Review of Global Evidence John Page and Sonia Plaza The World Bank



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TABLES
Table 2.1: International migrants by region of destination, 1960 - 2000

Millions

Region

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

World

75.9

81.5

99.8

154.0

174.9

Developed countries

32.1

38.3

47.7

89.7

110.3

Developed countries excluding USRR

29.1

35.2

44.5

59.3

80.8

Developing countries

43.8

43.2

52.1

64.3

64.6

Africa

9.0

9.9

14.1

16.2

16.3

Asia (a)

29.3

28.1

32.3

41.8

43.8

Latin America and the Caribbean

6.0

5.8

6.1

7.0

5.9

Northern America

12.5

13.0

18.1

27.6

40.8

Oceania

2.1

3.0

3.8

4.8

5.8

Europe (b)

14.0

18.7

22.2

2.3

32.8

USRR (former)

2.9

3.1

3.3

30.3

29.5

Source: United Nations, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2003 Revision (POP/DB/MG/Rev 2003 and ESA/P/WP.188).

a Excluding Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajkistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan



b Excluding Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.
Table 2.2 Growth in international migration to countries of destination, 1970-2000

(percent change per year in stock of migrants)




1970-1980

1980-1990

1990-2000

World

2.0

4.4

1.3

Industrial Countries

2.4

2.9

3.1

Developing Countries

1.8

5.5

-0.1

Excluding former USSR

1.9

2.1

0.0

Former USSR

0.5

25.0

-0.3

Source: UN
Table 2.3: Stocks of total foreign-born by region of origin, OECD countries Year 2000

Region

Stock

Percentage

Africa

7,078,167

8%

Of which North African Countries

3,193,667

4%

Latin America

15,633,942

18%

North America

2,413,463

3%

Caribbean

5,283,645

6%

Oceania

1,177,196

1%

EU25

20,351,626

23%

Other Europe

12,065,948

14%

Unknown

1,794,230

2%

Total

88,959,942

100%

Source: SOPEMI (2004)
Table 2.4: Migration Intensity by Regions


Region

Migration as share of population

East Asia and Pacific

3.42

Europe and Central Asia

3.85

Latin America and Caribbean

15.56

Sub Saharan Africa

1.72

Middle East and North Africa

1.97

South Asia

0.41



Table 2.5: Number of Highly Skilled Expatriates in Latin America and Africa

Total Number of Highly Skilled Expatriates in Latin America and Africa

Latin America

Africa




Country

Total Number of Expatriates

% of highly skilled

Number of highly skilled immigrants

Country

Total Number of Expatriates

% of highly skilled

Number of highly skilled immigrants

1

Jamaica

796,046

24.0

191,051

South Africa

342,947

47.9

164,272

2

Colombia

682,156

25.1

171,221

Nigeria

247,497

55.1

136,371

3

Brazil

351,878

31.7

111,545

Kenya

197,445

37.4

73,844

4

Peru

361,506

30.2

109,175

Ghana

150,665

34.0

51,226

5

Argentina

266,070

37.8

100,574

Congo

100,052

36.6

36,619

6

Haiti

466,897

19.8

92,446

Ethiopia

113,838

31.2

35,517

7

Trinidad and Tobago

276,934

29.5

81,696

Zimbabwe

77,345

43.3

33,490

8

Venezuela

200,461

40.2

80,585

Uganda

82,232

39.2

32,235

9

Guyana

305,544

24.9

76,080

Tanzania

70,006

41.0

28,702

10

Ecuador

490,267

15.4

75,501

Madagascar

75,954

32.0

24,305

11

Chile

200,366

33.0

66,121

Mauritius

86,410

28.0

24,195

12

El Salvador

839,511

7.8

65,482

Senegal

104,715

23.1

24,189

13

Panama

140,631

32.6

45,846

Cameroon

57,050

42.3

24,132

14

Nicaragua

224,531

17.9

40,191

Mozambique

85,337

26.5

22,614

15

Guatemala

489,772

8.2

40,161

Congo DRC

66,488

32.5

21,609

Source: (SOPEMI, OECD 2004)

Table 2.6: Immigrants Admitted by Employment

based Preferences by Region Fiscal Year 2003



Region

Number

Percentage

Africa

3,113

4%

Of which North African Countries

522

1%

Asia

51,758

63%

Europe

10,898

13%

Caribbean

1,251

2%

Central America

1,584

2%

Other North America

7,619

9%

Oceania

675

1%

South America

5,151

6%

All countries

82,137

100%

Source: Fiscal year 2003 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, Authors own calculations


Table 2.7: Non Immigrants Admitted as Temporary Workers, Exchange Visitor and Intra-company Transferees by Region: Fiscal Year 2003


Region

Number of skilled workers visas


Percentage

Africa

24,249

2%

Of which North African Countries

3,295

0%

Asia

284,087

25%

Europe

469,545

42%

Caribbean

12,892

1%

Central America

9,441

1%

Other North America

175,198

15%

Oceania

33,676

3%

South America

117,568

10%

All countries

1,109,639

100%

Source: Fiscal year 2003 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, Authors own calculations

Note: The categories include: registered nurses, workers with specialty occupations, industrial trainees, exchange visitors, intra-company transferees, workers with extraordinary ability or achievement, artist or entertainers in reciprocal exchange programs. North American Free-Trade Agreements Workers.


Table 3.1: Workers' Remittances to Developing Countries, 1990-2004

$ billions






















Change

 

1990

1995

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004 e

2004-2001

World

68.9

101.9

128.8

142.5

161.5

186.3

204.5

62.0

Developing countries

31.4

57.4

82.3

91.8

109.6

129.8

144.3

52.5

Lower middle income

17.6

35.5

47.4

51.3

59.7

68.6

75.3

24.0

Upper middle income

5.7

8.6

13.1

16.8

18.8

24.5

28.2

11.5

Low income

8.1

13.3

21.7

23.8

31.1

36.7

40.8

17

Latin America and the Caribbean

5.8

13.4

20.2

24.2

28.1

34.4

39.1

14.9

South Asia

5.6

10

16

16

22.2

26.8

29.7

13.8

East Asia and the Pacific

3.3

9.7

16.7

20.1

27.2

32.9

37.1

17

Middle-East and North Africa

11.7

13

13.5

15.2

15.5

16.8

16.9

1.7

Europe and Central Asia

3.2

8.1

11

11.4

11.5

12.9

14.9

3.5

Sub-Saharan Africa

1.9

3.2

4.9

4.9

5.2

6

6.6

1.7

Source: World Bank Staff Estimates based on IMF BoP Yearbook 2004 and country desks.

Remittances are defined as the sum of workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrant transfers (see data annex).

Source: GEP (2005) forthcoming
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