Review for this all-important test. Directions: You need to answer completely each of the following questions, on separate paper



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UNITED STATES HISTORY EOC REVIEW PACKET-Use this to help review for this all-important test.

Directions: You need to answer completely each of the following questions, on separate paper.

Early Nationalism

COMPETENCY GOAL 1: The New Nation (1789·1820) • The learner will identify, investigate, and assess the effectiveness of the
institutions of the emerging republic.

Objectives

1.01 Identify the major domestic issues and conflicts experienced by the nation during the Federalist Period.

1.02 Analyze the political freedoms available to the following groups prior to 1820: women, wage earners, landless farmers, American


Indians, African Americans, and other ethnic groups.

1.03 Assess commercial and diplomatic relationships with Britain, France, and other nations.


Who was the first president of the United States? Washington

Who was the first Chief Justice? jay

Which Chief Justice expanded the power of the Supreme Court? Marshall

How did the following Supreme Court cases help in the development of the court?



  1. Marbury v. Madison established judicial review

  2. McCulloch v. Maryland established supremacy of national government over states

  3. Giobbons v Ogden congress controls trade between the states

  4. Dred Scott v Sanford said Congress could not make laws outlawing slavery in the territories

  5. What was adopted by Congress to create the federal court system in 1789? Judiciary Act of 1790

  6. What is a Cabinet? Heads of the executive departments

  7. What Cabinet positions did Washington create? State, Treasury, War, Attorney General

  8. Who were the first Secretaries? Jefferson, Hamilton, Knox, Randolph

  9. Identify Alexander Hamilton's financial plan. Pay off national debt, assume state debts, establish a national bank to control credit

  10. What is the difference between a strict and a loose constructionalist view of the Constitution? Strict construction is that the Constitution is as written

Loose construction (Hamilton) is that the federal government has powers under the necessary and proper clause (elastic clause)

  1. Why was there a Whiskey Rebellion and how was it handled? Farmers in western Penn revolted over the tax Hamilton placed on whiskey

(they turned their corn into whiskey for easier transportation and sales). Washington sent in the army to put down the rebellion

10. How did Washington react to the French Revolutionary conflict in Europe? Issued Neutrality Proclamation

a. Why did the French expect assistance from the US? They had helped us in Revolution

11. What was accomplished by each of the following treaties?



  1. Treaty of Greenville ended Native American uprising in Northwest territory

  2. Jay's Treaty ended dispute with Great Britain, very unpopular at the time, led to Pinkcney’s treaty with Spain, kept us out of war with GB

  3. Pinck' ~y's Treaty US settled land disupute with Spain, got rights to use port of New Orleans

12. How many tefT ; in office did Washington serve? 2

a. What advice did he give the nation in his farewell address? Avoid foreign entanglements, avoid political parties



  1. What two political parties developed during Washington's administration? Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

  2. Which people would have been members of the Federalist Party? Adams, Hamilton

a. Which people would have been members of the Democratic Republican Party? Jefferson, Madison

  1. What was the XYZ Affair and why did it almost cause war between the United States and France? French officials wanted a bribe from US in order for

Delegation to meet with French leaders….considered an insult

  1. How were the Alien and Sedition Acts an attempt to silence Republican opposition? Limit the time for immigrants to become voting citizens and to restrict

Criticism of the government

  1. Who wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolves? Jefferson and Madison

  2. What theory did the Kentucky and Virginia Resolves introduce into American politics? nullification

  3. Why was the election of 1800 a "revolution"? Jefferson limited the size of government, cut taxes

  4. Why did the judiciary Act of 1801 upset Thomas Jefferson? Adams’ was able to appoint Federalists to positions on federal courts

  5. How did John Marshall, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, avoid a confrontation with the executive branch over the Judiciary Act of 1801? He declared it unconstitutional in Marbury v Madison

  6. Why was it necessary for Jefferson to purchase the Louisiana Territory? Dramatic increase in size of country and natural resources

