|Review Night: Thursday, April 26, 2012
Part I: Colonial America
-Virginia Company, Jamestown, VA
-Joint stock company, primary goal is to make a profit
-Tobacco-can grow in this region, which makes it economically viable
-in the mid-1800s tobacco was the most profitable crop
Slavery and Servitude
-indentured servants were important in the Plantation colonies (i.e. Maryland and Virginia). Chief source of labor before 1675
-“headright” system, those who paid for the voyage of another laborer were given 50 acres of land, as well as working rights of the Indentured Servant for a term that was usually between 5-7 years.
-By 1675, slaves were increasingly more common in the colonies and by 1700 slavery was legal in ALL colonies. Soon Slaves replaced Indentured Servants
-Bacon’s Rebellion, 1776: exposed tension between the former and indentured servants, farmers turned more to slaves and away from indentured servants
-Slavery spread rapidly because of the cultivation of tobacco
-in the 1700s slaves maintained their own cultural identities brought from Africa/Caribbean
-Rice=most important crop in SC
-Stono Rebellion: earliest known acts of rebellion against slavery. Led by slave in Charleston, SC, they tried to flee to Spanish Florida to gain their freedom
New England Colonies
-Puritans: came to New England in family groups and to escape religious persecution
-Leader=John Winthrop, “the City upon a Hill”
-Usually lived in small villages surrounded by farmland
-Close relationship between Church and State
-Built Universities to educate their ministers: Yale, Harvard
-felt need to build ideal Christian Society
-strict moral code of conduct
-They did not grant religious tolerance: Anne Hutchinson (direct revelations from God) and Roger Williams (advocate of religious toleration)
-Half-Way covenant: religious zeal of members diminished, thus they begin to allow the baptism of children of the baptized, but not yet converted
-First Great Awakening: religious revivalism in 1740s. Emotional approach to religion, which weakened the authority of traditional preachers, renewed missionary spirit, converting slaves, leads to divisions within churches, more women involved
-Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn-a Quaker, created a liberal colony with a representative assembly, freedom of religion and no state supported church
-Quakers” pacifist, advocate freedom of worship, opposed slavery
-wealth was made in the colonies, but no hereditary hierarchy
-number of settlers from other nations Scotch-Irish and German)
-slavery was the labor system, esp. in the south
-mercantile centers, export agricultural goods, distributed imported goods, ports that maintained economic and cultural ties with England
-women have the political rights of minors
“In the seventeenth century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society. What were their aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled during the seventeenth century?” (1983, question 2)
Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North American colonies prior to 1700. (1998, question 2)
How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 – 1775? (2001, question 2)
Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1740) in two of the following regions: New England, Chesapeake, and Middle Atlantic. (2002, question 2)
Analyze the origins and development of slavery in Britain’s North American colonies
in the period 1607 to 1776. (2011, Question 2)
Road to Revolution
-French and Indian War: between Great Britain and France. Franc gives up its North American empire, England had all land EAST of the Mississippi River. The war was significant because it lead to increased taxation on the colonies, as well as, helped to forge an American identity.
-Results: The Proclamation Line of 1763
-Stamp Act of 1765: purpose was to raise revenue to support British Troops stationed in America, question arises, and can Parliament tax the colonies? Does it reflect colonial interest? “no taxation without representation” Held Stamp Act Congress, indicated that they were wiling to use violence, British maintained colonies had no rights/independence from British Authority, colonists thought that they were entitled to the rights of British subjects. Act was repealed because of British exports.
-Coercive Acts, 1774, Parliament’s response to the Boston Tea Party, designed to punish Massachusetts, who restricted many of its s rights and closed the Port of Boston, and were forced to pay damages until they were repaid
-Olive Branch Petition
-Cause for Taking up Arms
-“Common Sense”, 1776: written by Thomas Paine, called for independence from Great Britain, opposed a monarchy, defended republican ideals, helped many to overcome the loyalty that they felt toward Britain by indicating its indifference toward the United States, used biblical language
-Declaration of Independence, 1776: used philosophy of John Locke and idea of natural rights, accused King George III, appealed to the sympathies of the English people
-Why Support it? Believed George was a tyrant, Parliament wanted to control internal affairs of colonies, wanted greater political participation in legislation affecting the colonies, resented the Quartering Act, and wanted to preserve their autonomy
-The War: Battle of Saratoga=turning point, the French decide to join the Americans in their fight for independence.
-Treaty of Paris, 1783: establishes new boundaries. The United States stretched west to the Mississippi, North the Great lakes, and south to Spanish Florida. American agreed that Loyalist would not be further persecuted.
The Articles of the Confederation to the Constitution
-Articles: authors were nervous to grant new government powers they had denied Parliament.
-Weaknesses: lack of authority to tax, no direct authority over the states, no military
-Accomplishments: The Northwest Ordinances of 1787, which supported public education, excluded slavery in the Ohio River valley, orderly creation of territorial governments and new states
-Shays’ Rebellion, 1786: Daniel Shays, MA farmer sparked by economic frustration of losing his farm following the Revolution because of increased taxes and unable to pay in hard currency. They sought an end to farm foreclosures, end to imprisonment for debt, relief from high taxes, and increased circulation of money. The leaders did not attempt to overthrow the government. It helped convince leaders that the Articles were weak and that the U.S. needed a stronger central government.
-The Constitution: a result of a series of compromises, created a government that was neither too big nor too small to be effective.
-Provisions were made in the Constitution as submitted to the states in 1787: separation of powers (government in 3 branches), the authority of Congress to declare power, a guarantee that slavery is legal, creation of Electoral College, provision for impeachment of the President, State of the Union message, ratifying the Constitution, Federalism, bicameral legislature, 3/5 Compromise, enumerated the Powers of Congress
-Not made in the Constitution in 1787, 2 term president, universal manhood suffrage, a presidential cabinet, the direct election of Senators, guarantees of Freedom of Speech and Press, right to a speedy and public Trial, idea of political parties
- The Federalist Paper, 1787: Hamilton and Madison: to support ratification of the Constitution. Believed that a large republic was the best way to protect minority right.
-Anti-Federalists: opposed Federalism and feared a strong central government, they gained support from rural areas, argued the President would have too much power, feared that Congress would levy high taxes, feared the gov. would have a standing army, believed that the national gov. Would overwhelm the states, argued individual rights needed to be protected
Evaluate the relative importance of the following as factors prompting Americans to rebel in 1776:
parliamentary taxation British military measures
restriction of civil liberties the legacy of colonial religious and political ideas
(1992, question 2)
Analyze the extent to which the American Revolution represented a radical alteration in American political ideas and institutions. Confine your answer to the period 1775 to 1800. (1997, question 2)
Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective form of government with respect to any TWO of the following:
Foreign relations Economic conditions Western lands
(1996, question 2)
Analyze the contributions of TWO of the following in helping establish
a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington (2002, question 3)
Evaluate the extent to which the Articles of Confederation were effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation. (2003, question 2)
To what extent did political parties contribute to the development of national unity in
the United States between 1790 and 1840 ? (2011, Question 3)