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et al. “A National Survey of Stress Reactions After the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 20 (November 15, 2001), p. 1507–1512. Cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects” and in Silke, “Terrorism, 9/11 and Psychology,” p. 518.

7 S. Galea, J. Ahern, et al., “Psychological Sequelae of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks in New York City,” New England Journal of Medicine, 346, (2002), p. 982–987. Cited in Silke, “Terrorism, 9/11 and Psychology,” p. 518.

8 RAND testimony, 2002.

9 R. Silver, E. Holman, et al. Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, (2002), p. 1235–1244. Cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects” and in Silke, “Terrorism, 9/11 and Psychology,” p. 518.

10 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 10

11 Felton, C. J. (2002). Project Liberty: A public health response to New Yorkers’ mental health needs arising from the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health, Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 429-433. Cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 10

12 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 10

13 Frank Furedi, “Heroes of the Hour” New Scientist, 8 May, 2004 pg. 19. Cited in Anne Speckhard, “Civil society’s response to mass terrorism: Building resilience.” In Combating Terrorism: Military and Non-Military Strategies, edited by Rohan Gunaratna (Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2005).

14 C. J. Felton, “Project Liberty: A public health response to New Yorkers’ mental health needs arising from the World Trade Center terrorist attacks,” Journal of Urban Health, Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine, 79 (2002), 429-433. Cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 10

15 Schuster et al., 2001, cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 11.

16 Richard J. Mcnally, Richard A. Bryant, And Anke Ehlers, “Does Early Psychological Intervention Promote Recovery from Posttraumatic Stress?” Psychological Science In The Public Interest, Vol. 4, No. 2 (November 2003), p. 1.

17 K. A. Raskinski, J. Berktold, T.W. Smith, and B. L. Albertson, “America Recovers: A Follow-up to a National Study of Public Responses to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks” (NORC: University of Chicago, 2002). Cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 13.

18 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects.” For example, they cite S. Cohen & T. A. Willis, “Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis,” Psychological Bulletin, 98 (1985), 310-357; M. R. Mehl & J. W. Pennebaker, “The Social dynamics of a cultural upheaval Social interactions surrounding September 11, 2001,” Psychological Science, 14 (2003), 579-585; and T. A. Pyszcynski, S. Solomon, & J. Greenberg, “Black Tuesday: The Psychological Impact of 9/11,” in T. Pyszczynski & S. Solomon et al. (eds.), In the Wake of 9/11: The Psychology of Terror (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002), 93-113.

19 American Psychological Association, “Fact Sheet: Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism: For Psychologists Working With Children.” APA Task Force on Resilience in Response to Terrorism, online at: http://www.apa.org/psychologists/pdfs/children.pdf; and American Psychological Association, The Road to Resilience. Online at: http://www.APAHelpCenter.org/resilience.

20 Schuster et al., 2001, cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects.”

21 Schuster et al., 2001, cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects.”

22 M. A. Schuster, B. D. Stein, et al., “After 9/11: Stress and Coping Across America.” Testimony submitted for the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions field hearing on “9/11 and NYC Children,” June 10, 2002 (RAND Document CT-198). Available online at http://www.rand.org. See also, A. Wagner, “Coping,” National Journal 41 (October 31, 2001), p. 3206.

23 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects.” For instance, they cite D. N. McIntosh, R. Cohen Silver, and Camille B. Wortman, “Religion’s role in adjustment to a negative life event: Coping with the loss of a child,” Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, Vol. 65, no. 4 (October 1993), 812-821; and W. Stroebe & M. S. Stroebe, “Determinants of adjustment to bereavement in younger widows and widowers,” in M. S. Stroebe, W. Stroebe, & R. O. Hansson (Eds.), Handbook of Bereavement (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 208-226.

24 Silke, “Terrorism, 9/11 and Psychology,” 2004.

25 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 15

26 CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll, September 11, 2001, cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 15

27 NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll, Sept. 13 2001, cited in Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 16

28 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects,” p. 10; as the authors note, this is in contrast to a society’s response when enduring a sustained terrorism campaign, such as seen in Northern Ireland, Israel, and elsewhere.

