Review of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in



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APPENDIX D
RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING THE CULTURAL HERITAGE OF MOSTAR
by Colin Kaiser (consultant expert)324


Institutions
1. The Zastita Spomenika Kulture should be officially recognised by the governmental authorities as the Institution for the Protection of Historical Monuments of Mostar and Region and have the clearly defined responsibilities normally held by such an institute (documenta­tion, research, preparation, supervision and control of implementation of projects, consultation on all projects affecting the historic fabric of the town).
2. This institute should be enlarged to include all necessary specialisations among its staff.
3. This institute should be allocated the necessary resources to carry out its work and its members should have the opportunity of study tours and attending restoration courses

abroad.
War Protection Measures


1. The protection programme for the Old Bridge of Mostar must be fully implemented as soon as possible, and eventually improved (e.g. sandbagging). The advice of Croatian experts, who have good experience in war protection measures, would be useful.
Emergency Measures
1. It is necessary to close all dangerous buildings, and to direct pedestrian and motor traffic away from such buildings as the Zgrada Vojne Komande. Such danger zones should be clearly marked for the population.
2. The pinnacle of the Nesuh age Vucjakovica mosque should be removed as soon as possible, and other damaged minarets should be dismantled.
3. Although material is lacking, the emergency programmes drawn up by the Board of Revitalisation should be implemented on a priority basis (most dangerous and threatened buildings first).
4. Local authorities should be strongly lobbied to provide materials and not export them (e.g. wood).
Information on the situation of Mostar
1. A short volume on Mostar, explaining its history and development, presenting its monuments, recounting the bombardments and explaining the damage, and outlining the problems for restoration and reuse of monuments after the war should be prepared in several foreign languages.
2. It is essential to have a precise chronology of all the bombardments, indicating the target zones (including all zones of the city), in the context of military operations. It is equally important to have precise information on the calibres of artillery used against the monuments and the frequency of targeting on these monuments.
Relations with international organisations and experts
1. A proposal for inscription of the historic centre of Mostar and the adjoining mixed historic zone on the List of World Heritage in Danger should be drawn up and submitted to Unesco.
2. Unesco and other international and regional bodies should be solicited to organise a mission to Mostar to evaluate immediate and mid term needs. These experts should have experience in war/disaster situations.
3. With the financial assistance of international and regional bodies a commission of three or four international experts who would advise on the reconstruction and restoration of damaged heritage in Mostar should be set up.
4. An international symposium devoted to the restoration of the Islamic heritage of Mostar should be organised in the first half of 1993.

Colin Kaiser

Fact finding mission of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
17 December 1992
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am very much indebted to a very large number of people in many parts of the world who have contributed to this study in many ways: through personal discussions, by submitting written evidence and assisting with the research in various other ways.


The study would not have been possible without the constant support of five people from the sponsoring bodies for the project: His Excellency Dr Johannes Sizoo, Ambassador and Permanent Delegate to UNESCO for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Mrs. Sabine Gimbrère, Deputy Head of the Division of Multilateral Co-operation in the Netherlands Cultural Policy Department, Mr Adriaan Bos, Chief Legal Adviser, and Dr Gerard Tanja, Deputy Legal Adviser, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and both Dr Lyndel Prott and M. Etienne Clément of the UNESCO Division of Physical Heritage.
I am also very much indebted to both my family and to my colleagues in the Department of Arts Policy and Management, City University: without their support and tolerance it would have been impossible to complete a review of this magnitude within such a short timescale.
A list of those who have assisted me is given below, with apologies for any omissions. (In particular, I do not have a full list of the more than twenty Ambassadors and Heads of Mission to UNESCO, or their senior representatives, who assisted at a half-day seminar called by Ambassador Sizoo at the Netherlands Embassy in Paris, in February 1993.)
However, the opinions and conclusions reached are my own, and should not be attributed to any particular person consulted unless he or she is identified by name.

