Regulations certificate and Diploma in

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Certificate and Diploma in



University of London


Regulations for the University of London

Extra-Mural Certificate and Diploma in

Psychoanalytic Psychology


This award will be of interest to: trainee or practising counsellors and therapists who would like further theoretical coverage of psychoanalytic ideas; students from other disciplines who are interested in how psychoanalysis might inform their own subject areas; anyone wishing for a systematic introduction to the theories and concepts of psychoanalysis. It should be noted, however, that the course does not constitute a professional training
While presenting the main branches of psychoanalytic theory as relatively self-contained traditions, each with its own distinctive contribution, the course will also guard against undue fragmentation and, where appropriate, highlight the commonalities and themes shared between traditions.


Open to all who apply and who feel that they may benefit.


The Certificate and Diploma consists in the following courses;
Course 1 Freudian Foundations of Psychoanalysis

Course 2 Jung and Analytical Psychology

Course 3 Kleinian and Object Relations Theories

Course 4 From Lacan to Postmodernism

Special Topic courses; a range of short (half module) courses will be offered exploring particular areas within psychoanalysis. Examples of special topic course titles include:
Psychoanalysis and Gender

Power and Inferiority: the Psychology of Adler

Fear of Freedom: Erich Fromm and Humanistic Psychoanalysis

Shame and Self Esteem

Such courses may vary from year to year depending on the availability and interest of lecturers.

For the Certificate, the equivalent of three full courses must be taken, which must include course 1. (Eg courses 1, 2 and 3 or courses 1, 2 plus two half modules). It is recommended that course 1 is taken first.

For the Diploma, the equivalent of four courses must be taken which must include course 1. It is recommended that course 1 is taken first.
Students may take more than one course at a time, bearing in mind the time required for additional study outside the class. (See below)


To be awarded the Certificate and the Diploma. students must attend the classes provided regularly, undertake the work required in each course and satisfy the examiners in the prescribed assessment.


Regular attendance amounting to 50% of the possible student contact hours is required in order for students to be eligible for assessment.


Courses 1 to 4 each involve 48 hours tuition, normally distributed over 24 weeks.
Special Topic courses involve 24 hours tuition, normally over 12 weeks.
Students should allow 2-4 hours of additional study time per week for their own reading and coursework. Classes are offered at various centres, mostly in the evening although some are also available in the daytime.
Teaching takes the form of lectures, seminars or class presentations by students , individually or in groups


Students will be expected to prepare coursework for formal assessment and such other work as may be set by the lecturer. For courses 1 to 4, the work submitted for formal assessment will amount to 4000 - 6000 words normally in four 1000 to 1500 word pieces. For the Special Topic courses, the work submitted will amount to 2000 - 3000 words in two pieces
Coursework may include essays, reviews, oral presentations, case studies and exercises appropriate to the subject.


All pieces of work submitted to the lecturer for formal assessment during the course will be submitted to the examiners for assessment. This coursework will carry 100% of the possible marks.


Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) General Credit Points

The courses for this award are assessed as CATS general credit points as follows:

30 points at level 1 for each full module successfully completed

15 points at level 1 for each half module successfully completed

90 points at level 1 for the certificate

120 points at level 1 for the diploma

Transferring with credit to other courses

Students who have completed courses for this award may find that the certificate and diploma carry exemptions for them from parts of subsequent courses they may wish to apply for. However, there may be other requirements and tests for entry. Students should consult admissions officers of the institutions concerned about their eligibility.

Transferring to degree courses in the University of London and Elsewhere

Students who have completed courses for this award may find that the certificate and diploma carry exemptions from the normal entrance requirements of the University of London and other institutions of higher education, or training, including the Open University. There may be other tests for entry. Students should consult admissions officers of the institutions concerned.


COURSE 1 Freudian Foundations of Psychoanalysis

The aim of this course is to review the major concepts and historical development of psychoanalytic thinking as conceived originally by Freud. While some of the more important post-Freudian developments will be indicated, it will be left to later options to consider these in more detail.

The Cultural and Scientific Background

The context of Freud’s early development; the emergence of psychoanalysis in Freud’s own thought.

First Formulations

Studies in hysteria, dream interpretation, psychopathology of everyday life. The emergence of technique: free association and dream analysis; some sample case histories.


Theories of psychosexual development, libido and repression, life and death instincts; the seduction theory; reactions and re-formulations.

Mental Models

Conscious and unconscious; id ego and super-ego; defence mechanisms of the ego.

Psychopathology and Analytic Treatment

Views on anxiety and neurosis; mourning and melancholia; abreaction, transference, and interpretation; the question of lay analysis.

The Psychoanalytic Movement: growth and divergence

Early breakaways, Jung and Adler; the growth of the international movement; Europe and beyond; Klein and Anna Freud; psychoanalysis in America.

Socio-political Implications and Applications

Men, women and gender; applications to history, anthropology, aesthetics. Relations with science and scientific psychology; questions of verifiability and validity.