29 J. Alfred Broaddus, Jr., “Attack at the Economic Heart of America” (Remarks to the Homeland Security Conference, October 29, 2003), page 3. Available online from the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond at: http://www.richmondfed.org/news_and_speeches/past_presidents_speeches/index.cfm/2003/id=56/pdf=true

30 Broaddus, Jr., “Attack at the Economic Heart of America,” 2003.

31 New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce. 2001. Working Together to Accelerate New York’s Recovery: Economic Impact Analysis of the September 11th Attack on New York City. p. 21.

32 Broaddus, Jr., “Attack at the Economic Heart of America,” 2003.

33 Broaddus, Jr., “Attack at the Economic Heart of America,” 2003.

34 Robert Looney, “Economic Costs to the United States Stemming From the 9/11 Attacks,” Strategic Insight, August 5, 2002.

35 Gail Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment,” Congressional Research Service report #RL31617 (September 27, 2002), Washington, DC.

36 Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11,” 2002.

37 Aaron Steelman, “The Economic Impact of 9-11: Tourism, Retail Industries Slumping,” Richmond Branch of the Federal Reserve System, Winter 2002 report. Online at: http://www.richmondfed.org/publications/economic_research/region_focus/winter_2002/short_takes.cfm

38 Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11,” 2002.

39 Insurance Information Institute, New York, NY: October 21, 2002. Cited in Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11,” 2002, page 2.

40 Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11,” 2002. See also, Broaddus, Jr., “Attack at the Economic Heart of America,” 2003.

41 Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11,” 2002.

42 Broaddus, Jr., “Attack at the Economic Heart of America,” 2003.

43 Broaddus, Jr., “Attack at the Economic Heart of America,” 20003.

44 Erica Chenoweth, “Vulnerabilities and Resilience in America’s Financial Services,” in Homeland Security: Protecting America’s Targets (Volume 3: Critical Infrastructure), edited by James J.F. Forest (Praeger Security International, 2006).

45 Andrew Chen and Thomas Siems, “The Effects of Terrorism on Global Capital Markets,” European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 20 (2004), p. 356-7.

46 Chenoweth, “Vulnerabilities and Resilience,” 2006.

47 Chen and Siems, “The Effects of Terrorism,” 2004.

48 Chen and Siems, “The Effects of Terrorism,” p. 363.

49 Looney, “Economic Costs to the United States,” 2002.

50 Irwin Garfinkel, Neeraj Kaushal, Julien Teitler, and Sandra Garcia, “Vulnerability and Resilience: New Yorkers Respond to 9/11,” Social Indicators Survey Center, Columbia University School of Social Work, July 2004, p. 4.

51 Robert Hutchings (Chairman, National Intelligence Council), “Terrorism And Economic Security,” Remarks provided at the International Security Management Association, Scottsdale, Arizona, 14 January 2004

52 Looney, “Economic Costs to the United States,” 2002.

53 Looney, “Economic Costs to the United States,” 2002.

54 Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11,” 2002, page 2.

55 Hutchings, “Terrorism And Economic Security,” 2004.

56 Makinen, “The Economic Effects of 9/11,” 2002, page 2.

57 The following section is excerpted from the introductory chapter of Homeland Security: Protecting America’s Targets (Volume 2: Protecting America’s Public Spaces and Social Institutions), edited by James J.F. Forest (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006). It has been revised for this essay.

58 Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Cited in APA Fact Sheet, “Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism,” American Psychological Association

59 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects.”

60 American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism: For Psychologists Working With Children. Online at: http://www.apa.org/psychologists/pdfs/children.pdf. For example, see V. E. O'Leary (1998). Strength in the face of adversity: Individual and social thriving. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 425-446; V. E. O'Leary & J. R. Ickovics (1995). Resilience and thriving in response to challenge: An opportunity for a paradigm shift in women's health. Women's Health: Research on Gender, Behavior, and Policy, 1, 121-142; and M. Rutter (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316-331.

