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Sources: http://grammar.about.com/od/terms/a/APterms.htm, http://www.uky.edu/AS/Classics/rhetoric.html#24 , Sylva

Rhetoricae(http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/silva.htm)
Appendix B: Key assignment Words


Analyze

Break the issue or problem into separate parts and discuss, examine, or interpret each part and the relationships between them. Sometimes this involves looking carefully at causes

and effects.



Analyze the Argument and the Conclusion

Look at the truth and persuasiveness of the reasons given for a position and the degree to

which the conclusion is justified based on these reasons.



Compare and Contrast

Describe the similarities and differences between two objects, situations, or ideas. Sometimes this involves a before and after comparison.

Define

Tell what a particular word or term means in your essay. Usually this is not a dictionary

definition, but rather clarifies how you are using the term.



Describe

Give a detailed account, naming characteristics, parts, or qualities.

Discuss

This is a general term that covers explanations, reasoning, pro and con arguments, examples, analysis, etc.

Evaluate

This term literally means to determine the “value” of something, to discover how good or

bad something is. It usually means that you should argue that something is good or bad and then discuss your reasoning.



Explain

Help your reader understand the reasoning behind your position by showing the logical development in step-by-step fashion. You might also be asked to show how something

works or how to do something.



Illustrate

In a writing prompt, this usually does not mean to draw pictures. Instead, it means to give

examples.



Prove

This usually means that you should support your opinion with facts and arguments.

State

Tell the reader your opinion strongly and concisely.

From CSU Task Force p. 27(7/18/04)


*Registers of Language

Every language in the world has five registers


REGISTER

EXPLANATION

FROZEN

Language that is always the same. For example: Lord’s Prayer, wedding vows, etc.

FORMAL (mainly written)

The standard sentence syntax and word choice of work and school. Has complete sentences and specific word choice.

CONSULTATIVE (mainly spoken)

Formal register when used in conversation. Discourse pattern not quite as direct as formal register.

CASUAL

Language between friends and is characterized by a 400- to 800-word vocabulary. Word choice general and not specific. Conversation dependent upon non-verbal assists. Sentence syntax often incomplete.

INTIMATE

Language between lovers or twins. Language of sexual harassment.


Basic Levels of Diction Examples by Dixie Dillinger

Formal

I am not sanguine about his decision of the board.

Informal

I am not pleased with the board’s decision

Conversational

I’m not comfortable with the decision.

Colloquial

I’m not cool with what the brass did.

Slang – y

I’m ticked off at what the suits did.

Vulgar

I’m royally pissed



Co-ordinating Conjunctions: FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So.


Subordinating Conjunctions organized by general category

The word that is used as a conjunction to connect a subordinate clause to a preceding verb. . . . As a general rule, if the sentence feels just as good without the that, if no ambiguity results from its omission, if the sentence is more efficient or elegant without it, then we can safely omit the that. Theodore Bernstein lists three conditions in which we should maintain the conjunction that:

• When a time element intervenes between the verb and the clause: "The boss said yesterday that production in this department was down fifty percent." (Notice the position of "yesterday.")

• When the verb of the clause is long delayed: "Our annual report revealed that some losses sustained by this department in the third quarter of last year were worse than previously thought." (Notice the distance between the subject "losses" and its verb, "were.")

• When a second that can clear up who said or did what: "The CEO said that Isabel's department was slacking off and that production dropped precipitously in the fourth quarter." (Did the CEO say that production dropped or was the drop a result of what he said about Isabel's department? The second that makes the sentence clear.)



http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm

TIME

CAUSE/ EFFECT

OPPOSITION

CONDITION




after

as

although

as long as




before

because

as if

as though




since

in order that

even though

even if




till

now that

than

if




until

since

though

in case (that)




when

so

whereas

now that




while

so that

while

once













only if/if only













unless













whenever













wherever













whether or not













that





PAPA

(APAnalysis square, Analysis diamond)

Audience

Fill the interior space with specific evidence that supports each of the four analytical points. Show, either by position or by arrows, which point your evidence supports. Nothing should be listed that doesn’t have clear connection to those four points. No points should

be listed for which you do not provide evidence. Remember, you have passion but you have no credibility. “I say so”

has no power at this point in your life. Prove your points.

Persuasive purpose


Persona Argument

Purpose? What is the need or occasion that is causing the author to write? What action does the speaker want

the audience to take?



Audience? What is the audience the writer envisioned and what assumptions does the author make about that audience? Pathos – how does the speaker anticipate and manipulate the audience’s emotional reaction?

Persona? What persona is the writer assuming? Does the author project an authentic voice? Ethos—how does the speaker establish common values with the audience? How does the speaker create a common ground for

speaker and audience?



