Review 12, 13, 15 & 16 Dark Ages, Medieval Period, Renaissance & Reformation Dark Ages (Late Antiquity): Fall of Rome leads to decentralized government.
Roman Catholic Church: The only stable institution was the Church, led by the Pope.
Missionaries: By the end of the Middle Ages all of Europe was Christian.
Charlemagne (814): Creates the Holy Roman Empire, creating stability in Western Europe. After his death the empire fragments.
Invasions: Vikings, Muslims and Magyars (but particularly Vikings) fragment Europe and fracture the little centralized government there is. As a result, people in Europe turned to Feudalism.
Feudalism:A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life. It involved giving up freedom for land and protection.
Chivalry: Code of conduct for knight and nobles during European feudalism.
Byzantine Empire: (330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine. Acted as a shield to protect Europe from Islam in the Middle Ages.
Justinian: Most famous of the Byzantine Emperors; attempted to reunite the empire. Helped preserve Greek and Roman culture.
Justinian’s Code: A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system. Later used as a model for European law codes.
Hagia Sophia: An impressive church (Patriarchal Basilica) built by the Byzantines.
Constantinople: Important trade route; end of the Silk Road. It makes Byzantium immensely rich.
Great Schism: Permanent split between Western & Eastern Church. Western run by Pope; Eastern by Patriarch.
Crusades: European Christian military expeditions, initially called by Pope Urban II, between the 11th and 13th centuries to retake the Middle Eastern Holy Lands occupied by the Muslims. Leads to long lasting anger between the two groups; increased trade with the Middle East; and the growth of the Renaissance (wealth for Italian port cities).
Agricultural Revolution: (1000-1300) New technology and new techniques allowed a large increase in population.
3 Field System: Planting 2 fields and leaving 1 fallow.
Manorialism: Economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord’s manor including peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lord's castle or manor house. This was a self sufficient system.
Serf: Workers that were tied to the land and were required to give labor to their lord.
Bourgeoisie: Middle Class (money class). Typically bankers or factory owners.
Guild: An association of merchants or craftspeople in medieval Europe, formed to make regulations and set standards for a particular trade or craft. One could start as an apprentice, become a journeyman & eventually a master.
Gothic Architecture: This style of architecture is characterized by stained glass windows, tall spires, flying buttresses, and pointed arches.
Black Death: An infectious disease transmitted by fleas. It is characterized by fever, chills, and the formation of swellings. Also known as the Black Plague or Bubonic Plague. Disease spread because of trade. It led to labor shortages that eventually ended feudalism.
Renaissance: A rebirth of cultural and intellectual pursuits after the stagnation of the Middle Ages. This period in European history, from about the 14th through 16th centuries, centered on a “rebirth” of Greek & Roman learning and an emphasis on the individual. It was brought about because of increased trade with the East.
Humanism: A philosophical movement during the Renaissance that stressed life on Earth, and the quality of being human. Rejected living only for the afterlife of Christianity.
DaVinci: (1452-1519) An Italian painter, sculptor, engineer, and inventor. Famous works include paintings Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Also left a variety of sketches showing flying machines and underwater boats centuries before the invention of planes and submarines.
Michelangelo: (1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Machiavelli: (1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that “the ends justifies the means.”
Reformation : The protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church during the early 16th century. Main leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin. It led to the end of religious unity in Europe and a decline in the power of the Catholic Church.
Erasmus: thought that external forms of medieval religion: pilgrimages, fasts, and relics were unnecessary. Inner piety derived from religious philosophy was more important.
Guttenberg: German printer and European pioneer in the use of movable type. “Invents” moving type. Increases literacy rates in Europe.
Causes of Reformation:
Catholic Popes were more concerned with politics and material goods than spiritual guidance (Medici Popes)
Parish priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties.
The use of indulgences was used to avoid punishment for sin.
Kings and Princes in Northern Europe resented the churches power.
Martin Luther: Monk upset about indulgences writes the 95 Theses, a document detailing what he believed to be the problems in the medieval Church. He refuses to recant his ideas and forms a new religion, Lutheranism.
Edict of Worms: Bans Martin Luther’s works and makes him an outlaw.
Peace of Augsburg: Ended Charles V’s (Hapsburg) attempt to destroy Lutherans.
John Calvin: (1509-1564) Theologian and church reformer who developed a form of Protestantism during the Reformation. His church is known for the idea of predestination, which states certain people are predestined for heaven.
Henry VIII: (1491-1547) King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation. His main purpose was to get a divorce from his wife, Katherine of Aragon. He also seized all the church land in England (about 1/3 of the property).
Act of Supremacy: declared the king of England the official head of religious doctrine, with control over discipline, clerical appointments, and breaking ties with the pope.
Counter-Reformation: The movement initiated by the Catholic Church to contain the Protestant Reformation and, if possible, end it.
Jesuits: Society of Jesus. Missionaries and educators loyal the Pope.
Council of Trent: Met to establish official Catholic doctrine in response to the Reformation.