Review #5 absolutism in western europe: 1589-1715 Absolutism



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Review #5

ABSOLUTISM IN WESTERN EUROPE: 1589-1715
Absolutism: derived from belief in ___________________________________________________________

_________________________________: embodied in the person of the ruler

Jean _______________(1530-96): gave theoretical basis for absolutist states; wrote during Fr. civil wars

Bishop Bossuet (1627-1704): gave theoretical basis for _____________ during reign of _______________

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): _______________________, 1651

o _____________________: anarchy results; central drive in every man is power

o Man‘s life in a ―state of nature was ―solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short strong,

o Ideas most closely identified with __________________: _______________________Despotism (18th c.)


French Absolutism in late 16th through mid-17th centuries

Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (1589-1610) – ________________________dynasty

o Weakened the power of the nobility

The old ―________________________________________ not allowed to influence the royal council

The new ―_______________________________________ purchased their titles from the monarchy and became high officials in the government and remained loyal to the king.

o Duke of Sully (1560-1641): Finance Minister whose reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy

_______________________________________________: increased role of state in the economy

Reduced royal debt, reformed tax collection

Improved transportation
Louis XIII (1610-43):

o His regency plagued by corruption & mismanagement (mom ruled until he was of age)

o Cardinal __________________________ (1585-1642): laid foundation for absolutism in France (politique like Henry IV)

___________________________________System: sought to weaken nobility

 Replaced local officials w/ ___________________ who reported directly to the king; largely filled by _____________________________________

Further developed ____________________________________

Increased taxation to fund the military

Peace of Alais (1629): Huguenots lost fortified cities & Protestant armies

Began dictionary to standardize the French language

Foreign policy, esp. 30 Years‘ War, weakened ___________________________________ Empire



Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) – the ―Sun King

 The quintessential model of absolutism in Europe

o L’état, c’est moi (_______________________________________)

o France became the undisputed power in Europe during his reign

France had largest population in Europe (17 million); 20% of Europe‘s population

o French culture dominated Europe

French language became the international language of ___________________________(like English is today) and the language of the well-educated (like Latin in the Middle Ages)

France remained the epicenter of _______________________________ until the 20th century

_________________________________________ in art most evident in the works of Nicholas Poussin (1593-1665)

French drama became extremely influential

Moliere

Jean Baptiste Racine

Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661) : controlled France while Louis XIV a child

o ________________________________________: failed revolution by nobility directed against Mazarin; inspired Louis later _______________________________________________

_________________________system continued to increase the power of the king at the expense of the old nobles.

Versailles Palace: grandest and most impressive palace in Europe

o In effect, became a pleasure prison for the French nobility, over which Louis gained control

o Cost of maintaining the palace: _____________% of all royal revenues!

 Religious Policies

o Louis considered himself the head of the ____________________Church and thus did not allow _____________________ to exercise political power in France

o Edict of Fountainbleau (1685): revoked the ___________________________, thus ending religious toleration for Huguenots

o Repressed Jansenism (a kind of _________________________within Catholic Church)

Mercantilism brought to its apex by Jean-Baptiste ___________________ (1661-1683)

o State control _________________________________________________in order to achieve a favorable _____________________________________________ with other countries.

o Colbert‘s goal was economic self-sufficiency for France

Promoted ―____________________________: a nation‘s policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries.

Built _______________________ & ________________________; gov‘t supported monopolies; cracked down on guilds; reduced local tolls and tariffs; organized French trading companies for international trade: _____________________ and the ______________________.

Most important accomplishment: developed the ____________________________________

o By 1683, France leading industrial country: ________________, __________________, lace making, foundries for_______________ making and ____________________

o Weaknesses:

Poor peasant conditions (esp. taxation) resulted in __________________________________

Louis opted for army instead of______________; France later lost naval wars w/ England

War in later years nullified Colbert‘s gains; Louis at war for _______________ of his reign

Wars of Louis XIV: initially ___________________ but eventually ____________ to France

 France created a massive modern army with the potential to dominate Europe

o A system of _____________________________________ developed to keep France in check

William of ____________ (later, King William III of England) thwarted Louis‘ expansionism

o War of Devolution (First Dutch War), 1667-68: France gained 12 fortified towns along the French-Belgian border but gave up Burgundy in return.

o Second Dutch War (1672-78) – Invasion of the Dutch Rhineland

France took Franche-Comté from Spain, gained some Flemish towns, and took ___________

Represented the furthest extent of Louis XIV‘s expansion

War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97): eventually ended in status quo

o League of Augsburg (formed in 1686 to counter France‘s growing power): included the ___________________, Spain, _______________, Bavaria, _______________, Dutch Republic

o William of Orange (now king of England) brought England in against France.

War of Spanish Succession (1701-13)

o The will of Charles II (Spanish ___________________king) gave all Spanish territories to grandson of _______________________; other countries feared France would dominate

o ______________________________ sought to preserve the balance of power: England, Dutch Rep., HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savoy

o Treaty of______________ (1713): most important treaty since __________________(in 1648)

Britain was biggest winner: gained the _______________ (slave trade) from Spain; gained Gibraltar and Minorca.

Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) was given to ___________(became the Austrian Netherland)

Although Louis XIV‘s grandson enthroned, the treaty prevented the unification of Bourbon dynasties.

Kings recognized in Sardinia (Savoy) and Prussia (Brandenburg)

 Costs of Louis XIV‘s wars:

o Destroyed France‘s economy

o _____________% of French subjects died

o Huge debt placed on the _____________Estate

French gov‘t was__________________

o Financial and social tensions sowed the seeds of the _________________________________


Decline of the Spanish Empire (although it remained most powerful military until mid-17th c.)

 Foundation for _________________________ in Spain was laid by Charles V (1519-1556) and Philip II (1556-1598)

 Spanish Armada, 1588: symbolized the rise of England as a world power and the limits of Spanish dominance

 Loss of middle class: _________________ and _______________ had been expelled in large numbers (Spain‘s population declined by over ______________%)

 Spain‘s trade with its colonies fell __________% between 1610 and 1660

 Spanish treasury became ___________________

 National taxes particularly hurt the peasantry

 Inflation from the _______________hurt domestic industries that were unable to export goods

 Poor work ethic among the upper classes stunted economic growth (lack of ______________)

 Religion _________________________________ politics in domestic affairs

 Defeat in ______________________ War: politically and economically disastrous

 1640, Portugal reestablished independence.

Treaty of the ___________________________(1659): marked end of Spain as a Great Power

o Spain lost parts of Spanish Netherlands and territory in northern Spain to France

Population in 1660 had declined to 5.5 million from 7.5 million in 1550

 Spain had lost many possessions at the Treaty of _________________________(1713)


The Baroque

 Began in ______________________________________ countries to teach in a __________________ and __________________way and demonstrate the glory and ______________of the Catholic Church

o Style later spread to Protestant countries (Netherlands, northern Germany and England)

o Sought to ________________________ the viewer: emphasized grandeur, emotion, movement, spaciousness, and unity surrounding a certain theme

 Architecture and sculpture

o ______________________________(1598-1650)

Colonnade for piazza in front of ______________________________ in Rome was his greatest architectural achievement.

Sculpted the Canopy over the high altar of St. Peter’s Cathedral

His altarpiece sculpture, _______________________________, evokes tremendous emotion

His statue of ________________________________shows movement and emotion

 Painting

o Characteristics

Stressed broad areas of ___________ and __________________rather than on linear arrangements of the High Renaissance.

Color was an important element as it appealed to _______________ and more true to nature.

Not concerned with clarity of detail as with overall _________________________________.

Designed to give a spontaneous personal experience.

o ________________________ (1571-1610), Roman painter, perhaps 1st important painter of the Baroque era

Depicted highly emotional scenes

Used sharp contrasts of light and dark to create drama.

o Peter Paul ____________________________________ (1577-1640), Flemish painter

Worked for the ________________ court in Brussels (the capital of the Spanish Netherlands)

Emphasized color and sensuality; animated figures and melodramatic contrasts; monumental size.

Nearly __________________of his works dealt with _________________________subjects.

o Diego ______________________________(1599-1660)

Perhaps the greatest ___________________ painter of the era

Numerous portraits of the Spanish court and their surroundings

o Artemisia ______________________(1593-1652)

Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic scenes and her Judith paintings

 In the 17th century, the Baroque reflected the Age of _________________________________

o ________________________Palace typifies Baroque architecture

Hapsburg emperor Leopold I built _______________________ in Austria in response to the Versailles Palace

Peter the Great in Russia built the ____________________________ in St. Petersburg largely on the influence of Versailles

Frederick I in Prussia began building his palace in _________________________in 1701
 Music

o Characteristics

Belief that the text should dominate the music; the__________________________________ __________________________________________were most important

Baroque composers developed the modern system of major-minor tonalities.

Dissonance was used much more freely than during the Renaissance

o Claudio_____________________ (1547-1643) developed the opera and the modern orchestra

o J. S. ___________________(1685-1750): greatest of the ____________________ composers

Often wrote dense and polyphonic structures (in contrast to the later balance and restraint of the Classical Period—Mozart & Haydn)

Wrote in a variety of genres, both choral and instrumental, for a variety of instruments

o George Frideric ____________________________________ (1685-1759)

Like Bach, wrote in a variety of genres

His masterpiece is the oratorio __________________________________________________


The Dutch Style: 17th century painting

 Characteristics

o Did not fit the Baroque style of trying to overwhelm the viewer

o Reflected the Dutch Republic‘s wealth and _________________________ of secular subjects

o Reflected the ______________and _____________________settings of Dutch life during the Golden Age of the Netherlands

o Many works were commissioned by merchants or government organizations

______________________van Rijn (1606-1669), painter

o Perhaps the greatest of all Baroque artists _________________________________________ _______________________________________ category.

o Scenes covered an enormous range throughout his career

o Used extremes of light in the Baroque style

o His works were far more intimate and ______________________than typical Baroque works

o Painted with the restraint of the classicist style

Jan __________________________________ (1632-1675)

o Paintings of interior domestic settings of ordinary people in simple scenes


Rococo style (in France)

o Characteristics: elegance, pleasantness, ________________; contrasts ___________________ grandeur of Baroque


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