61 American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism. See also: American Psychological Association, “Resilience Factors and Strategies,” in The Road to Resilience. (Washington, DC: APA, 2002). Online at: http://www.apahelpcenter.org/featuredtopics/feature.php?id=6&ch=3

62 See C. S. Carver & M. F. Scheier, Dispositional optimism, coping and stress. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York (August, 1987); and A. Lazarus & S. Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping (New York: Springer, 1984).

63 See Albert Bandura, “Self-efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency,” American Psychologist 37, (1982), 747-755.

64 See D. Meichenbaum, Stress Inoculation Training (New York: Pergamon Press, 1985).

65 See W. S. Silverman & A. M. La Greca, “Children experiencing disasters: Definitions, reactions, and predictors of outcomes,” in A. M. La Greca, W. S. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping Children Cope with Disasters and Terrorism (pp. 11-33) (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002); and W. Yule, O. Udwin & D. Bolton, Mass transportation disasters. In A. M. La Greca, W. K. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism (pp. 223-240) (Washington, DC: APA Books, 2002).

66 S. Sagy & N. Dotan, “Coping resources of maltreated children in the family: A salutogenic approach. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25, (2001), 1463-1480.

67 See R.H. Gurwitch, K.A. Sitterle, B.H. Young & B. Pfefferbaum. The aftermath of terrorism. In A. M. La Greca, W. S. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism (pp. 327-358) (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002); and J.A. Lyons. (1987). Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: A review of the literature. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 8, 349-356.

68 Brandon and Silke, citing S.C. Kobasa, S.R. Maddi & S. Kahn, “Hardiness and Health: A Prospective Study,” Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 42 (1982), 168-177; and A.G. Greenwald, “The Totalitarian Ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history,” American Psychologist, 35 (1980), 603-618.

69 S.C. Kobasa, “Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37, (1979), 1-11. Cited in American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism.

70 D.J. Wiebe, “Hardiness and Stress Moderation: A test of proposed mechanisms,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60, (1991), 89-99. Cited in American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism.

71 American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism: For Psychologists Working With Children. Online at: http://www.apa.org/psychologists/pdfs/children.pdf

72 American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism.

73 Tom Glass & M. Schoch-Spana, “Bioterrorism and the People: How to Vaccinate a City against Panic,” in Homeland Security and Terrorism: Readings and Interpretations, edited by Russ Howard, James Forest and Joanne Moore (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).

74 American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism.

75 “Kentucky is first state to complete security requirement,” Cincinnati Business Courier (Ohio), 16 August 2005. Online at: http://www.bizjournals.com/cincinnati/stories/2005/08/15/daily11.html

76 “Video game prepares health workers for disasters,” University of Illinois Press Release, 27 October 2005. Online at: http://tigger.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/newsbureau

77 “Responders participate in Mock Disaster Drill,” The Daily Herald (Salt Lake City, Utah), 15 April 2005.

78 “Oregon county to stage mass inoculation exercise,” News-Register (Eugene, Oregon), 29 October 2005. Online at: http://www.newsregister.com/news/story.cfm?story_no=200111

79 “South Carolina table-top drill includes stadium explosion,” Anderson Independent-Mail (South Carolina), 12 July 2005. Online at: http://www.independentmail.com/and/news/article/0,1886,AND_8203_3945098,00.html.

80 “Terror drill in Nevada focuses on mall bombings,” KLAS−TV (Nevada), 7 October 2005. Online at: http://www.klas−tv.com/Global/story.asp?S=3951638

81 “Agencies simulate terrorist attack at South Carolina racetrack,” Morning News Online (South Carolina), 8 October 2005. Online at: http://www.morningnewsonline.com.

82 “Emergency Preparedness Drill in Virginia,” WTKR News (Virginia), 25 October 2005. Online at: http://www.wtkr.com/Global/story.asp?S=4023913&nav=ZolHbyvj

83 “Chemical Leak Drill Tests First Responders,” WTKR News (Virginia), 26 October 2005. Online at: http://www.wtkr.com/Global/story.asp?S=4026906&nav=ZolHbyvj

84 “FEMA drill tests Kentucky county’s preparedness,” Advocate Messenger (Kentucky), 27 October 2005. Online at: http://www.amnews.com/public_html/?module=displaystory&story_id=17242&format=html

85 “School district prepares for emergency,” Post-Tribune (Indiana), 28 October 2005. Online at: http://www.post−trib.com/cgi−bin/pto−story/news/z1/10−28−05_ z1_news_12.html

86 “Middle school tests disaster readiness of school district and local agencies,” Marshall Democrat-News (Missouri), 31 October 2005. Online at: http://www.marshallnews.com/story/1124226.html

87 “Class Will Train for Disaster Situation,” The Ledger (Polk City, Florida), 6 August 2005.

