Review 9: Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1940

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Review 9: Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1940

1. The objective of the Bonus Expeditionary Force that marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 was to obtain

  1. higher commodity prices for farmers

  2. better education for children

  3. civil rights for African Americans

  4. payment of money to veterans of the First World War

  5. legal rights for members of the Communist party

2. The assembly-line production of Henry Ford's Model T automobile resulted in which of the following by the end of the 1920's?

  1. A sharp decrease in railroad passenger traffic

  2. The federal government's abandonment of research on air travel

  3. The development of a large international market for American automobiles

  4. Widespread purchase of automobiles by average American families

  5. Construction of the federal interstate highway system

3. Which of the following statements about American cities between 1890 and 1930 is correct?

  1. Area of residence increasingly became an indicator of social class.

  2. Poor people moved to the outskirts of cities.

  3. Industries shifted from the cities to the suburbs.

  4. Widespread racial integration of communities occurred.

  5. Neighborhoods lost their ethnic identification.

4. Which of the following best characterizes the writers associated with the literary flowering of the 1920's, such as Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald?

  1. Sympathy for Protestant fundamentalism

  2. Nostalgia for the "good old days"

  3. Commitment to the cause of racial equality

  4. Advocacy of cultural isolationism

  5. Criticism of middle-class conformity and materialism

5. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon's policies did which of the following?

  1. Reduced income-tax rates for the wealthy to release money for private investment.

  2. Provided aid to the Allies during the First World War.

  3. Provided federal guarantees for bank deposits.

  4. Restricted loans to Mexico after the Tampico and Veracruz incidents.

  5. Combated the Depression by giving lower-income groups more purchasing power.

6. Constitutional amendments enacted during the Progressive Era concerned all of the following EXCEPT

  1. imposition of an income tax

  2. imposition of poll taxes

  3. extension of suffrage to women

  4. prohibition of the sale of alcoholic beverages

  5. procedures for electing United States senators

7. President Herbert Hoover approached the task of caring for unemployed workers during the Great Depression by

  1. emphasizing the importance of private charities

  2. asking large corporations to hire war veterans

  3. relying on the services of federal welfare agencies

  4. enlarging the federal government's payroll

  5. reactivating the dole

8. During the 1930's, the Roosevelt administration did which of the following?

  1. Ceded the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.

  2. Granted immediate independence to the Philippines.

  3. Formally renounced the right to intervene in Latin America.

  4. Established the Organization of American States.

  5. Held a referendum in Puerto Rico on the commonwealth's entry to the Union.

9. Which of the following was NOT a major contributing factor to the onset of the Great Depression?

  1. Technological advances had allowed farmers and manufacturers to overproduce, creating large inventories.

  2. The federal government interfered too frequently with the economy, causing investors to lose confidence.

  3. The average wage earner was not earning enough money to afford the many consumer goods new technology had made available.

  4. Stock investors had been allowed to speculate wildly, creating an unstable and volatile stock market.

  5. Major businesses were controlled by so few producers that the failure of any one had a considerable effect on the national economy.

10. All of the following contributed to the spirit of isolationism in the United States during the 1930s EXCEPT

  1. disclosures that munitions manufacturers had lobbied for American involvement in World War I, then profited heavily from the war.

  2. a foreign policy tradition that could be traced to Washington's Farewell Address

  3. a universal lack of awareness of the goal of the Third Reich

  4. memories of the cost, both in financial terms and in human life, of participation in World War I

  5. the desire to focus resources on recovery from the Depression rather than on strengthening the military

11. The rapid growth of American towns in the 1920s and 1930s was made possible primarily by the

  1. invention of the steam locomotive

  2. greater access to information provided by radio and television

  3. mass production of automobiles

  4. end of open-range cattle ranching

  5. advent of electric lighting

12. One of the unintended effects of Prohibition was that it

  1. caused a national epidemic of alcohol withdrawal

  2. brought about a decrease in alcoholism and an increase in worker productivity

  3. resulted in a substantial increase in the abuse of hard drugs, particularly heroin

  4. lowered the cost of law enforcement by decreasing the incidence of drunkenness

  5. provided organized crime syndicates with a means to gain both wealth and power

13. The 1927 motion picture The Jazz Singer was the first major commercial film to feature

  1. color images

  2. the illusion of three dimensions

  3. synchronous sound

  4. special effects

  5. a dramatic plot

14. One of the principal reasons the "noble experiment" of Prohibition failed was that it led to an enormous increase in

  1. drinking among minors

  2. absenteeism among factory workers

  3. the divorce rate

  4. child abuse

  5. law enforcement costs

15. The Scopes trial represented all of the following EXCEPT

  1. a conflict between rural and urban culture

  2. a battle between Protestant fundamentalism and modern science

  3. a debate about Biblical interpretation

  4. the tensions created by the new role of the United States as a world leader in the 1920's

  5. the lack of academic freedom in some parts of the country

16. Which of the following has been viewed by some historians as an indication of strong anti-Catholic sentiment in the presidential election of 1928?