Argument? What is the writer’s message or argument? Logos—how is the message presented? What figurative language? What mode of discourse (compare/contrast, cause/effect, classification and division, et al.) does the speaker employ to convey the message?

(Loosely adapted from Contemporary Composition. Maxine Hurston, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986. and Greater Los Angeles AP Summer Institute 2006)

Analysis Square Audience

Alternative Shape

Persona Persuasive Purpose
Argument


SOAPSTone
Tool to begin close reading


Subject:

What is the subject of the text (the general topic, content, or ideas contained in the text)? How do you know this? How does the author present the subject? Is it introduced immediately or delayed? Is the subject hidden? Or is there more than one subject?

Occasion:


What is the rhetorical occasion (the time and place of the piece or the current situation)? Is it a memory, a description, an observation, a valedictory, an argument, a diatribe, an elegy, a declaration, a critique, a journal entry, or…?


Audience:


Who is the audience (the group of readers to whom this piece is directed)? Does the speaker identify an audience? What assumptions exist about the intended audience?


Purpose:

What is the purpose for the passage (the reason for its composition)? What is the speaker’s purpose (the reason behind the text)? How is this message conveyed? What is the message? How does the speaker try to spark a reaction in the audience: What techniques are used to achieve a purpose? How does the text make the audience feel? What is its intended effect?

Speaker:

Who is the speaker (the voice that tells the story)? Is someone identified as the speaker? What assumptions can be made about the speaker? What age, gender, class, emotional state, education or…?

Tone:

If the author were to read aloud the passage, describe the likely tone of voice. It is whatever clarifies the author’s attitude toward the subject. What emotional sense pervades the piece? How does the diction point to tone? How do the author’s diction, details, images, language and sentence structure convey his or her feelings?


2004-5 Workshop Materials for AP English Language and Composition p.42
The Rhetorical Triangle http://www.public.asu.edu/~jvanasu/rhet-triangle.htm LOGOS (idea, message)

Rhetorical Occasion or context


PATHOS (force, emotion) ETHOS (form, manner, credibility)

Every communication is essentially a trilateral relationship. Each point of the triangle influences the others, and all are influenced by the context of the communication. Each point of the triangle bears some responsibility for the success of the communication, and each



point of the triangle corresponds with one of Aristotle's three appeals (i.e., general means of persuasion).
Rational Appeals (logos) Emotional Appeals (pathos) Ethical Appeals

(ethos)


appeal to logical reasoning ability of readers
• facts

• case studies

• statistics

• experiments

• logical reasoning

• analogies

• anecdotes

• authority voices

appeal to beliefs and feelings higher emotions
• belief in fairness

• love


• pity

• etc. lower emotions

• greed

• lust


• revenge

• avarice

• etc.

sense you (author) gives as being competent/fair/authority


• trustworthiness

• credibility

• reliability

• expert testimony

• reliable sources

• fairness


Think of how one speaks to an opponent: For example on the floor of the Senate in hearted debate the speaker would refer to "My honorable opponent." This is why one refers to the "manner of delivery."


Verbs Source: Chris Baldwin. POWER VERBS:

alludes

analogizes

argues

asserts

augments

bolsters

conveys

connotes

contrasts

creates

deduces

delineates (defines)

demonstrates (proves)

depicts

develops

emphasizes

enhances

establishes

expresses

fosters

illustrates (shows)

implements

initiates

introduces

juxtaposes

permeates

portrays

presents

qualifies

reveals

specifies

transforms

WEAK VERBS:

am, is, are, be, was, were, has been, had been, have been, being, has, had, have, makes, seems, appears, uses, and utilizes, which means the same thing as uses.




abstract

Tone words (adjectives used to describe tone, diction, etc.)

Sources: Lara L. Mallard, Sarah Hayes, Dawn Hogue, Suzanne Hughes


abstruse absurd

accusatory-charging of wrong doing

acerbic admiring

aggressive

aggrieved ambivalent amused – to find

something else entertaining.

amusing – to be entertaining or pleasing

angry


animated

apathetic-indifferent due to lack of energy or concern

apprehensive - fearful archaic (old, antiquated) ardent

arrogant artificial assertive

audacious – fearless, bold, unrestrained by convention or propriety, insolent. spirited or original

awe – to feel solemn wonder

awestruck

bantering - good-humored, playful

befuddled belligerent

benevolent

bitter-exhibiting strong animosity as a result of pain or grief

bombastic (overblown, pompous

callous-unfeeling, insensitive to feelings of others

candid


caustic-intense use of sarcasm; stinging,

biting


cautionary celebratory chatty cheerful

choleric-hot-tempered, easily angered

colloquial (conversational)

comic compassionate complaining complex compliant conciliatory concrete

condescending-a feeling of superiority

confused


connotative (suggestive)

