More than 100 objects of exceptional cultural historical value. These are known as the Top 100 (see page 15) and all bear the blue and white shield, the international insignia introduced in the Hague Treaty.
Objects of importance to the national cultural heritage. These also bear the blue and white shield.
The remaining buildings on the national Register of Protected Monuments and Historic Buildings.
Other objects of cultural value
Objects of exceptional cultural historical value housed in public and private collections in museums, castles, archives, libraries, etc.
Objects designated under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act (Bulletin of Acts, Orders and Decrees 1984, 49).
Objects designated as being of exceptional cultural value, pursuant to the State Arts Collections Decree (Government Gazette 1985, 34).
Objects designated by the Head of the Netherlands Office for Fine Arts.
Cultural goods which are theoretically "movable" but which are considered "immovable" due to their location or use, designated by the Head of the Department for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Buildings and/or the Head of the Netherlands Office of Fine Arts.
4. DANGERS TO BE PROTECTED AGAINST
The ICB takes the following threats into account in implementing protective measures:
chemical damage (for example, as a result of natural disasters)
heat, fire, smoke
the effects of air pressure
This list is incomplete but does give some idea of the kind of threats the Inspectorate has to be prepared for. The above sequence is roughly in ascending order of severity, but this can by no means to be used as a yardstick. Damage caused by a knife, for example, can be more serious than the effects of a bomb explosion some distance away.
Many of these dangers can arise under normal circumstances; preventive and remedial measures may frequently coincide. For example, in the cases of fire, water or fallen masonry, steps taken to provide for emergencies are frequently useful as normal preventive measures.
The work of the ICB is carried out largely in the grey area between normal preventive tactics and supplementary measures for emergencies. It advises the owners of cultural monuments on how to protect their property from such hazards.
5. PROTECTIVE MEASURES: WHEN AND HOW
The ICB's responsibilities relate to two completely different situations normal and emergencies.
Under normal circumstances, the Inspectorate has a preventive function. The main task of the inspectors is to provide for possible emergencies.
These include emergency situations and disasters, as well as threats arising during periods of international tension. The inspectors are then authorised to take any measures they consider necessary, in consultation with owners and the authorities concerned, to protect the property in question. Generally speaking, it can be assumed that during emergencies measures are taken to limit damage as much as possible.
Owners and managers of cultural property should, of course, also provide for such eventualities themselves. The ICB provides support in the from of advice and incentives and by implementing measures itself.
Once an emergency situation has arisen, there is clearly no time for measures to be prepared. Emergency measures should therefore be drawn up as far as possible under normal circumstances, so that they can be implemented by regional inspectors in the event of a disaster.
Measures for the protection of cultural property can be divided into two categories organisational and practical measures.
It is up to the cultural preservation inspectors to consult with the relevant organisations, to outline the interests involved in protecting the cultural property concerned and to explain the workings of the ICB. They are also responsible for ensuring that relevant information on the ICB and on objects of cultural value is included in emergency plans.
It is important to encourage the fire services, which are responsible for coordinating emergency action, to include the data on the ICB and cultural objects in their own information systems so that they can respond adequately in emergencies.
The ICB promotes and supervises the documentation of cultural objects in the form of technical and architect's drawings, photogrammetry, photography and written descriptions, and the placing of these documents in safe storage.
In the field of fire prevention, the ICB encourages the drawing up of 'plans of action' for fire services containing relevant information on the object concerned, the ICB and, more importantly, which sections of the object should be given special attention in the event of fire.
In addition the ICB promotes the drawing up of evacuation plans for the most important registered buildings. These plans should also include descriptions of all parts of the object requiring special protection.
The general inspectors provide instructions on how best to protect stained glass windows, bells and carillons, organs and other objects of cultural value.
Via the Inspectorate, WVC makes a number of `pilot light' agreements with third parties to ensure that sufficient help will be available in emergencies for the ICB to implement the necessary measures.
The ICB also gives advice on the inclusion of measures in restoration plans to protect objects or valuable parts of them. Subsidies are available from WVC for the implementation of these supplementary measures.
Practical measures can be divided into two categories preventive and operational measures.
The ICB promotes the setting up of storage space for valuable objects on site by investigating for each object whether storage can be arranged, if necessary by taking extra measures.
