Religion and reforms second great awakening



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AKS 37–SLAVERY & WESTWARD EXPANSION

CHAPTER

AKS 37 - explain the relationship between westward expansion and the rise of sectionalism (GPS) (SSUH_E2007-37)

RELIGION AND REFORMS

SECOND GREAT AWAKENING

  • A 19th century religious movement in which individual responsibility for seeking salvation was emphasized, along with the need for personal and social improvement.

  • Revivalism

  • Emotional meetings designed to awaken religious faith through impassioned preaching

  • Often lasted several days

  • Charles Finney one of the most noted preachers; Known as the Father of Modern Revivalism

  • Led people back into organized religion

  • The Unitarian Movement

  • Didn’t agree with the public emotionalism of the revivals

  • Still emphasized a faith in the individual

  • Believed that individual and personal reform were important

  • The African-American Church

  • Southern African Americans

  • Although segregated into their own pews; heard the same revivalist sermons as white southerners

  • Slaveholders worried that preaching’s may insight the slaves to revolt

  • Slave interpreted the Christian message as a promise of freedom for their people

  • Eastern African Americans

  • Mainly worshiped in separate black churches

  • Church eventually developed a political voice and organized the first black national convention

TRANSCENDENTALISM

  • A philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination, rather than in any organized system of belief

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson

  • Fell into religious crisis-death of his young wife- and developed transcendentalism

  • Henry David Thoreau

  • Felt that human nature could be remade; root of all reforms

  • Focused on self-reliance in transcendentalism


37a - explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics, including the rise of the Free Soil and Republican Parties, the slave Nat Turner, and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the Grimke sisters)

SLAVERY AS A POLITICAL ISSUE

FREE SOIL PARTY

  • Those who opposed slavery and wanted free soil in the new territories rather than abolition in slave states

  • Formed from the rebellious northern Democrats, anti-slavery Whigs, and members of the Liberty party

  • Split votes in the 1848 Presidential Election but could not win with Martin Van Buren as their candidate (did earn 10% of the popular vote which showed many people opposed slavery)

  • Platform “free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men”

REPUBLICAN PARTY

  • By the Mid 1950’s tensions over slavery were dividing the nation and even split religious organizations into northern and southern branches

  • Northern Whigs “Conscience Whigs”, independent Democrats and Free Soilers join together in 1854 to form the Republican party. (anti-slavery)

KNOW NOTHING PARTY

  • formed in support of Nativism (supporting native born people over immigrants)

ABOLITION

  • Early antislavery societies advocated emigration of slaves(send them back to Africa) due to African Americans being considered inferior

  • By 1820, although racial discrimination against African Americans remained, slavery had largely ended in the North.

  • Many northerners and some southerners took up the cause of abolition, a campaign to abolish slavery immediately and to grant no financial compensation to slave-owners.

  • Charles Finney(Great Revivalist) termed slavery a “great national sin”

  • As most slaves were held in southern states, abolition was a significant issue that led to growing hostility between northerners and southerners.

  • Prominent abolitionists included African Americans, whites, men, and women.

WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON

  • First white abolitionist to call for the” immediate and complete emancipation(freeing)” of enslaved people

  • Most radical white abolitionist; established the abolitionist newspaper, the “Liberator

  • Printed graphic stories of the bad treatment received by slaves.

  • Attacked churches and the government for failing to condemn slavery

FREDERICK DOUGLASS

  • Born into slavery in 1817; taught to read and write by the wife of one of his owners

  • Studied hard, realized knowledge was pathway from slavery to freedom

  • Escaped to New York disguised as a free sailor

  • Purchased his freedom from the slaveholder he had fled

  • Sponsored as a lecturer by William Lloyd Garrison (eloquent speeches on behalf of equality for African Americans, women, Native Americans, and immigrants)

  • Started his own antislavery newspaper, “The North Star

  • He published autobiographies

GRIMKE SISTERS

  • Sarah and Angelina Grimke were southern women who lectured publicly throughout the northern states about the evils of slavery they had seen growing up on a plantation.

  • Their public careers began when Garrison published a letter from Angelina in his newspaper.

SLAVERY AS A MAJOR POLITICAL ISSUE

  • Most white southerners opposed abolition.

  • White writers and public speakers argued slavery was a necessary part of life in the South.

  • The southern economy, they said, was based on large-scale agriculture that would be impossible to maintain without slave labor.

  • They also boasted that southern white culture was highly sophisticated and said it was made possible by the plantation economy.

  • Another proslavery argument claimed slaves were treated well and lived better lives than factory workers in the North.

  • In fact, some whites said they provided better lives for slaves than free blacks were able to provide themselves.

  • When settlers in the slaveholding Missouri Territory sought statehood, proslavery and antislavery politicians made slavery a central issue in national politics.

NAT TURNER’S REBELLION

  • African American preacher (Plantation slave in Virginia’s Southampton County) Nat Turner believed his mission on Earth was to free his people from slavery.

  • Seeing an 1831 solar eclipse as a message from above, he led a slave rebellion on four Virginia plantations against their masters in 1831.