Ed ABLE, Director, American Association of Museums, Washington,D.C., U.S.A.
Ms Annette ANDERSSON, Department of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations.
Professor Charles ARNOLD-BAKER, Barrister-at-Law, City University, London, United Kingdom.
Sra Lucia ASTUDILLO, Organisacion regional para America Latina y El Caribe, Cuenca, Equador.
Mrs Agnes Grafin BALLESTEM, Director, Netherlands Central Laboratory for Research of Art and Scientific Objects, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Mr Ian D. BAXTER, Department of National Heritage, London, United Kingdom.
Dr Geoff R. BERRIDGE, Reader, Department of Politics, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.
ms Helen BETTINSON, Producer - Television Documentaries, BBC, London, England.
Mr Adriaan BOS, Chief Legal Adviser, and Dr Gerard Tanja, Deputy Legal Adviser, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague, Netherlands.
M. Mounir BOUCHENAKI, Director, Division of Physical Heritage, UNESCO, Paris, France.
Mr Dinu BUMBARU, Director of Programmes, Héritage Montréal, and Secretary, ICOMOS Canada, Montreal, Canada.
Ms Susan CASY-LEFKOWITZ, Legal Officer, Commission on Environmental Law, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Bonn, Germany.
Dr Peter CANNON-BROOKES, Editor, International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.

Ms Consuleo Valdés CHADWICK, Fundacion Andes, Santiago de Chile.
Ms Sylvia CHURGIN, Librarian, Museum Reference Center, Office of Museum Programs, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA.
Mr Lorne CLARK, World Travel and Tourism Council, Brussels, Belgium.
Mr Edward R. CUMMINGS, Assistant Legal Adviser, Politico-Legal Affairs, US Department of State

Washington D.C. USA.


