ABSOLUTISM IN WESTERN EUROPE: 1589-1715
Absolutism: derived from belief in ___________________________________________________________
_________________________________: embodied in the person of the ruler
Jean _______________(1530-96): gave theoretical basis for absolutist states; wrote during Fr. civil wars
Bishop Bossuet (1627-1704): gave theoretical basis for _____________ during reign of _______________
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): _______________________, 1651
o _____________________: anarchy results; central drive in every man is power
o Man‘s life in a ―state of nature was ―solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short strong,
o Ideas most closely identified with __________________: _______________________Despotism (18th c.)
French Absolutism in late 16th through mid-17th centuries
Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (1589-1610) – ________________________dynasty
o Weakened the power of the nobility
The old ―________________________________________ not allowed to influence the royal council
The new ―_______________________________________ purchased their titles from the monarchy and became high officials in the government and remained loyal to the king.
o Duke of Sully (1560-1641): Finance Minister whose reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy
_______________________________________________: increased role of state in the economy
Reduced royal debt, reformed tax collection
Louis XIII (1610-43):
o His regency plagued by corruption & mismanagement (mom ruled until he was of age)
o Cardinal __________________________ (1585-1642): laid foundation for absolutism in France (politique like Henry IV)
___________________________________System: sought to weaken nobility
Replaced local officials w/ ___________________ who reported directly to the king; largely filled by _____________________________________
Further developed ____________________________________
Increased taxation to fund the military
Peace of Alais (1629): Huguenots lost fortified cities & Protestant armies
Began dictionary to standardize the French language
Foreign policy, esp. 30 Years‘ War, weakened ___________________________________ Empire
Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) – the ―Sun King
The quintessential model of absolutism in Europe
o L’état, c’est moi (_______________________________________)
o France became the undisputed power in Europe during his reign
France had largest population in Europe (17 million); 20% of Europe‘s population
o French culture dominated Europe
French language became the international language of ___________________________(like English is today) and the language of the well-educated (like Latin in the Middle Ages)
France remained the epicenter of _______________________________ until the 20th century
_________________________________________ in art most evident in the works of Nicholas Poussin (1593-1665)
French drama became extremely influential
Jean Baptiste Racine
Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661) : controlled France while Louis XIV a child
o ________________________________________: failed revolution by nobility directed against Mazarin; inspired Louis later _______________________________________________
_________________________system continued to increase the power of the king at the expense of the old nobles.
Versailles Palace: grandest and most impressive palace in Europe
o In effect, became a pleasure prison for the French nobility, over which Louis gained control
o Cost of maintaining the palace: _____________% of all royal revenues!
o Louis considered himself the head of the ____________________Church and thus did not allow _____________________ to exercise political power in France
o Edict of Fountainbleau (1685): revoked the ___________________________, thus ending religious toleration for Huguenots
o Repressed Jansenism (a kind of _________________________within Catholic Church)
Mercantilism brought to its apex by Jean-Baptiste ___________________ (1661-1683)
o State control _________________________________________________in order to achieve a favorable _____________________________________________ with other countries.
o Colbert‘s goal was economic self-sufficiency for France
Promoted ―____________________________: a nation‘s policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries.
Built _______________________ & ________________________; gov‘t supported monopolies; cracked down on guilds; reduced local tolls and tariffs; organized French trading companies for international trade: _____________________ and the ______________________.
Most important accomplishment: developed the ____________________________________
o By 1683, France leading industrial country: ________________, __________________, lace making, foundries for_______________ making and ____________________
Poor peasant conditions (esp. taxation) resulted in __________________________________
Louis opted for army instead of______________; France later lost naval wars w/ England
War in later years nullified Colbert‘s gains; Louis at war for _______________ of his reign
Wars of Louis XIV: initially ___________________ but eventually ____________ to France
France created a massive modern army with the potential to dominate Europe
o A system of _____________________________________ developed to keep France in check
William of ____________ (later, King William III of England) thwarted Louis‘ expansionism
o War of Devolution (First Dutch War), 1667-68: France gained 12 fortified towns along the French-Belgian border but gave up Burgundy in return.
o Second Dutch War (1672-78) – Invasion of the Dutch Rhineland
France took Franche-Comté from Spain, gained some Flemish towns, and took ___________
Represented the furthest extent of Louis XIV‘s expansion
War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97): eventually ended in status quo
o League of Augsburg (formed in 1686 to counter France‘s growing power): included the ___________________, Spain, _______________, Bavaria, _______________, Dutch Republic
o William of Orange (now king of England) brought England in against France.
War of Spanish Succession (1701-13)
o The will of Charles II (Spanish ___________________king) gave all Spanish territories to grandson of _______________________; other countries feared France would dominate
o ______________________________ sought to preserve the balance of power: England, Dutch Rep., HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savoy
o Treaty of______________ (1713): most important treaty since __________________(in 1648)
Britain was biggest winner: gained the _______________ (slave trade) from Spain; gained Gibraltar and Minorca.
Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) was given to ___________(became the Austrian Netherland)
Although Louis XIV‘s grandson enthroned, the treaty prevented the unification of Bourbon dynasties.
Kings recognized in Sardinia (Savoy) and Prussia (Brandenburg)
Costs of Louis XIV‘s wars:
o Destroyed France‘s economy
o _____________% of French subjects died
o Huge debt placed on the _____________Estate
French gov‘t was__________________
o Financial and social tensions sowed the seeds of the _________________________________
Decline of the Spanish Empire (although it remained most powerful military until mid-17th c.)
Foundation for _________________________ in Spain was laid by Charles V (1519-1556) and Philip II (1556-1598)
Spanish Armada, 1588: symbolized the rise of England as a world power and the limits of Spanish dominance
Loss of middle class: _________________ and _______________ had been expelled in large numbers (Spain‘s population declined by over ______________%)
Spain‘s trade with its colonies fell __________% between 1610 and 1660
Spanish treasury became ___________________
National taxes particularly hurt the peasantry
Inflation from the _______________hurt domestic industries that were unable to export goods
Poor work ethic among the upper classes stunted economic growth (lack of ______________)
Religion _________________________________ politics in domestic affairs
Defeat in ______________________ War: politically and economically disastrous
1640, Portugal reestablished independence.
Treaty of the ___________________________(1659): marked end of Spain as a Great Power
o Spain lost parts of Spanish Netherlands and territory in northern Spain to France
Population in 1660 had declined to 5.5 million from 7.5 million in 1550
Spain had lost many possessions at the Treaty of _________________________(1713)
Began in ______________________________________ countries to teach in a __________________ and __________________way and demonstrate the glory and ______________of the Catholic Church
o Style later spread to Protestant countries (Netherlands, northern Germany and England)
o Sought to ________________________ the viewer: emphasized grandeur, emotion, movement, spaciousness, and unity surrounding a certain theme
Architecture and sculpture
Colonnade for piazza in front of ______________________________ in Rome was his greatest architectural achievement.
Sculpted the Canopy over the high altar of St. Peter’s Cathedral
His altarpiece sculpture, _______________________________, evokes tremendous emotion
His statue of ________________________________shows movement and emotion
Stressed broad areas of ___________ and __________________rather than on linear arrangements of the High Renaissance.
Color was an important element as it appealed to _______________ and more true to nature.
Not concerned with clarity of detail as with overall _________________________________.
Designed to give a spontaneous personal experience.
o ________________________ (1571-1610), Roman painter, perhaps 1st important painter of the Baroque era
Depicted highly emotional scenes
Used sharp contrasts of light and dark to create drama.
o Peter Paul ____________________________________ (1577-1640), Flemish painter
Worked for the ________________ court in Brussels (the capital of the Spanish Netherlands)
Emphasized color and sensuality; animated figures and melodramatic contrasts; monumental size.
Nearly __________________of his works dealt with _________________________subjects.
o Diego ______________________________(1599-1660)
Perhaps the greatest ___________________ painter of the era
Numerous portraits of the Spanish court and their surroundings
o Artemisia ______________________(1593-1652)
Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic scenes and her Judith paintings
In the 17th century, the Baroque reflected the Age of _________________________________
o ________________________Palace typifies Baroque architecture
Hapsburg emperor Leopold I built _______________________ in Austria in response to the Versailles Palace
Peter the Great in Russia built the ____________________________ in St. Petersburg largely on the influence of Versailles
Frederick I in Prussia began building his palace in _________________________in 1701
Belief that the text should dominate the music; the__________________________________ __________________________________________were most important
Baroque composers developed the modern system of major-minor tonalities.
Dissonance was used much more freely than during the Renaissance
o Claudio_____________________ (1547-1643) developed the opera and the modern orchestra
o J. S. ___________________(1685-1750): greatest of the ____________________ composers
Often wrote dense and polyphonic structures (in contrast to the later balance and restraint of the Classical Period—Mozart & Haydn)
Wrote in a variety of genres, both choral and instrumental, for a variety of instruments
o George Frideric ____________________________________ (1685-1759)
Like Bach, wrote in a variety of genres
His masterpiece is the oratorio __________________________________________________
The Dutch Style: 17th century painting
o Did not fit the Baroque style of trying to overwhelm the viewer
o Reflected the Dutch Republic‘s wealth and _________________________ of secular subjects
o Reflected the ______________and _____________________settings of Dutch life during the Golden Age of the Netherlands
o Many works were commissioned by merchants or government organizations
______________________van Rijn (1606-1669), painter
o Perhaps the greatest of all Baroque artists _________________________________________ _______________________________________ category.
o Scenes covered an enormous range throughout his career
o Used extremes of light in the Baroque style
o His works were far more intimate and ______________________than typical Baroque works
o Painted with the restraint of the classicist style
Jan __________________________________ (1632-1675)
o Paintings of interior domestic settings of ordinary people in simple scenes
Rococo style (in France)
o Characteristics: elegance, pleasantness, ________________; contrasts ___________________ grandeur of Baroque