  • About 60 whites were killed, and Turner was captured, tried, and executed.

  • Whites in retaliation, killed some 200 blacks with many never having heard of Nat Turner

  • To stop such uprisings, white leaders passed new (stricter) laws to limit the activities of slaves and to strengthen the institution of slaver

GROWTH OF ANTISLAVERY IN THE NORTH

FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW (1850)

  • Law authorized federal commissioners to try Negro suspects without allowing them to testify without a jury

  • Commissioner received double fee if ruled suspect was fugitive slave

  • Opened eyes to harsh treatment of suspected runaway slaves

  • Forced Northerners to think of slaves as people

PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS

  • attempt to get around the Fugitive Slave Act

  • forbids the imprisonment of runaway slaves

  • guaranteed jury trails for runaway slaves (often dragged out for 3 or 4 years)

UNCLE TOM’S CABIN

  • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe

  • Described treatment of Southern slaves; showed slavery as a brutal, cruel system

  • increased abolitionist feelings in the North

  • deeply angered the South

HORACE GREELEY

  • vigorous antislavery editorial writer

HARRIET TUBMAN

  • Famous conductor of Underground Railroad (made 19 trips and said to have saved 300)

  • network of escape routes out of the South into the North for enslaved people


37b - explain the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the issue of slavery in western states and territories (popular sovereignty)

WHAT TO DO ABOUT SLAVERY???

MISSOURI COMPROMISE (1820)

  • The state constitution proposed by Missouri allowed slavery.

  • Because half the states in the union allowed slavery while the other half did not, statehood for Missouri would upset the U.S. Senate’s equal balance between proslavery and antislavery senators.

  • This issue was resolved when Congress passed the Missouri Compromise.

  • This said Maine would be admitted to the Union as a free state, Missouri would be admitted as a slave state, and slavery would be prohibited in the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase except for Missouri.

  • Line was drawn on the parallel 36° 30’ north (N of the line except for Missouri slavery was not allowed)

  • Once again, half the states would allow slavery while the other half did not, and the Senate would retain its equal balance between proslavery and antislavery senators––until the next state asked to enter the Union.

REGIONAL DIFFERNECES EMMERGE

  • In the decades before the Civil War, three distinct regions emerged in the United States: the North, the South, and the West.

  • Sharp divisions emerged between the economies and cultures of the North and South.

  • In the West, settlers from both the North and South merged to create a distinct way of life.

  • North industrialized (railroads, factories, immigration)

  • South agricultural economy based on cotton/tobacco (slave labor and Eli Whitney’s cotton gin)

  • Wilmot Proviso---no slavery in territory gained as a result of war with Mexico

  • Passed in House; defeated in Senate

  • Favored by North; Rejected in South

  • California applies to Union as free state (angers southerners)

PRO SLAVERY ARGUMENTS

  • Some used the bible; invented the happy slave

  • Gag rule instituted in Congress--- prevented discussion in Congress about abolition; repealed in 1845

  • Slaves were property protected by the Constitution

  • As abolition gained power in the North, Southerners tended to unify in their defense of the practice

VIRGINIA DEBATE

  • Eastern and Western citizens of Virginia debate the gradual abolition of Slavery in Virginia due to Nat Turners Rebellion

  • Western People-Abolish Slavery

  • Eastern People-Keep Slavery

  • Measure was vetoed down 73-58 in the Virginia state legislature---ending the debate over slavery in the antebellum(pre-civil war) South

SLAVE CODES

  • Strengthened slave codes(education, owning land, religion); formed vigilance committees (intimidate blacks)

COMPROMISE OF 1850



  • During the 1840s, many members of Congress became increasingly concerned that the issue of slavery, especially its extension into new states, threatened the survival of the nation.

  • Those who favored slavery and those who opposed slavery therefore agreed to five laws that addressed these concerns.

  • Collectively, the five laws are known as the Compromise of 1850 which was proposed by Henry Clay

  • The state of New Mexico would be established by carving its borders from the state of Texas.

  • Adoption of Popular Sovereignty = right of residents of territories to vote for or against slavery (Good for North and South)

  • New Mexico voters would determine whether the state would permit or prohibit the practice of slavery.

  • California would be admitted to the Union as a free state (Good for North)

  • Adoption of more effective fugitive slave law- all citizens would be required to apprehend runaway slaves and return them to their owners. Those who failed to do so would be fined or imprisoned. (Good for South)

  • The slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia, but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there. (Good for North)

  • Passed after 8 months of debates most notably by Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun

  • Many northerners and southerners welcomed the passage of the Compromise of 1850 and hoped that it would preserve the Union.

  • Their hopes were dashed about a decade later when the United States became engaged in a devastating civil war.



37c - describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states' rights ideology, including the role of John C. Calhoun, and the development of sectionalism

NULLIFICATION CRISIS

NULLIICATION, SECTIONALISM, AND STATE’S RIGHTS

  • Vice President John C. Calhoun argued with President Andrew Jackson about the rights of states to nullify (cancel) federal laws they opposed.

