Review for Chapters 28-30
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Test Review for Chapters 28-30
State-sponsored industrialization: Russia began industrializing in 1861; Japan began industrializing in 1868
Indian National Congress (INC)/”Congress Party” formed 1885 & was an association of Western-educated Indians. What was its original purpose?
World War I: 1914-1918
developments (long-term & short-term) led to WWI?
Factors that made WWI a “world” war?
How were colonies used in WWI?
New developments in warfare used in WWI?
Reasons for Russia’s weaknesses during WWI?
British promises to Zionists? British promises to Arabs?
Paris Peace Conference/Treaty of Versailles: 1919
League of Nations created + why weak?
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles/Effects on nations & colonies?
How did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to a second World War?
After WWI, nationalist movements in colonies strengthened with goal of self-determination. Why were these movements stronger after WWI?
Turkey established as a westernized, secular republic for the Turkish people (established by Ataturk)
What factor contributed most women in West gaining suffrage between 1914 and 1950?
Causes of the revolution including Porfirio Diaz’s dictatorial president + poor conditions of peasants (land reforms!) + resentment of US foreign business control
Alvaro Obregon’s election in 1920 marked the end of the Mex. Revolution
Results of the revolution for Mexico?
President Lazaro Cardenas’ (1930s) contributions to upholding the goals of the Mexican Revolution?
Russian Revolution, 1917-1921
Causes of the revolution including Czar Nicholas II’s absolutist control + effects of WWI + poor conditions for peasants (land reforms!) & industrial workers + liberal ideas + radical ideas
2 phases of the revolution: liberal revolution (Kerensky), communist revolution (Lenin)
How did Lenin try to gain support for communist revolution?
Results of the revolution for Russia?
Chinese Revolution, 1911-1949
Causes of the revolution including corrupt/ultra-conservative Qing dynasty + poor conditions for peasants (land reforms!) + anti-Western spheres of influence + anti-Japan + liberal reformers (Sun Yat-sen) + radical ideas (communism)
2 phases of the revolution: the Republic of China (Sun Yat-sen & Jiang Jiseshi), communist China (Mao Zedong)
Trace path of revolution (Guomindang, CCP, civil war, etc.) + why did the Republic fail in China?
USSR gave funding to the Nationalists to establish a modern army for China
Sun Yat-sen & Jiang Jieshi (Guomindang/Nationalist Party); Mao Zedong (Chinese Communist Party)
Results of the revolution for China?
Mexican, Chinese, & Russian Revolutions were all nationalistic, anti-western movements
Gandhi & Mao Zedong were both largely successful in their goals because of their ability to appeal to the peasant population in their nations.
What is civil disobedience? + provide examples of it being used in the process of decolonization
Gandhi (India), Kenyatta (Kenya), & Nkrumah (Ghana) were all advocates of the civil disobedience approach to gaining independence from the West
Governments began to take a more active role in regulating their nation’s economies How did national governments try to respond to the problems created by the Great Depression?
USA, Germany, Japan, Mexico
Fascism emphasizes self-sacrifice for your nation-state, expansion and glorification of the nation’s military, leadership by authoritarian dictators, a denial of personal rights, application of a secret police force and propaganda
What were Hitler’s goals for Germany in the 1930s-early 1940s?
World War II: 1939-1945
Aggressive actions by totalitarian nations (Germany, Italy, & Japan) sparked WWII
Weak responses to this aggression by the League of Nations, Britain, France, & US
In order to avert war, Britain tried to use appeasement to satisfy Hitler’s desires (ex. Munich Agreement, 1938)
Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939 proved appeasement wouldn’t work WWII begins
Hitler used blitzkrieg early in the war. How is this different from the strategy on the Western front in WWI?
Allied Powers/Axis Powers – Which nations belonged to each?
Scientific/technological innovations developed & used in WWII?
What is “total war”? how were WWI & WWII examples of this?
What was the significance of the Atlantic Charter, 1941?
USA saw HUGE economic expansion during WWII due to demands of war effort
Civilians were major targets for attack in WWII.
Holocaust (12 million killed)
Rape of Nanking
Allied bombing of German cities (ex. Firebombing of Dresden, 1945)
Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japan
Allied strategy for defeating the Nazis? Allied strategy for defeating Japan?
Outcomes of WWII?
United Nations, 1945-present significance? + why stronger than the League of Nations?
Cold War (USA vs USSR/West vs. East/Capitalism vs. Communism), 1945-1991
Western nations finally began to grant self-determination to most of their former colonies after WWII (Reasons for this?)
Be able to explain the nationalist movements in India after WWI as well as their goals, leaders, and strategies (ex. INC, Muslim League)
1947: partition/independence of India & Pakistan refugee crisis (Muslims & Hindus cross borders searching for religious protection)
What factors motivated increased Jewish migration to Palestine in the decades after WWI? results of this migration?
1948: Israel becomes nation w/partition of Palestine Arab/Israeli conflict
Sub-Saharan Africa decolonization
Ghana 1 st, 1957
Different strategies used to gain independence?
Civil-disobedience (Kenyatta in Kenya, Nkrumah in Ghana)
Guerilla warfare (ie. Algeria vs. France; Mau Mau War in Kenya vs. Britain)
Negotiations w/the West
South Africa maintains white domination by Afrikaner National Party (Apartheid)
After independence, most new African nations:
maintained economic dependence on Western nations
experienced ethnic/tribal conflict/civil war
had weak democracies that fell to brutal dictators
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