Dr Hiroshi DAIFUKU, US - ICOMOS (Formerly Head of Monuments and Museums Division, UNESCO), Washington D.C., USA.
Mrs Marta DE LA TORRE, Director, Training Program, Getty Conservation Institute, Marina Del Rey, Los Angeles, USA.
Univ. Doz. Dr. Günter DEMSBSKI, Kunsthistorrisches Museum, Vienna, Austria.
Dr Ahmed DERRADJI, Permanent Delegate of ALSECO to UNESCO, Paris, France.
Mme Elisabeth DES PORTES, Secretary-General, International Council of Museums (ICOM), Paris, France.
Norman S. DICKERSON, U.K. Association of Chief Fire Officers and Chief Officer, Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service, Leicester, England.
Ms Mary DINES, Administrator, Department of Arts Policy and Management, City University, London, United Kingdom.
Dr Richard P. DOBER, Dober, Lidsky, Craig Associates Inc., Belmont, MA., U.S.A
Ms Louise DOSWALD-BECK, Barrister-at-Law, Legal Division, International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland.
Prof. Miléna DRAGICOVIC-SECIC, Faculty of Drama, New Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
Mr J. EVENBLIJ, Cultural Protection Officer, Cultural Heritage Directorate, Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, Rijswijk, The Netherlands.
Mrs Erin FAHERTY-MELLA, Executive Radio Producer, Office of Public Information, UNESCO, Paris, France.
Mr Wilbur FALK, Director of Security, The Getty Foundation, Malibu, California, U.S.A.
M. Bruno FAVEL, Chargé de Mission, Département des Affaires Internationales (Culture), Ministère de l'Education et de la Culture, Paris, France.
Ms Arlene K. FLEMING, Independent Cultural Resource Management Consultant, Great Falls, Virginia, U.S.A
Dr Michael A. FOPP, President, International Association of Transport Museums, Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon, London, United Kingdom.
Ms Nancy FULLER, Office of Museum Programs, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA.
Dr Amareswar GALLA, Director, Cultural Heritage Management Program, University of Canberra, Belconnen, A.C.T., Australia.
Mrs. Drs. Sabine GIMBRERE, Deputy Head of the Division of Multilateral Co-operation, Cultural Policy Department, Netherlands Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Mr Christopher GRAYSON, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France.
Teunis HALFF, Legal Counsellor, Netherlands Mission to United Nations, New York, U.S.A.
Mr Henrik Jarl HANSEN, National Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Ms Margaret HARVEY, Frobisher Crescent Branch Librarian, City University, London, United Kingdom.
Mr HOFFMAN, Cultural Protection Officer, Province of Zuid-Holland, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Dr Robert HOFFMAN, Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, & Chair, AAM/ICOM, Washington D.C., USA.
Mr Joachim HÜTTER, Peacekeeping Division, United Nations, New York, U.S.A.
Mme Giselle HYVERT, Project Officer, Dubrovnik Campaign, Division of Physical Heritage, UNESCO.
Mr Jack JONES, Emergency Aid Department, Overseas Development Adminstration, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London, United Kingdom.
Dr Colin KAISER, Cultural Consultant to the Council of Europe (former Director-General, ICOMOS), Paris, France.
Russell KLEINE, Deputy Director, United States National Committee of ICOMOS/World Monuments Fund, Washington, D.C., USA.
Drs Ben KOEVOETS, President, ICOM Netherlands, & PTT Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Mr Jan KOCK, Dansk ICOM & Aalborg Historiske Museum, Aalborg, Denmark.
M. Robert LECAT, Inspecteur Général de l'Administration (Culture), Ministère de l'Education et de la Culture, Paris, France.
Mr David LISTON, International Committee for Museum Security of ICOM (ICMS) & Office of Protection Services, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA.
Dr G.C. LODDER, Director, Cultural Heritage Directorate, Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, Rijswijk, The Netherlands.
Mr Michael LOFTHOUSE, Senior Assistant, Frobisher Crescent Branch Library, City University, London, United Kingdom.
Mr Morten LUNDBAEK, Statens Museumsnaeven, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Prof. Dr. Ivo MAROEVIC, Professor of Museology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
Mr Charles A. McCONNEY, Attorney-at-Law, Los Angeles, USA.
Mr Michael A. MEYER, Head of International Law, British Red Cross, London, United Kingdom.
Mr Gregor MODER, President, ICOM National Committee of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Dr Alexander Borg OLIVIER, Principal Officer, Department of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations.
Mr Gustavo OSPINA LOPEZ, Director, UNESCO Liaison Office with the United Nations, New York, USA.
Mr H.G. OOST, Rijksarchiefdienst (Central State Archive Repository), The Hague, The Netherlands.
Dr Jorge ORTIZ ESCOBAR, Director nacional, Insituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural del Equador, Quito, Ecuador.
Mr W. Hays PARKS, Speial Assistant for Law of War Matters, Office of Judge Advocate General, Department of the Army, The Pentagon, Washington D.C., USA.
Prof. Dr.Jur. Josef PARTSCH, Professor Emeritus, University of Bonn, Ingelheim, Germany.
Mme Denise PELLISIER, UNESCO, Paris, France.
M. Jacques PEROT, Musée de l'Armée, Paris, France.
Dr Dieter PESCH, Rheinisches Freilichtmuseum, Kommern, Germany.
Mr Jelka PIRKOVIC, Director, Solenian Institute for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Culture, Republic of Slovenia, Ljunljana, Slovenia.
Ms Marja-Liisa POHJANVIRTA, Finnish National Committee of ICOM, Helsinki, Finland.
Mrs Anne RAIDL, former Head of Department of Physical Heritage, UNESCO, Paris, France.
Mr Robert RAWLINSON, Fire, Rescue and Disaster Planning Consultant, Hungarton, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
Mr Andrew ROBERTS, Chair, International Documentation Committee (CIDOC), Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Ms Barbara O. ROBERTS, Museum Consultant, Seattle, USA.
Prof. Dr. Adrezej ROTTERMUND, President ICOM Poland, Warsaw, Poland.
Mrs Felice STA. MARIA, Commissioner for Cultural Heritage, Republic of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines.
Ms L. SCHAUDINN Director, International Organisations Division, UNESCO, Paris, France.
Reserve Lt. Col. (Ir.). P.M.C. SCHEERS, Cultural Protection Officer, The Netherlands & Buro voor Riumtelijke, Ordening en Architectur, Neunen, The Netherlands.
Mr G. Thoe SCHWARZENBERG, Head of General Services and Security, the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Ms Jane SIENA, Director, Training Program, Getty Conservation Institute, Marina Del Rey, Los Angeles, USA.
His Excellency Dr Johannes SIZOO, Ambassador and Permanent Delegate to UNESCO for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Paris.
Ms Lise H. SKJØTH, Folkevirke, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
Ms Jane SLEDGE, Chief, UNESCO/ICOM Museum Information Centre, Paris.
Dr Jana SOUCKOVA, President, Czechoslovak Committee of ICOM, Náprstek Museum, Praha, Czeck Republic.
Dr Gerard TANJA, Deputy Legal Adviser, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague.