On site storage space must provide relatively good protection from earth tremors, falling masonry, explosions, heat, water from fire fighting activities and rising groundwater. In short, it should be adequate to cope with a large number of the hazards listed above.
The Inspectorate encourages the instalment of smoke detectors, with an automatic connection to the fire service.
Building regulations, of course, also require the presence of fire extinguishers. Dry standpipes may also be installed to facilitate fire fighting on upper floors.
There must be a sufficient source of water available for fire fighting purposes in the immediate vicinity of the object.
The ICB promotes the distribution of information on action to be taken in the event of fire. To prevent fires spreading, it is important to act quickly to extinguish them in the early stages. Owners and managers of cultural property should therefore be given basic training in fire fighting techniques. After all, speed is of the essence!
The Inspectorate develops protective structures to safeguard objects that cannot be stored on site. Materials are reserved for this in consultation with WVC. The possibility of installing permanent structures is considered, for example, to protect vulnerable objects against water or projectiles.
Burglary prevention is also something that the Inspectorate, as well as owners and managers, must take into account. The primary requirement is that the object can be adequately locked up. Measures to ensure this must comply at least with the *** classification, with extra steel plating, iron bars, etc., if necessary.
As is clear from the above
, the cultural protection inspectors are authorised to take or instigate any measures they consider necessary on their own initiative, in consultation with local authorities.
The inspectors are responsible for the implementation of protective measures, provided, of course, that no other party has been given this responsibility by the owner of the property. Inspectors should also help organise the transport of cultural objects to national and other storage areas, if this is necessary.
The ICB promotes and supervises the on site storage and protection of objects that cannot be moved elsewhere. This may mean enlisting the help of third parties in relation to either manpower or materials under the 'pilot light' agreements.
Third parties may likewise be called in if the circumstances call for supplementary measures over and above the preventive measures already implemented.
The Inspectorate can provide advice on fire fighting activities to ensure that objects suffer as little damage as possible. The fire services will, of course, need to guarantee the safety of persons and animals, and then of the area around the fire, before attention can be given to the object. It is up to the regional inspectors to inform the fire services of the instructions in the above mentioned 'plans of action'.
In the event of an emergency, an official of the Building and Housing Inspection Department will advise the fire service on action to be taken if there is a danger of the structure collapsing. The regional inspector must be involved in these consultations and should insist on measures being taken to keep damage done to the culturally important parts of the buildings to an absolute minimum.
Finally, the ICB will provide owners and managers of cultural property with as much help as possible in emergencies, taking into account the Inspectorate's capacity and priorities. If the owner is unable to take action himself, the regional inspector may take any measures he considers necessary.
In principle, the activities of the Inspectorate are carried out free of charge. If measures have to be taken under circumstances that cannot be considered emergencies, the costs have to be borne by the owner of the property. Limited subsidies are available from WVC for supplementary preventive measures.
8. `TOP 100' LISTED BUILDINGS
Province Building Place
(left untranslated where advisable)
ZE St Bavo's Aardenburg
UT Castle Amerongen
NH Deutzenhofje Amsterdam
NH Stock Exchange, Damrak Amsterdam
NH Main Post Office Amsterdam
NH Hotel American Amsterdam
NH Keizersgracht 123 Amsterdam
NH Royal Palace Amsterdam
NH Maritime House Amsterdam
NH Spaarndammer Plantsoen Amsterdam
NH Trippenhuis Amsterdam
NH Amstelkring Museum Amsterdam
NH Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
NH Oude Kerk Amsterdam
NH Portuguese Synagogue Amsterdam
GE Het Loo Palace Apeldoorn
GR Reformed church Appingedam
GE De Schaffelaar estate Barneveld
