate boundaries; Two’s read p.210 Volcanoes at mid-ocean ridges; Three’s read p.211-212 Volcano Chains and Four’s read p. 213, Volcanoes at subduction zones. Then they move back to their group and report out to their classmates


  1. Vocabulary words – key vocabulary words that are targeted or taught as part of the lesson.

(Understanding these words is essential for students to understand the key concepts of this lesson.)


  • Latitude

  • Longitude

  • Subduction

  • Ring of Fire

  • plate boundary

  • divergent

  • convergent

  • transform

  • bathymetric (stratovolcano, shield volcano, and cinder cone are covered in the next lesson).


  1. Potential Pitfalls for: a. student understanding; b. laboratory mishaps and common procedural errors; c. academic vocabulary issues, etc.


Scaffold the Jigsaw to make certain that all key concepts are covered.

Students may have confusion over which is longitude and which is latitude. This is a good opportunity to discuss the etymologies of the words, or to encourage students to come up with a mnemonic device for remembering.

Latitude: Latin lātitūdō  breadth (think of latissimus dorsi muscles, across the broadest part of the back)

Longitude: Latin longitūdō  length (think of the length – as opposed to the base – of a rectangle)



  1. Differentiation: Modifications for English Learners, advanced learners, struggling learners, etc.


Many student groups will work through the list of volcanoes quickly.

Be prepared with a second list of volcanoes for students to map should they finish the first list quickly. Another way to differentiate for lower-skilled students is to divide the list in


  1. Please list all worksheets used in this lesson.

Connecting Volcanoes to Plate Boundaries (See attached)

World Bathymetric Map (CPO worksheet)


  1. Please list all assessments that require a separate sheet.

The assessment for this lesson is comprised of the 4 review/exit questions at the end of the “Connecting Volcanoes to Plate Boundaries” worksheet. (See attached.)


  1. Photos/Illustrations

  2. Other Resources

Volcano Map_Teacher.pdf

Connecting Volcanoes to Plate Boundaries

Currently there are over 1500 active volcanoes in the world. An active volcano is one that has erupted at least once in the past 10,000 years and is likely to erupt again. The table below provides the position by latitude (LAT) and longitude (LONG) for 28 active volcanoes. Each volcano is represented by a 2 letter symbol. The table also includes the type of volcano and the year that they last erupted.



Sym

Name

Type

Location

Last erupted

VEI

AZ

Azul

Stratovolcano

LAT 36° S LONG 71° W

1967

5

BE

Bezymianny

Stratovolcano

LAT 56° N LONG 161° E

2000

3

CE

Cerro Negro

Cinder Cone

LAT 13° N LONG 87° W

1999

2

CO

Cotopaxi

Stratovolcano

LAT 1° S LONG 78° W

1942

4

EA

Erta Ale

Shield

LAT 14° N LONG 41° E

2011

2

ER

Erebus

Stratovolcano

LAT 78° S LONG 167° E

2011

0

FE

Fernandina

Shield

LAT 0° S LONG 92° W

2009

4

KA

Katmai

Stratovolcano

LAT 58° N LONG 155° W

1912

6

KI

Kilauea

Shield

LAT 19° N LONG 155° W

1995

0

KR

Krakatau

Stratovolcano

LAT 17° S LONG 105° E

2001

6

KS

Ksudach

Stratovolcano

LAT 52° N LONG 158° E

1907

5

LP

La Palma

Stratovolcano

LAT 29° N LONG 18° W

1954

2

LS

Lassen Peak

Stratovolcano

LAT 40° N LONG 122°W

1914

3

MA

Mauna Loa

Shield

LAT 20° N LONG 155° W

1987

0

ME

Mt. Etna

Stratovolcano

LAT 38° N LONG 15° E

1993

3

MF

Mt. Fuji

Stratovolcano

LAT 35° N LONG 139° E

1709

5

MO

Mt. Pelee

Stratovolcano

LAT 15° N LONG 61° W

1932

4

MR

Mt. Rainier

Stratovolcano

LAT 47° N LONG 122° W

1894

4

MS

Mt. St. Helen’s

Stratovolcano

LAT 46° N LONG 122° W

2004

5

NR

Nevada del Ruiz

Stratovolcano

LAT 5° N LONG 75° W

1991

3

OL

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Stratovolcano

LAT 3° S LONG 36° E

2010

3

PA

Paricutin

Cinder Cone

LAT 20° N LONG 102° W

1952

4

PI

Pinatubo

Stratovolcano

LAT 15° N LONG 120° E

1992

6

PT

Piton de la Fournaise

Shield

LAT 21° S LONG 56° E

1994

0

SC

Sunset Crater

Cinder Cone

LAT 35° N LONG 112° W

1065

4

SU

Surtsey

Shield

LAT 63° N LONG 20° W

1962

3

TA

Tambora

Stratovolcano

LAT 10° S LONG 120° E

1967

7

VS

Vesuvius

Stratovolcano

LAT 41° N LONG 14° E

1944

5

Directions:

1. Locate and label each of the volcanoes listed on the blank map.

2. Represent each volcano with its two-letter symbol. Use a different colored pencil for the stratovolcano, shield and cinder cone volcanoes.

3. Using the map on page 172, carefully sketch all the plates surrounding the ring of fire. Name them.

4. Draw in plate movement using arrows to show the direction the plate moves.

5. Go over plate boundaries, plate names and plate movement arrows with black marker.

6. Using the red pencil, lightly sketch over the area known as the Ring of Fire. (Use map on pg 209, CPO Science)

Answer the following questions:



  1. What type of volcano is most common in the Ring of Fire? __________________



  1. What plate movement occurs most often around the Ring of Fire? (circle one)

Convergent/Subduction Convergent/Mountain Building Divergent Transverse

  1. Put an “X” in the chart to show if the plate is oceanic or continental:

Plate Name

Oceanic Plate

Continental Plate

Pacific Plate







Nazca Plate







North American Plate







South American Plate







Cocos Plate







Antarctic Plate







Eurasian Plate







IndoAustralian Plate









  1. Based on what you have learned by mapping volcanoes and identifying plate movement, what is common to the areas along the Ring of Fire? (Discuss plate movement and volcano types) _______________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Created by San Lorenzo Unified teachers (2012):

Linda Preminger, Julie Ramirez, Marilyn Stewart, and Lawrence Yano





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