Review for 101 Final Exam Ethics



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Review for 101 Final Exam
Ethics:

Types of ethical statements (rules, judgments, etc.)

3 branches of ethics (including 3 tasks included in metaethics)

Define “eudaimonia”

Plato’s ethics: nothing

Aristotle’s ethics: definition of virtue

Intrinsic vs. extrinsic value

Epicurus: Types of pleasure

Stoics: Nothing

Kant: distinction between deontological and consequentialist theories

Permissible vs. praiseworthy actions

Reasons ethics should be based on logic

2 versions of categorical imperative (what they say, & main features of each)

Mill: Principle of utility

What it says, & main implications

Contrast w/ Bentham’s formulation

Contrast w/ satisficing consequentialism

Rights: Moral vs. legal rights

Classify an example of a moral right (liberty, immunity, welfare, special)

Absolute vs. defeasible rights

Infringed vs. violated rights
Metaphysics & Epistemology

Plato: Allegory of the cave (know what stands for what)

Aristotle: Criticisms of Plato’s theory of Forms (perishability, 3rd person)

Locke: representative realism

Veil of perception

Primary vs. secondary qualities

Causation & resemblance theses

Inference to the best explanation


Berkeley: Criticisms of Locke

Material vs. physical objects

Physical objects vs. other sorts of ideas

Imagination vs. understanding

Inference to the best explanation

Berkeley: Idealism

What is Idealism?

Direct & indirect awareness of physical objects

Problems for Idealism
Descartes: rationalism vs. empiricism

Scepticism

Indubitability criterion of truth

“I think, therefore I am” and the egocentric predicament

Wax example (and the 2 lessons Descartes learns from it)

Clearness & distinctness criterion of truth

Proof of God’s existence

Why this argument is circular


Essay topics (you’ll write on ONE of these)

1. What are the Forms, and what are they supposed to explain? What are Aristotle’s arguments against them?


2. According to Locke, how can we be sure that the world is as it appears?
3. What are Berkeley’s criticisms of Locke’s position?
4. Present & explain Descartes’ argument for God’s existence. Why does he need this argument, and why doesn’t it work?
5. Present, explain, & evaluate Anselm’s Ontological Argument for God’s existence (reductio ab adsurdum version).


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