  1. The increased political activity of the Ku Klux Klan

  2. The failure of the farm bloc to go to the polls

  3. Alfred E. Smith's choice of Arkansas Senator Joseph T. Robinson as his running mate

  4. Alfred E. Smith's failure to carry a solidly Democratic South

  5. Herbert Hoover's use of "rugged individualism" as his campaign slogan

17. During the Great Depression, "Hoovervilles" were

  1. government relocation camps for indigent workers

  2. model communities established by the Hoover administration

  3. shantytowns of unemployed and homeless people

  4. soup kitchens financed under New Deal legislation

  5. work projects established by the Hoover administration to revitalize the economy

18. For American farming, the years 1921 to 1929 were a period of

  1. increase in the size of the farm population

  2. rapid inflation in the price of farmland

  3. low prices for agricultural products

  4. increased government subsidization

  5. increase in the number of small family-owned farms

19. Of the following, the most important cause of the Great Depression was

  1. soaring energy costs

  2. serious dislocations in international trade

  3. European abandonment of the gold standard

  4. confiscatory social security taxes

  5. excessive government spending

20. Most Progressives sought all of the following EXCEPT the

  1. democratization of the political structure

  2. reformation of children's labor laws

  3. expansion of women's rights

  4. legislative creation of a socialist commonwealth

  5. application of "scientific methods" to solve social problems

21.American writers of the 1920's have often been called the "lost generation" because they

  1. found it difficult to get their work published

  2. were disillusioned with the course of American life

  3. failed to achieve fame in their lifetimes

  4. were politically radical in a conservative era

  5. preferred to write for a European rather than an American audience

22. Charles Lindbergh became a national hero for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

  1. He was seen as a modest, handsome daredevil.

  2. He made a solo flight across the Atlantic.

  3. He advocated American leadership in world affairs.

  4. He embodied American traditional values in the new industrialized society.

  5. His success incorporated elements of technology and individualism.

23. Which of the following best characterizes the muckrakers of the early twentieth century?

  1. They were primarily concerned with racial issues.

  2. They were mostly recent immigrants to the United States.

  3. They were leading critics of urban boss politics.

  4. Their influence on public opinion was greatest after the First World War.

  5. They wrote primarily for an academic audience.

24. During the presidencies of Harding and Coolidge, which of the following was true about most of the federal regulatory agencies created during the Progressive Era?

  1. They kept business divided into small, fiercely competitive units.

  2. They were declared unconstitutional.

  3. They were abolished.

  4. They served mainly to aid business.

  5. They were placed in the hands of the states.

25. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) split apart at its national convention in 1935 because

  1. most workers opposed Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal

  2. many delegates believed that the leadership of the AFL was soft on communism

  3. a majority of AFL leaders opposed collective bargaining

  4. a majority of AFL leaders refused to grant charters to new unions organized on an industry-wide basis

  5. many delegates believed that the AFL had become too revolutionary in pursuing the tactic of the sit-down strike

26. Despite its isolationist position in the 1920's, the United States government actively intervened throughout the decade in which of the following areas of European affairs?

  1. International finance and reparations

  2. Collective security against communism

  3. Human rights

  4. Resistance to fascism

  5. Development of international cartels

27. Which of the following was true of the settlement-house workers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?

  1. They included large numbers of middle-class, college-educated women.

  2. They devised programs that departed radically from those of English settlement houses.

  3. They established settlement houses in middle-class environments.

  4. They avoided political involvement.

  5. They endeavored to suppress immigrant cultures.

28. In 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt and Herbert Hoover disagreed most strongly about the desirability of

  1. a balanced federal budget

  2. farm price supports

  3. federal aid to corporations

  4. a program of public works

  5. federal relief to individuals

Review 9 Answers

1. D

2. D

3. A

4. E

5. A

6. B

7. A

8. C

9. B

10. C

11. C

12. E

13. C

14. E

15. D

16. D

17. C

18. C

19. B

20. D

21. B

22. C

23. C

24. D

25. D

26. A

27. A

28. E

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