  7. Why was the Louisiana Purchase a difficult decision for Jefferson? He thought it unconstitutional---President didn’t have power

  8. How did the following help lead to the War of 1812?

  9. Impressments British putting sailors into British navy angered American public

  10. Freedom of the seas British interfering with American shipping

  11. Chesapeake Incident British fired on American ship

  12. War Hawks leaders of Congress who demanded war

  13. Indians in the Old Northwest stirred up by British, they began to attack settlements---Tecumseh’s coalition

  14. Who was president during the War of 1812? Madison

  15. Who fought in the War of 1812? US and Great Britain

a. Who won? US

  1. How did the results of the War of 1812 impact the United States, and Indians in the Mississippi Valley? Put an end to Native American uprisings east of the Mississippi, US trade no longer interfered with by British

  2. What was the role of the following in the War of 1812?

  3. Hartford Convention Federalists in New England threatened secession, led to end of the party

  4. Battle of New Orleans Made Andrew Jackson a hero, led to period of nationalism

  5. Andrew Jackson Victory at New Orleans, also defeated Native Americans in southeast, popularity led to Presidency

  6. Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner

  7. Treaty of Ghent ended the war, neither country gained land

  8. Napoleon Bonaparte

1.
2.
3.
4.

Era of Good Feelings and .Jacksonian Democracy


Dred Scott v. Sanford

COMPETENCY GOAL 2: Expansion and Reform (1801·1850) • The learner will assess the competing forces of expansionism,
nationalism, and sectionalism.

Objectives

2.01 Analyze the effects of territorial expansion and the admission of new states to the Union.
US History Review Booklet for EOC preparation

2.02 Describe how the growth of nationalism and sectionalism were reflected in art, literature, and language.


2.03 Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism and nationalism.

  1. What does the term nationalism mean? People are more interested in the nation than in their own section of the country

  2. What was the Era of Good Feelings? No political opposition, period of peace and prosperity

  3. How did Henry Clay plan for his American System to work? All parts of the country would benefit with South and West supplying raw materials and markets for New England factories.

  4. How did the relationship between the United States and Britain improve after the War of 1812? They became trading partners with little to no conflict

  1. How and when did the United States acquire east Florida? Adams Onis treaty in 1819….Jackson chased Native Americans into Florida, when Florida complained, Adams offered to buy it -

  1. What was the Monroe Doctrine and why was it adopted? After Napoleon’s defeat, European countries wanted to get involved again in American colonies. Doctrine told them to stay out, US would enforce

  2. Name three ways that transportation changed from the 1820s until the 1840s in America. Construction of roads (National Road), canals (Erie Canal), and beginning of railroads

  3. How did Eli Whitney change the economy of the South in 1793? Invention of cotton gin made cotton profitable

  4. How did Eli Whitney change the development of industry in the United States? Interchangeable parts
    10. What was the factory system? Bringing workers and raw materials together at sources of power

a. In what region of the country did it first emerge? New England

11. How did the issue of slavery trigger a problem in 1819? New states ready to be admitted, but had slaves in the territories

a. How did the Missouri Compromise solve this problem? Admitted Missouri as slave, Maine free and drew line

12. When was Andrew Jackson elected president? 1828



a. Why was he considered the "common man's" president? He represented the common people, he grew up poor

  1. What was Jacksonian Democracy? Depended on the support of the common man

  2. What was the spoils system? Rewarding supporters with government jobs

  3. What was the attitude of Jackson toward Native Americans? Disliked them, decided to move them to west

  4. Describe the Trail of Tears? Tribes east of the Mississippi (primarily the Cherokee) were moved west of the Mississippi River—many died from weather, malnutrition, disease, etc

  5. How did Jackson and the Supreme Court differ over the issue of the removal of the Native Americans? Marshall said no, but Jackson said let Marshall enforce it---went around court by getting some Cherokee to sign agreement