88 The CERT Training website address is: http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/ (accessed 14 March, 2006)

89 “Overview of CERT Training,” Online at: http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/ (accessed 14 March, 2006)

90 A Directory of Community Emergency Response Team Programs by State is online at: http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/ (accessed 14 March, 2006)

91 “Video game prepares health workers for disasters,” University of Illinois Press Release, 27 October 2005. Online at: http://tigger.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/newsbureau

92 “Video game prepares health workers for disasters.”

93 “Computers simulate terrorism’s extremes,” Washington Post, 4 July 2005. Online at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp−dyn/content/article/2005/07/03/AR2005070300880.html?sub=AR

94 “Computers simulate terrorism’s extremes.”

95 “Officials urge Iowa residents to prepare for disasters,” Sioux City Journal (Iowa), 11 August 2005. Online at: http://www.siouxcityjournal.com/articles/2005/08/11/news/iowa/448b51ac59b144598625705a000bd3b8.txt

96 “About Ready.gov,” online at: http://www.ready.gov/america/about.html

97 “Thousands in Florida county expected to sign up for new emergency alert notification system,” News-Journal Online (Florida County, FL), 22 August 2005. Online at: http://www.news−journalonline.com/NewsJournalOnline/News/Flagler/03FlaglerFLAG01082205.htm. See the Flagler Alert website at: http://flagleralert.com

98 “National capital area first responders deploy new alert system,” Washington Technology, 21 September 2005. Online at: http://www.washingtontechnology.com/news/1_1/daily_news/2701 3−1.html

99 “Ten towers installed for countywide safety network in Ohio,” Lancaster Eagle-Gazette (Ohio), 13 August 2005. Online at: http://www.lancastereaglegazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050813/NEWS01/508130311/1002

100 “Security network nearing completion in Colorado,” The Pueblo Chieftain (Colorado), 16 August 2005. Online at: http://www.chieftain.com/metro/1124200807/2

101 “Emergency network will allow statewide communication among first responders,” Morning News (Arkansas), 30 October 2005. Online at: http://www.nwaonline.net/articles/2005/10/30/front/01prepare.txt

102 “Stamford gets emergency alert tool,” Stamford Advocate (Connecticut), 29 October 2005. Online at: http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/business/scn−sa−emergencyoct29,0,3626530. Program information is available online at: http://www.businessfairfield.com.

103 “Mid-Atlantic states form regional hazard response consortium,” Insurance Journal, 25 October 2005. See the All Hazards Consortium website at: http://www.allhazardsforum.com

104 Available online at: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/911/index.html.

105 The Citizen Corps website address is: http://www.citizencorps.gov (accessed 2 April, 2006)

106 Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000).

107 American Psychological Association, Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism; and American Psychological Association, The Road to Resilience. Online at: http://www.APAHelpCenter.org/resilience.

108 Silke, “Terrorism, 9/11 and Psychology,” 2004.

109 Brandon and Silke, “Near- and Long-term Psychological Effects.”

110 American Psychological Association, “10 Ways to Build Resilience.” Online at: http://www.apahelpcenter.org/featuredtopics/feature.php?id=6&ch=4

111 Available online at: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/911/index.html

112 For more on the need for greater intelligence sharing and agency cooperation, please see sections 2 through 5 in Homeland Security and Terrorism, edited by Russell Howard, James Forest and Joanne Moore (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).

113 For more on issues of redundancy and vulnerabilities in our nation’s critical infrastructure, please see Homeland Security: Protecting America’s Targets (Volume III: Critical Infrastructure), edited by James J.F. Forest (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006).

114 Silke, “Terrorism, 9/11 and Psychology,” 2004, p. 518.

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