contemplative-studying, thinking, reflecting on an issue

contemptuous-showing or feeling that something is worthless or lacks respect

conventional-lacking spontaneity, originality, and individuality

critical-finding fault

cruel cultured

cynical-questions the basic sincerity and goodness of people

defiant


deflated (reduced in importance)

demeaning depressed

derisive-ridiculing,

mocking


detached - absence of emotional involvement and an aloof, impersonal objectivity

didactic-author attempts to educate or instruct the reader

dignified

diplomatic

disappointed - let down, discouraged, disillusioned, discontented

disapproving disdainful-scornful disheartened

disparaging

dispassionate distressed docile

earnest - intense, a sincere state of mind

egotistical

elegiac - mourning or expressing sorrow for that which is irrecoverably past

emotional empathetic

erudite-learned, polished, scholarly

esoteric (for the initiate)

euphemistic (inoffensive, agreeable)

evasive exact excited

factual - objective, unbiased, correct, accurate, matter-of- fact

fanciful-using the imagination fantastic (flights of

fancy)

farcical faultfinding fawning figurative flippant folksy forceful formal



forthright-directly frank without hesitation

frank frivolous

frustrated fuming

gentle ghoulish

gloomy - dark, sad,

gobbledygook(ish) (full of specific professional jargon)

grim

grotesque (bizarre, incongruous)



gullible hard

hard-hearted




haughty-proud and vain to the point of arrogance

homespun (simple, homely)

horrific - causing horror;

terrifying humble hypercritical

idiomatic (dialect)

impartial impassioned imploring impressionable inane

incensed incredulous indifferent

indignant-marked by anger aroused by injustice

inflated informal informative

insipid (dull, flat)

intense

intimate-very familiar ironic



irreverent jaded

jargon(y) (full of technical

vocab of a particular group)

jovial – happy, friendly joyous

judgmental-authoritative

and often having critical opinions

laudatory learned literal

loving


lyrical-expressing a poet’s inner feelings; emotional; full of images; song-like

macabre


malicious-purposely hurtful matter-of-fact--accepting

of conditions; not fanciful or emotional

mean-spirited metaphorical

mock-heroic - satirical

imitation or burlesque of

the heroic manner or style

mocking-treating with contempt or ridicule

modest moralistic

morose-gloomy, sullen, surly, despondent

mourning


mundane (commonplace)

naive narcissistic nasty nostalgic

objective-an unbiased view-able to leave personal judgments aside

obscure


obsequious-polite and obedient in order to gain something

obtuse (not clear/precise)

ominous – menacing, threatening

optimistic-hopeful, cheerful

ordinary outraged

outspoken pathetic

patronizing-air of

condescension pedantic - characterized

by a narrow, often ostentatious concern

for book learning and

formal rules pensive

persuasive - convincing, telling, , winning, compelling, influential,

impelling, cogent

pessimistic-seeing the worst side of things; no hope

philosophical picturesque (quaint,

charming) placating plain

playful

poetic poetic



pompous pragmatic prayerful precise

pretentious (showy)

provincial (narrow, unsophisticated)

provocative – inciting anger or sexual desire

quizzical - odd, eccentric, amusing

reflective - illustrating

innermost thoughts and emotions

reflective-illustrating innermost thoughts

and emotions

regretful - sorry, disappointed, sad, ashamed, apologetic, mournful, contrite,

remorseful - guilty, ashamed, chastened, rueful, contrite, repentant, guilt-ridden, penitent, conscience- stricken, self- reproachful

resentful resigned restrained

reticent

reverent - treating a subject with honor and respect

ribald-offensive in speech or gesture

ridiculing - slightly contemptuous banter;

making fun of

righteous

sanguine - optimistic, cheerful

sarcastic - sneering, caustic

sardonic - scornfully and

bitterly sarcastic

satiric - ridiculing to show weakness in order to make a point, teach

scathing scholarly scornful scorning

self-pitying sensationalistic sensuous (appealing to

the senses) sentimental simpering - coy,

affected, flirtatious, coquettish, kittenish

simple


sincere - without deceit or pretense; genuine

sincere-without deceit or pretense; genuine

skeptical

slang(y)


solemn – somber, deeply earnest, tending toward sad reflection

sorrowful subjective submissive

sulking

symbolic sympathetic –



compassionate, benevolent

thoughtful threatening -

menacing, intimidatory,

terrorizing, sinister

tolerant tragic

trite (boring from overuse, hackneyed)

unassuming

unbiased uneasy

urgent – insistent, importunate, compelling

immediate action

vindictive virtuous vulgar

whimsical-odd, strange, fantastic; fun

witty wondering world-weary worried wretched

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