  6. What is a tariff? Tax on imports

  7. Why was the Tariff of 1828 called the Tariff of Abomination? Because it was very high, hurt Southerners

  8. How did South Carolina and John C. Calhoun react to the Tariff of Abomination? Nullification, threatened secession

  9. What did Jackson do to the National Bank and why did he call it the "monster"? He vetoed the bank bill and took money out of the bank. He thought it was run by Eastern elitists and was corrupt

  10. What were pet banks? State banks where Jackson put government money. Mostly run by his supporters

  11. Why was John C. Calhoun the leading spokesman for the South during the mid-1800s? he was Senator from SC and former VP

  12. What was the major point Calhoun was making in regard to the doctrine of nullification? States could not be told what to do by the federal government in his opinion

l410vement and Movements

  1. Who was Mark Twain and what did he contribute to the mind-1800s in American History? Author, wrote about American life

  2. What was Romanticism? Type of literature and art popular in 1800s, idealized life

  3. What was the influence of the Hudson River School of artists? Landscapes, American group of artists

  4. Define transcendentalism and provide examples of transcendentalists. Wanted to go beyond observation, Whitman, Emerson, Thoreau

  5. What types of literature did the Romantic writers produce? Novels, poetry

  6. What positions did Thoreau take in his essay. "Civil Disobedience"? do what was right, even if it was illegal

  7. During the 1830s, what two groups of Europeans migrated to the United States in the greatest number? Irish, Germans

a. Why did this trouble native-born Americans? They were different, took low paying jobs (especially Irish)

  1. In what section of the country was slavery primarily utilized and how did it impact that section? South, became dependent on cheap labor

  2. What were the various categories of people in southern society in the period before the Civil War? Plantation owners, yeomen farmers, free blacks, slaves

  3. What group emerged during the period before the Civil War to oppose slavery? abolitionists

  4. How was religion and music used by the slave to offset his condition in life? Promise of better life after death, music used as symbol of oppression, ability to oneday overcome, used as signals

  5. What religious groups were opposed to the use of slaves in America? Quakers, Shakers, Unitarians

  6. What was the role of each of the following in the abolition of slavery?

  7. William Lloyd Garrison published Liberator, leading newspaper

  8. Frederick Douglass runaway slave who published newspaper, made speeches

  9. Nat Turner led slave revolt in Va

  10. Sojourner Truth runaway slave woman who spoke against slavery and for women’s rights

  11. Harriet Tubman conductor on underground railroad

  12. What were utopian communities? Attempts at perfect communities

  13. How did each of the following religious groups attempt to establish utopian communities?

  14. Shakers lived separately, allowed anyone in, work ethic

  15. Mormons moved to Utah to escape persecution

  16. Transcendentalists established several communities like Brook Farm

  17. How did Dorthea Dix attempt to help the mentally ill and prisoners? Led reform to establish mental institutions

  18. Why did the Temperance movement want to limit the consumption of alcohol? They thought it led to evils of society—poverty, abuse, disease

  19. During the 1840s and 1850s, how were women educated in America? Very little education, usually at home

a. What changes began to occur? First women’s colleges established

  1. What was the outcome of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848? Declaration of Sentiments

  2. How did the women's suffrage movement also attack the issue of slavery? Leaders in abolitionist movement as well

  3. How did John L. O'Sullivan define the term Manifest Destiny? God given right to all land coast to coast

  4. Why did the Mexican government invite American settlers into Texas? The mission system didn’t work, needed settlers

  5. Why was there ultimately a conflict between Americans in Texas and the Mexican govemment? Americans wouldn’t follow Mexican rules, wanted to do things their own way

  6. Why would the slogan "Remember the Alamo" be used by Texans to urge Texans to fight? Santa Anna killed all the men at the Alamo

  7. How did the Baltle of San Jacinto affect the outcome of the Texas Revolution? Santa Anna captured, forced to grant independence to Texas