ZH Tussenlanen 11 13, farmhouse Bergambacht
NB Markiezenhof Bergen op Zoom
NB Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk Breda
NB Royal Military Academy Breda
LI Korthauserstraat 5 Cottessen
GE Middachten Castle De Steeg
OV Twickel Castle Delden
ZH Tomb of William of Orange, Nieuwe Kerk Delft
ZH St Agatha's convent Delft
ZH Agneta Park Delft
OV Church of St Lebuinus Deventer
OV Town Hall Deventer
GE Slangenburg Doetinchem
ZH Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk Dordrecht
LI Eijsden Castle Eijsden
NH Westerkerk Enkhuizen
NH Town Hall Enkhuizen
FR Planetarium Franeker
FR Town Hall Franeker
OV Mastenbrook Steam Pumping
ZH St Jan's Goudse Glazen Gouda
ZH Naaierstraat 6 Gouda
NB Hampoort Grave
NH Trompenburg 's Graveland
ZH Binnenhof, Buitenhof,
Prison Gate The Hague
ZH Passage The Hague
ZH Huis ten Bosch The Hague
ZH Panorama Mesdag The Hague
ZH Nieuwe Kerk The Hague
ZH Old Catholic Church The Hague
ZH St Teresa of Avila's church The Hague
ZH Huis Schuilenburg The Hague
ZH Nirwana (residential flats) The Hague
ZH Papaverhof The Hague
ZH Mauritshuis The Hague
GR Corn Exchange Groningen
LI Tower mill Gronsweld
NH Welgelegen Haarlem
NH Teylers Museum Haarlem
NH Choir stalls and screen, Grote kerk Haarlem
NH De Cruquius Steam Pumping Station Haarlemmermeer
ZH Bisdom van Vliet Museum Haastrecht
LI Oranje Nassau I mining monument Heerlen
NB Cathedral of St Jan 's Hertogenbosch
LI St Gerlach's Houthem
UT Villa Henny Huister Heide
UT Tower of Reformed church IJsselstein
OV Town Hall Kampen
LI Rolduc Abbey Kerkrade
ZH St Annahofje Leiden
ZH De Heesterboom Mill Leiden
ZH Thysiana Library Leiden
FR Ir. Wouda Pumping Station Lemmer
LI Salviuskerkje, former parish church Limbricht
GR Reformed church Leppersum
LI Spaans Gouvernement Maastricht
LI Helpoort Maastricht
LI Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk Maastricht
LI Church of St Servaas Maastricht
LI Town Hall Maastricht
ZE Binnendijk 3, farmhouse Middelburg
ZE Oostkerk Middelburg
NH Middenweg 196, farmhouse Middenbeemster
NB Zandstraat 5, Moergestel
GE St Hubertus Hunting Lodge Otterloo
NB Basilica of SS Agatha and Barbara Oudenbosch
GE De Meesterkok E 96, farmhouse Ratum
ZE Gate, Fort Rammekens Ritthem
LI Munsterkerk Roermond
ZH Van Nelle factory Rotterdam
ZH Justus van Effen buildings Rotterdam
ZH Witte Huis Rotterdam
ZH De Kiefhoek Rotterdam
GE Castle shell gallery Rozendaal
NH Vinkenbaan 14 Santpoort Z
UT Royal Palace Soestdijk
DR Former Rams Woerthe villa Steenwijk
GR Former monastery Ter Apel
LI R.C. church Thorn
UT Dom Utrecht
UT Schröderhuis Utrecht
UT Kerkenkruis Utrecht
LI De Kruitmolen Valkenburg
LI Railway station Valkenburg
LI Castle ruins Valkenburg
ZE Town Hall Veere
ZH Duivenvoorde Castle Voorschoten
NB Martinuskerk and tower Weert
NH Town Hall Weesp
NH Raadhuis Westzaan
GE Mill Zeddam
ZE Meelstraat 1 Zierikzee
ZE Noord en zuidhavenpoort Zierikzee
GE Old library, church of St
OV Sassenpoort Zwolle
(Provinces of the Netherlands)
NB North Brabant
NH North Holland
ZH South Holland
9. THE `TOP 10' OBJECTS OF CULTURAL INTEREST (OTHER THAN BUILDINGS)
(left untranslated where advisable)
Stained glass windows
Object Place Remarks
St Jan's church Gouda made by Crabeth et al, begun in 1555
Church of St Edam made by Isaac Nicolay et al
Nicolaas begun in 1606
Dutch Reformed Oudshoorn made between 1661 and 1671
Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam lower section in northern transept, made by J. van Bronckhorst in 1650
Oude Kerk Amsterdam made by Crabeth and Lambeth van Noort, circa 1560
Sint Annahof Leiden makers unknown, circa 1500
Dutch Reformed Schermerhorn made by Pieter Holsteyn, church 1631 1636
Reformed church Oudega made by Ype Staak and Jurjen (Friesland) Staak in 1717
Rams Woerthe Steenwijk made by A. le Comte circa (former villa) 1920
Maritime Museum Amsterdam made by W. Bogtman circa 1916
Object Place Remarks
Reformed church Usquert cast by Herman(nus) in 1405, Ø 140 cm
Reformed church Zandeweer cast by H. Kokenbakker in 1467,
Ø 107 cm
Reformed church Oudega cast in 15th century (caster unknown), Ø 99 cm
Reformed church Hattem cast by Gert Klinge in 1455, Ø 130 cm
Buurkerk Utrecht cast by Steven Butendiic in 1471,
Ø 166 cm
Zuiderkerk tower Amsterdam cast by Willem and Jasper Moer in 1511, Ø 170 cm
Oude Kerk Delft cast by C. Noorden and J.A. Grave in 1719, Ø 149.3 cm
cast by H. van Trier in 1570, Ø 230 cm
Reformed church Schoonhoven cast by Gregorius in 1416, Ø 124.5 cm
H. Catherinakerk Buchten cast in 12th century (caster unknown), Ø 45.5 cm. Probably the oldest church bell in the Netherlands.