Dr Safwan TELL, Director General, Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
Ms Nancy Howell TYNER, Getty Conservation Institute Library, Marina del Rey, Los Angeles.
Mr Leo VAN NISPEN, Director-General, ICOMOS, Paris.
M. Hugues de VARINE, Museums and Culture Consultant, Paris and Lusigny, France.
Ms Helen WECHSLER, International Department, American Association of Museums, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
Dr Marian WENZEL, Bosnia Herzegovina Heritage Rescue & Courtauld Institute, London, United Kingdom.
Mr Ben WHITAKER, Director, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation UK, London, United Kingdom.
Dr Marilou WOOD, Director, International Department, American Association of Museums, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
Lt. Col. E.J. WOESSINK, Legal Adviser, National Territoriaal Commandant (N.T.C.), Netherlands Army.
Mr Ameur ZEMMALI, Legal Division, International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland.

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1 87,500 out of 93,000 buildings in the City were destroyed or damaged, though this appalling toll is almost totally unknown outside the City, since the wartime censors banned the use of the City's name, allowing only reports of `air raids on a North East Coast Town'.

2 See for example the views of the United States Department of Defense in its submission to Congress of 19 January 1993 - Appen­dix VIII of this Report.

3 Although the relevant Nuremberg War Crimes trials, particularly that of Rosenberg, appeared on the surface to focus on issues of ownership, and hence might be regarded as relating to property law or private international law, the fact that the actions were brought as war crimes under customary law as expressed in, for example, the Hague Conventions placed the issue beyond doubt. Most recently this position has been re-affirmed by the United Nations Commission of Experts investigating alleged war crimes in ex-Yugoslavia, (U.N. Doc. S/25274 dated 26 January 1993, p. 13) and by senior United Nations officials in interviews on 24 February 1993.

4 Though there are now good grounds for regarding as established Customary International Lawthe principle that cultural property must be protected in times of armed conflict, (see for example the views of the United States of America Department of Defense in its submission to Congress, 19 January 1993 -Appendix VIII of this Report), formal ratification or accession and legislative implementation of the 1954 Hague Convention and Protocol at the national level is clearly desirable, if only for the avoidance of doubt on its applicability.

5 The only major cultural complex currently on the list of five sites granted `Special Protection' under Chapter II of the 1954 Conven­tion is the Vatican City: the others are all temporary refuges or war-time evacuation shelters. It must be recognised that may World Heritage List cultural sites may not be eligible for `Special protection' because the Contracting Party concerned finds it impossible or impracticable to meet the conditions of the Conven­tion because of their proximity to actual or potential legitimate military targets.

6 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948.

7 Noblecourt, 1954 & 1958: see also paras. 5.6 - 5.9 of this Report.

8 A non-exhaustive list of organisations which should be involved is given in the suggested composition of the proposed UNESCO Intergovernmental Advis­ory Commit­tee on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict - see Appendix X.

9 The UNESCO Radio tape service programme giving information on the 1991-92 bombardment of the World Heritage List city of Dubrovnik was an excellent example of what could be done in this respect.

10 Regulations adopted at the 14th, 18th and 25th sessions of the UNESCO General Conference, (UNESCO Basic Texts, 1992, pp.120 - 122.

11 UNESCO, 1972. Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Chapter III, Articles 8 - 10.

12 Washington Pact of 15 April 1935 for the Protection of Art­istic and Scientific Institutions and of Historic Monuments (Roerich Pact).

13 UNESCO 1990. Third Medium-Term Plan (1990-1995) [25 C/4 Approved] (UNESCO, Paris).

14 United Nations, 1990: particularly Articles 34 and 39 respectively; Boutros-Ghali, 1992 pp. 13 - 22.

15 Under Security Council Resolution 808 of February 1993.

16 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities (General Assembly Resolution 47/135, dated 18 December 1992).

17 United Nations, 1990, (Doc. DPI/511).

18 See the comparison of definitions used in various UNESCO and other texts in Appendix VI.

19 Though there is of course always the possibility of recourse to the International Court of Justice in accordance with Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter.