  8. Why would the United States, under Jackson, not annex Texas? Too many people thought US behind the Texas Revolution, might lead to war with Mexico

51 . During the period between 1836-1846, Texas was referred to as what? Republic of Texas

  1. What American president was the Manifest Destiny President? Polk

  2. What territories were acquired during his presidency? Mexican cession, Oregon, Texas

  3. What was Oregon fever and how was it "cured"? settlers moving to good land in Oregon, 54-40 argument, agreement with GB on border at 49th parallel

  4. What treaty granted the United States the Mexican Cession? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  5. How did the acquisition of Texas, Mexican Cession and Oregon lead to a conflict between the sections of the United States? argument over Argument over extension of slavery

  6. How were the Indians in the Oregon territory treated? Forced to reservations




US History Review Booklet for EOC preparation

  1. What discovery in California led to a massive migration of settlers into this area? gold

  2. Label the territorial acquisitions of the United States from 1846-1853.

Antebellum & Civil War

Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction (1848-1877) - The learner will analyze the issues that led to the Civil War, the effects of the war,
and the impact of Reconstruction on the nation.

3.01 Trace the economic, social, and political events from the Mexican War to the outbreak of the Civil War.


3.02 Analyze and assess the causes of the Civil War.

3.03 Identify political and military turning points of the Civil War and assess their significance to the outcome of the conflict.

3.04 Analyze the political, economic, and social impact of Reconstruction on the nation and identify the reasons why Reconstruction came
to an end.

3.05 Evaluate the degree to which the Civil War and Reconstruction proved to be a test of the supremacy of the national government.


Why did southerners believe cotton was "king"? their economy was dependent on it, they were making a lot of money

What were the two proposals made to deal with the issues of slavery in the Mexican Cession? Wilmot Proviso, popular sovreignty


3. How was the debate over the extension of slavery into the Mexican Cession solved in 1850? Compromise of 1850

a. What was that solution? California free, popular sovereignty in NM and Utah, fugitive slave law, no slave trade in DC

4. How did the following contribute to the beginning of the Civil War in 1861?


  1. Fugitive Slave Law angered Northerners by forcing them to participate

  2. Kansas-Nebraska Act led to bloodshed in Kansas

  3. Bleeding Kansas violence in Kansas upset both regions

  4. Republican Party anti-slavery party upset southerners

  5. Uncle Tom's Cabin book read by many turned North against slavery

Which southern state was the first to secede? SC

How did southern secessionalists justify secession? Claimed they had willingly joined and could leave


What country did these southern states create? Confederate States of America

  1. Who was its President? Jefferson Davis

  2. Where were its two capitals? Montgomery and Richmond

8. Compare the strengths of the North and the South at the onset of the...:::Civil War _

I NORTH population, navy, factories, railroads I_SOUTH generals,cause, experience in shooting _

9. What significant role did each of the following play in the Civil War?



  1. Robert E. Lee best general in War

  2. Stonewall Jackson Lee’s best general, his death hurt South

  3. Ulysses S. Grant aggressive style helped bring victory to North

  4. William Sherman led March to the Sea

  5. George B. McClellan trained army, argued with Lincoln

10. What was the significance of the following battles of the Civil War?

  1. First Bull Run first actual battle

  2. Second Bull Run xxxxx

  3. Shiloh Grant survived first day disaster that would have ended career

  4. Antietam allowed Lincoln to issue Emancipation Proclamation

11. Where did Lee surrender and what were the conditions of his surrender?

1.
2.
.

f.
g.
h.
i.

Ored Scott v. Sanford
Lincoln-Douglas Debate
John Brown's Raid
Election of 1860

5.
6.
7.

e.
f.
g.

Gettysburg turning point of war
Vicksburg

Sherman's March to the Sea



Reconstruction

12. Why was the assassination of Abraham Lincoln by Booth a disaster for the South?

He wanted to forgive and allow South back into the union


13.