Clocks and chimes
Object Place Remarks
Reformed church Schildwolde tower clock with cast iron mechanism, 1598
Reformed church Poppingawier tower clock with cast iron mechanism, 16th century
Nieuwe toren Kampen chiming clock, made by M. Hansen in 1661; drum by F. Hemony, 1661
Reformed church Dodewaard tower clock with cast iron mechanism, made by Goslinck and Hendrik Ruempol in 1754
Speeltoren Monnickendam tower with chiming clock and moving figures, made by Roeloff Othszn. in 1595
Reformed church Winkel tower clock with cast iron mechanism, 15th century
Reformed church Zoeterwoude clock with cast iron mechanism, made by Dirk de Graaf in 1722
Town Hall Tholen chiming clock, made by Hendrik Arnouts in 1590
Town Hall Sluis `Jantje van Sluis', carved wooden figure with 4 small bells, made circa 1423
Town Hall 's Hertogen chiming clock with moving
bosch figures, made by Juriaan Sprakel in 1651
Former Dinghuis Maastricht clock with cast iron mechanism, 17th century
Object Place Remarks
Grote Kerk Alkmaar great organ, designed by Jacob van Campen and built by G. van Hagerbeer in 1643; choir organ, made by J. van Covelen in 1511
Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam organ with Hauptwerk, Rückpositiv and separate pedal department, built by H.W. Schonat in 1652; upper manual by J. van Hagerbeer added in 1668
Reformed church Baarland organ with main and auxiliary manual made by J.J. Moreau circa 1760
Martinikerk Groningen 15th century organ with three manuals; modified in 1542; pedal department by A. Schnitger added in 1692; new Rückpositiv by F.C. Schnitger and A.A. Hinsz added in 1730
R.C. church Gronsveld organ with Grand Orgue, Positif and Écho, made by P. le Picard in 1712
Reformed church Hattem organ with single manual, probably made by the Slegel organ builders, 16th century
Church of St Lam Helmond organ originally with Grand
bertus Orgue, Positif, Écho, Récit and attached pedal department, made by G. Robustelly in 1722 for Averbode Abbey
Reformed church Krewerd organ with single manual, dating from 1531 (builder unknown)
Nicolaikerk Utrecht organ with two manuals, made by Peter Gerritsz. between 1477 and 1479; Renaissance style Rückpositiv added in 16th century (now in storage).
1. An Intergovernmental Advisory Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict should be established within UNESCO, constituted initially under Category II (Articles 18 - 20) of the UNESCO Regulations for the general classification of the various categories of meetings convened by UNESCO319. In the longer term the Committee might be re-constituted under specific powers in an updated text of the 1954 Hague Convention and Protocol, or by a new Additional Protocol, in either case incorporating appropriate arrangements for financial contributions from High Contracting Parties to meet the necessary expenses of the Committee and its Secretariat.
To better protect the world's diverse cultural and natural heritage for all humanity and future generations, I believe it is time to create a permanent Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Unit (`M,FA & A Unit') in the U.N. Peace Keeping Forces.
3159 S. Barrington, #A