Church eventually developed a political voice and organized the first black national convention
A philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination, rather than in any organized system of belief
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Fell into religious crisis-death of his young wife- and developed transcendentalism
Henry David Thoreau
Felt that human nature could be remade; root of all reforms
Focused on self-reliance in transcendentalism
37a - explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics, including the rise of the Free Soil and Republican Parties, the slave Nat Turner, and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the Grimke sisters)
SLAVERY AS A POLITICAL ISSUE
FREE SOIL PARTY
Those who opposed slavery and wanted free soil in the new territories rather than abolition in slave states
guaranteed jury trails for runaway slaves (often dragged out for 3 or 4 years)
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Described treatment of Southern slaves; showed slavery as a brutal, cruel system
increased abolitionist feelings in the North
deeply angered the South
vigorous antislavery editorial writer
Famous conductor of Underground Railroad (made 19 trips and said to have saved 300)
network of escape routes out of the South into the North for enslaved people
37b - explain the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the issue of slavery in western states and territories (popular sovereignty)
WHAT TO DO ABOUT SLAVERY???
MISSOURI COMPROMISE (1820)
The state constitution proposed by Missouri allowed slavery.
Because half the states in the union allowed slavery while the other half did not, statehood for Missouri would upset the U.S. Senate’s equal balance between proslavery and antislavery senators.
This issue was resolved when Congress passed the Missouri Compromise.
This said Maine would be admitted to the Union as a free state, Missouri would be admitted as a slave state, and slavery would be prohibited in the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase except for Missouri.
Line was drawn on the parallel 36° 30’ north (N of the line except for Missouri slavery was not allowed)
Once again, half the states would allow slavery while the other half did not, and the Senate would retain its equal balance between proslavery and antislavery senators––until the next state asked to enter the Union.
REGIONAL DIFFERNECES EMMERGE
In the decades before the Civil War, three distinct regions emerged in the United States: the North, the South, and the West.
Sharp divisions emerged between the economies and cultures of the North and South.
In the West, settlers from both the North and South merged to create a distinct way of life.
North industrialized (railroads, factories, immigration)
South agricultural economy based on cotton/tobacco (slave labor and Eli Whitney’s cotton gin)
Wilmot Proviso---no slavery in territory gained as a result of war with Mexico
Passed in House; defeated in Senate
Favored by North; Rejected in South
California applies to Union as free state (angers southerners)
PRO SLAVERY ARGUMENTS
Some used the bible; invented the happy slave
Gag rule instituted in Congress--- prevented discussion in Congress about abolition; repealed in 1845
Slaves were property protected by the Constitution
As abolition gained power in the North, Southerners tended to unify in their defense of the practice
Eastern and Western citizens of Virginia debate the gradual abolition of Slavery in Virginia due to Nat Turners Rebellion
Western People-Abolish Slavery
Eastern People-Keep Slavery
Measure was vetoed down 73-58 in the Virginia state legislature---ending the debate over slavery in the antebellum(pre-civil war) South
During the 1840s, many members of Congress became increasingly concerned that the issue of slavery, especially its extension into new states, threatened the survival of the nation.
Those who favored slavery and those who opposed slavery therefore agreed to five laws that addressed these concerns.
Collectively, the five laws are known as the Compromise of 1850 which was proposed by Henry Clay
The state of New Mexico would be established by carving its borders from the state of Texas.
Adoption of Popular Sovereignty = right of residents of territories to vote for or against slavery (Good for North and South)
New Mexico voters would determine whether the state would permit or prohibit the practice of slavery.
California would be admitted to the Union as a free state (Good for North)
Adoption of more effective fugitive slave law- all citizens would be required to apprehend runaway slaves and return them to their owners. Those who failed to do so would be fined or imprisoned. (Good for South)
The slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia, but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there. (Good for North)
Passed after 8 months of debates most notably by Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun
Many northerners and southerners welcomed the passage of the Compromise of 1850 and hoped that it would preserve the Union.
Their hopes were dashed about a decade later when the United States became engaged in a devastating civil war.