Compare each of the

o owino Plans or Reconstruction 0 t e

out.




Lincoln's Plan

Johnson's Plan




Radical Republican Plan


  1. What caused Congress and Andrew Jackson to clash? Johnson wanted to continue Lincoln’s treatment of South

  2. Why were the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments considered the Reconstruction amendments? All were passed during that period to try to help freed slaves become citizens with voting rights

  3. Why did the near impeachment of Johnson almost cause a shift in the balance of power between the branches of government? Congress became more powerful than President—impeachment would have given them complete control

  4. Who were the carpetbaggers and how did Southerners react to the Reconstruction govenments impose upon them? Northerners who came south during Reconstruction—hated by Southerners

  5. Identify the scandals of the Grant administration. Numerous scandals involving Indians, railroads, etc

  6. Why was Reconstruction ended in 18777 disputed election led to removal of troops from the south

  7. How did farming change in the South after the Civil War? Sharecropping and tenant farming replaced slavery

  8. How did southerners attempt to "re-slave" the former slave? Binding them to the land with debt from sharecropping and tenant farming

  9. What terrorist organization was created by Nathan B. Forest to force white rule? KKK

  10. What were Jim Crow laws and how did they segregate southem society? Laws to separate blacks and whites

  11. What Supreme Court ruling upheld segregation? Plessy v Ferguson

a. What was the doctrine by this Supreme Court ruling? Separate but Equal

  1. How did Booker T. Washington and Ida Wells Barnett react to the segregation establish in the South? xxxxxxx

  2. What is the difference between de facto and de jure segregation? De facto is by custom, de jure is by law

Expansion of the Late 1800s

B


US History Review Booklet for EOC preparation

COMPETENCY GOAL 4: The Great West and the Rise of the Debtor (1860s-1896) - The learner will evaluate the great westward
movement and assess the impact of the agricultural revolution on the nation.

4.01 Compare and contrast the different groups of people who migrated to the West and describe the problems they experienced.


4.02 Evaluate the impact that settlement in the West had upon different groups of people and the environment.

4.03 Describe the causes and effects of the financial difficulties that plagued the

American farmer and trace the rise and decline of Populism.

4.04 Describe innovations in agricultural technology and business practices and assess their impact on the West.



  1. What was the lifestyle of the Plains Indians, and how were the buffalo and horse important to the lifestyle? Horse made them into buffalo hunters

  2. Why did the United States govemment adopt a reservation policy? To take land

  3. What impact did Custer's Last Stand have on attitude toward the Plains Indians? They were moved to reservations

  4. What did the American government do to assimilate the American Indian, and how successful was this? xxxx

  5. What was the Ghost Dance, and how did it lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee? xxxxxx

  6. What enabled Americans to get land in the West? Homestead Act

  7. How did the farmer cope with life on the Plains? Learned to grow grains

  8. What inventions enabled the farmer to succeed? Steel plow, barbed wire, later reaper and combine

  9. How did the cattle in Texas gat to dinner plates in the East? Cattle drive to railroads, later refrigerated cars

  10. What mineral resources were discovered in the West? Gold and silver

  11. How did the railroads open up the west? Allowed easy travel and trade, towns along rail lines

  12. Why did Oliver Kelley organize the National Grange in 1867? Social and political organization for farmers, learn new methods of farming

  13. What were the Granger laws? Laws to aid farmers (against railroads, big business)

  14. How was Munn v. Illinois later changed by Wabash v. Illinois? xxxxxxxx

  15. What did the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 do? xxxxxx

  16. What problem did the issue of money supply cause after the Civil War? Paper money led to inflation, argument over greenbacks

  17. How was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act going to solve this problem? xxxxxx

  18. When and why did the Farmers Alliance movement create the Populist Party? xxxxxx

  19. What was the platform of the Populist Party in 1892? xxxxxxx

  20. How did William Jennings Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech help him to win the 1896 Democratic Party nomination? xxxxxx





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