  • Trouble, known as the Nullification Crisis, resulted when southern states sought to nullify a high tariff (tax) Congress had passed on manufactured goods imported from Europe.

  • This tariff helped northern manufacturers but hurt southern plantation owners, so legislators nullified the tariff in South Carolina.

  • Calhoun, a South Carolinian, resigned from the vice presidency to lead the efforts of the southern states in this crisis.

  • His loyalty to the interests of the southern region, or section, of the United States, not to the United States as a whole, contributed to the rise of sectionalism.

  • Calhoun and the advocates of sectionalism argued in favor of states’ rights

  • the idea that states have certain rights and political powers separate from those held by the federal government that the federal government may not violate.

  • The supporters of sectionalism were mostly southerners.

  • Their opponents were afraid that if each state could decide for itself which federal laws to obey the United States would dissolve into sectional discord or even warfare.


37d - describe the westward growth of the United States, including the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny, the acquisition of Texas, conflict with Native Americans, and the California gold rush

MANIFEST DESTINY

FRONTIER

  • Furthermost region of settlement

  • US Census Bureau: area having less than 6 but more than 2 people per square mile

  • 1840: Mississippi River

  • 1890: Frontier closed (sufficiently populated)

REASONS FOR WESTWARD MIGRATION

REASONS FOR WESTWARD MIGRATION CONT’

  • Spirit of Adventure

  • Improvement of Economic Condition (discover gold and other valuable resources)

  • Escape Creditors/Law

  • Find Harbors for trade with China

  • Greater social and political democracy/Religious Freedom

  • The belief that the United States was destined to stretch across North America (Manifest Destiny).

  • There were strong economic motivations behind this belief as well as racist beliefs about Native Americans and the Mexican people, but it became a popular political belief in the United States during the early 19th century.




  • Manifest Destiny was the name given to the idea that the United States would naturally occupy the territory between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.

  • The word manifest means “obvious,” and the word destiny means “fate.” According to Manifest Destiny, the obvious fate of the United States was to expand “from sea to shining sea.”

  • With this attitude between 1800 and 1860, the United States more than doubled in size, and the number of states expanded from 16 to 33

MIGRATION DURING ERA OF MANIFEST DESTINY

  • John O’Sullivan: described annexation of Texas in 1845 as “fulfillment of our manifest destiny”

  • Brigham Young leads Mormons west to Salt Lake City

  • Mormons were looking for religious freedom

  • Persecuted for practicing polygamy

  • Discovery of gold in California in 1848

  • “Forty-niners” head west to seek their fortune

  • Long lasting effect on the California economy


37e - describe the War with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso

WAR WITH MEXICO

RELATIONS WITH NATIVE AMERICANS

  • Plains Indians resented white settlers

  • “Middle Ground” continued to be pushed westward

  • Native Americans lacked manpower, organization, equipment, and food

  • By 1880s assigned undesirable lands (reservations)

OREGON TRAIL

  • Began in Independence, Missouri and ended in Portland, Oregon

  • Fertile soil and abundant rainfall attracted many

  • “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight”: Polk campaign slogan to occupy and take over jointly held Oregon territory from British and if that meant war so be it.

TEXAS REVOLUTION

TEXAS REVOLUTION CONT’

  • Stephen F. Austin leads ambitious Americans into Texas

  • 1830s friction between Americans and Mexican government

  • Mexico wants to halt immigration

  • Free the slaves

  • Deprive Texans of local self-government

  • Topic of Annexation of Texas causes concern

  • Refusal of US government to support the annexation of Texas results in it becoming an independent nation

  • “Remember the Alamo”



  • Sam Houston leads rebel victory at San Jacinto River and captured Santa Anna

  • 630 Mexicans killed in 15 minutes

  • Treaty of Velasco grants Texas independent/Lone Star Republic

  • Released Santa Anna because they needed him to enforce the treaty; Mexico didn’t formally accept the treaty

WAR WITH MEXICO (1846-1848)

CAUSES

  • American annexation of Texas (1845)

  • Southern boundary dispute; U.S. and Mexico disagreed over point

  • American ambition to claim additional Mexican territory (New Mexico and California)

  • President Polk uses attack on Zachary Taylor’s forces as reason for war

MILITARY EVENTS

  • General Zachary Taylor (Old Rough and Ready) won victories in northern Mexico

  • General Winfield Scott captured Vera Cruz and Mexico City

  • Captain John C. Fremont drove out Mexican settlers and captured California (Bear Flag Republic)

TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO

  • Mexicans accepted Rio Grande as southern border of Texas

  • Mexico gave up California and New Mexico (Mexican Cession)---Americans gave $15 million(nearly half of Mexico’s Territory)

  • Gadsden Purchase---$10 million for land in southern Arizona and New Mexico

WILMOT PROVISO

  • During the Mexican-American War, Congress again debated whether slavery would be allowed in New Mexico and California if these territories were acquired from Mexico.

  • The antislavery position was outlined in a proposal called the Wilmot Proviso, but the House of Representatives failed to approve it and the issue of whether to allow or prohibit slavery in new states remained unresolved.


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