20 In the case of disputes between States Parties to the Convention who are also parties to the 1977 Geneva Protocols there is also the possibility of organising mediation through the International Committee of the Red Cross.

21 This summary is based on agreed terms and contracts for the study.

22 See in particular para. 9.24 below.

23 Nahlik, 1988, pp. 203 - 204, which has brief references to some very interesting early examples of the argument that belliger­ents should respect and protect works of art, including the proposals of the Polish jurist, Jacob Przyluski (1553), the German jurist Justin Gentilis (1690) and Emer de Vattel in 1758, together with references to provisions for the restitution of looted cultural property as a common feature of peace treaties from the end of the Thirty Years War (Peace of Westphalia, 1648) onwards.

24 Nahlik, 1967.

25 Government of the Netherlands, 1961.

26 I was privileged to have access to Dr Toman's text in advance of publication during my period working in UNESCO: the French edition is due to be published in late 1993, and it is hoped that an English translation will follow in 1994.

27 Good reviews with many cases detailed are Wilhelm Treue's Kunstraub (English translation: Treue, 1960) and Chamberlin's Loot, 1973.

28 Treue, 1960, pp. 32 - 40; Chamberlin, 1983, pp. 139 - 141.

29 Treue, 1960, pp.195 - 198.

30 See for example Treue, 1960, Chamberlin, 1983.

31 Article 247, which also required the return of Dirk Bouts' Last Supper to the Church of St Peter in Louvain and reparations in respect of the destruction of the Louvain University Library.

32 See Boylan, 1992.

33 Case of the Vessel Marquis de Somereuils, 1812: Stewart's Vice-Admiralty Reports for Nova Scotia, 1803 - 1813, p.482: cited by Bassiouni, 1983, p. 288, note 19.

34 For a detailed history and analysis see in particular the study by Quincy Wright, `Francis Lieber's Code for Land Warfare', (Wright, 1971).

35 Von Clausewitz, 1968, pp. 374 - 375.

36 Lieber Code Articles 35 - 36: see Wright, 1971, pp. 64 - 66.

37 Quoted by Merryman 1986, pp. 833 - 834.

38 Lieber Code Article 44, see Wright, 1971, p. 69.

39 Quoted in Merryman, 1986, p. 834.

40 Oxford Manual, 1880.

41 Article 27 of Hague, 1899.

42 International Committee of the Red Cross, 1989, pp. 25; 30.

43 Rules of Air Warfare, drafted by a Commission of Jurists at the Hague, December 1922 - February 1923. International Committee of the Red Cross, 1989, pp. 127 - 139.

44 I am greatly indebted to Charles E. McConney of Los Angeles for sharing with me his research on Roerich and his work in advance of his planned future publication. Other recent sources are two short articles: Elbinger, 1990 and Brenner, 1990.

45 Elbinger, 1990, p. 17.

46 Schneider, 1935, p. 31

47 Treaty on the protection of artistic and scientific institutions and historic monuments (Roerich Pact), Washington, 15 April 1935: International Committee of the Red Cross, 1989, pp. 31 - 32.

48 Discussed in some detail at pp. 128 - 132 in the substantial study on the `International Legal Aspects of the Spanish Civil War' of Thomas & Thomas (1971); see also Alvarez Lopes, 1982 and Catalonia, 1937.

49 Office International des Musées, 1939, p. 177 (author's transla­tion).

50 Office International des Musées, 1939, pp. 180 - 201.

51 Draft Convention, Article 1.

52 Draft Convention, Article 4.

53 Draft Convention, Article 5.

54 Draft Convention, Article 6.

55 Draft Convention, Articles 7 - 10.

56 Draft Regulations 1 - 7.

57 Draft Regulations, Articles 8 - 10.

58 Draft Regulations, Article 12.

59 See for example Museums Journal, (1938), British Museum, (1939), Netherlands Government, 1939.

60 Office International des Musées, 1939, p. 222. (The quotations in this and the next four notes are the author's translations from the French versions).

61 Quoted in Office International des Musées, 1939, p. 223.

62 Office International des Musées, 1939, p. 222 - 223.

63 Office International des Musées, 1939, p. 225 - 226.

64 Office International des Musées, 1939, pp. 225 - 226.

65 Office International des Musées, 1939.

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