37c - describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states' rights ideology, including the role of John C. Calhoun, and the development of sectionalism
NULLIICATION, SECTIONALISM, AND STATE’S RIGHTS
Vice President John C. Calhoun argued with President Andrew Jackson about the rights of states to nullify (cancel) federal laws they opposed.
Trouble, known as the Nullification Crisis, resulted when southern states sought to nullify a high tariff (tax) Congress had passed on manufactured goods imported from Europe.
This tariff helped northern manufacturers but hurt southern plantation owners, so legislators nullified the tariff in South Carolina.
Calhoun, a South Carolinian, resigned from the vice presidency to lead the efforts of the southern states in this crisis.
His loyalty to the interests of the southern region, or section, of the United States, not to the United States as a whole, contributed to the rise of sectionalism.
Calhoun and the advocates of sectionalism argued in favor of states’ rights
the idea that states have certain rights and political powers separate from those held by the federal government that the federal government may not violate.
The supporters of sectionalism were mostly southerners.
Their opponents were afraid that if each state could decide for itself which federal laws to obey the United States would dissolve into sectional discord or even warfare.
37d - describe the westward growth of the United States, including the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny, the acquisition of Texas, conflict with Native Americans, and the California gold rush
Furthermost region of settlement
US Census Bureau: area having less than 6 but more than 2 people per square mile
1840: Mississippi River
1890: Frontier closed (sufficiently populated)
REASONS FOR WESTWARD MIGRATION
REASONS FOR WESTWARD MIGRATION CONT’
Spirit of Adventure
Improvement of Economic Condition (discover gold and other valuable resources)
Find Harbors for trade with China
Greater social and political democracy/Religious Freedom
The belief that the United States was destined to stretch across North America (Manifest Destiny).
There were strong economic motivations behind this belief as well as racist beliefs about Native Americans and the Mexican people, but it became a popular political belief in the United States during the early 19th century.
Manifest Destiny was the name given to the idea that the United States would naturally occupy the territory between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.
The word manifest means “obvious,” and the word destiny means “fate.” According to Manifest Destiny, the obvious fate of the United States was to expand “from sea to shining sea.”
With this attitude between 1800 and 1860, the United States more than doubled in size, and the number of states expanded from 16 to 33
MIGRATION DURING ERA OF MANIFEST DESTINY
John O’Sullivan: described annexation of Texas in 1845 as “fulfillment of our manifest destiny”
Brigham Young leads Mormons west to Salt Lake City
Mormons were looking for religious freedom
Persecuted for practicing polygamy
Discovery of gold in California in 1848
“Forty-niners” head west to seek their fortune
Long lasting effect on the California economy
37e - describe the War with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso
Refusal of US government to support the annexation of Texas results in it becoming an independent nation
“Remember the Alamo”
Sam Houston leads rebel victory at San Jacinto River and captured Santa Anna
630 Mexicans killed in 15 minutes
Treaty of Velasco grants Texas independent/Lone Star Republic
Released Santa Anna because they needed him to enforce the treaty; Mexico didn’t formally accept the treaty
WAR WITH MEXICO (1846-1848)
American annexation of Texas (1845)
Southern boundary dispute; U.S. and Mexico disagreed over point
American ambition to claim additional Mexican territory (New Mexico and California)
President Polk uses attack on Zachary Taylor’s forces as reason for war
General Zachary Taylor (Old Rough and Ready) won victories in northern Mexico
General Winfield Scott captured Vera Cruz and Mexico City
Captain John C. Fremont drove out Mexican settlers and captured California (Bear Flag Republic)
TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO
Mexicans accepted Rio Grande as southern border of Texas
Mexico gave up California and New Mexico (Mexican Cession)---Americans gave $15 million(nearly half of Mexico’s Territory)
Gadsden Purchase---$10 million for land in southern Arizona and New Mexico
During the Mexican-American War, Congress again debated whether slavery would be allowed in New Mexico and California if these territories were acquired from Mexico.
The antislavery position was outlined in a proposal called the Wilmot Proviso, but the House of Representatives failed to approve it and the issue of whether to allow or prohibit slavery in new states remained unresolved.