Reading List

C Badcock Essential Freud (2nd edition, Blackwell, 1992)

A Bateman and J Holmes Introduction to Psychoanalysis (Routledge, 1995)

L Bellach Psychoanalysis as a Science (Allyn and Bacon, 1993)

S Freud New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (Pelican Freud Library 1973)

P Gay Freud: A Life for Oour Time (Papermac 1989)

E Gellner The Psychoanalytic Movement (2nd edition, Fontana, 1993)

S Frosh The Politics of Psychoanalysis (Macmillan, 1999)

A Elliot and S Frosh Psychoanalysis in Contexts (Routledge, 1995)

S Frosh For and Against Psychoanalysis (Routledge, 1997)

R Webster Why Freud Was Wrong (Fontana, 1996)

COURSE 2 Jung and Analytical Psychology

The aim of this course is to introduce Jung's theories on the structure and dynamics of the psyche, on psychopathology and psychotherapeutic technique. Post-Jungian developments in analytical psychology, and major themes of difference and convergence with post-Freudian theoretical developments will be evaluated.


An overview of Jung's model of the psyche. Freud and Jung; collaboration, libido theory and the break; implications for psychoanalysis and analytical psychology

The Archetype and the Individual

Jung's theory of archetypes and the Collective Unconscious; the personal unconscious; consciousness and the ego. Typology. Persona and Shadow. Gender: anima and animus. The Self. Archetypal unconscious and post-Jungian schools. Transpersonal psychology, religious experience and symbolism.

Development, Psychopathology and Individuation

Jungian psychodynamics; opposition, compensation and the complexes. Individuation and the stages of life; Symptoms, symbols, dreams and the transcendant function. Post-Jungian developments; Fordham's theory of the self and infancy; the marriage with Klein and object relations; Hillman and archetypal psychology.

The Analytical Process

The analytical relationship; transference and counter-transference; similarities and contrasts with Freudian emphases. The alchemical metaphor; interpretation, amplification, active imagination, and thinking. Regression and progress. Jung and the post-Freudian schools; some points of convergence in theory and technique: Kohut, Winnicott, and British object relations.

Reading List

C G Jung Memories, Dreams and Reflections (Fontana, 1983)

A Samuels Jung and the Post-Jungians (RKP 1985)

J Singer Boundaries of the Soul (2nd edition, Prism, 1994)

M Stein (ed) Jungian Analysis (2nd edition, Open Court, 1995)

A Storr Jung: Selected Writings (Fontana, 1983)

E Christopher and H M Soloman Jungian Thought in the Modern World (Free Association Books, 2000)

R M Gray Archetypal Explorations (Routledge, 1996)

R H Hopcke A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C G Jung (Shambala, 1999)

COURSE 3 Kleinian and Object Relations Theories

The aim of this course will be to review and evaluate the contributions to psychoanalysis made by Melanie Klein and her successors, including the Object Relations school.

Kleinian Theory

Developments out of Freud's work and differences from Freudian theory; work with children and the use of play; phantasy and the internal world; infantile mechanisms of splitting, projection, introjection, projective identification; the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions; part- and whole-object relating; envy and gratitude; the role of life and death instincts.

Post-Kleinian Developments

Wilfred Bion: Reverie, Containment and Thinking. Hannah Segal: symbolisation and symbolic equation.

British Object Relations Theory

Fairbairn and Guntrip: schizoid phenomena; ego and object structures; Winnicott, the mother-infant relationship, holding and the facilitating environment; transitional phenomena; the true and false self. Comparative views of the Analytic Encounter: Holding, Transference, Countertransference, Interpretation and Regression

American Contributions

The contributions of American theorists such as: Sullivan, Mahler, Kernberg, Jacobson may be reviewed.

Reading List

R Anderson (ed) Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion (Routledge 1992)

J Grotstein and D Rinsley Fairbairn and the Origins of Object Relations (Free Association Books, 1994)

N Herman My Kleinian Home (Free Association Books 1983)

M Klein Love, Guilt and Reparation (Virago 1988)

J M Quinodoz The Taming of Solitude (Routledge 1993)

J Segal Melanie Klein (Sage, 1992)

J Sayers Klenians: Psychoanalysis Inside and Out (Polity Press 2000)

J S Scharff and D E Scharff The Primer of Object Relations Therapy (Aronson 1995)
COURSE 4 Lacan to Post-Modernism

The aim of this course is to review the contributions made by Jacques Lacan to psychoanalysis and in particular their influence on the interdisciplinary movement known as cultural theory. The course will introduce the major themes underlying this approach.

Introduction and Background

Philosophical foundations; the psychoanalytic revolution; linguistic theory and structuralism; from Freud to Lacan, individual psyche to self as a social construct.

Lacan and Lacanian Themes

Subjectivity and its philosophical underpinnings; speech and the unconscious; the speaking subject and the subject in language; the mirror stage; the phallus and signification

Clinical Technique and the Cure

The role of the analyst; silence vs interpretation; transference; ethics of psychoanalysis; psychoanalytic politics in the French context.

Themes in Cultural Theory

Applications to art, film and literary criticism; gender, feminism and the phallus; language and the body; post-structuralism, deconstruction and discourse; post-modernism and cultural theory. Amongst others, the work of Derrida, Foucault, Kristeva and Lyotard will be addressed.

Reading List

M Bowie Lacan (Fontana, 1991)

A Easthope and K McGowan A Critical and Cultural Theory Reader (Open University, 1992)

A Elliott Psychoanalytic Theory: An Introduction (Blackwell, 1994)

*M Sarup Post-structuralism and Post-modernism (Harvester, 1993)

J Dor Introduction to the Reading of Lacan (The Other Press, 1998)

J Dor The Clinical Lacan (The Other Press, 1999)

D Nobus Jacques Lacan (Routledge, 2000)

*Recommended course text

The range of special topic courses offered may vary from year to year.


The regulations change from time to time; students should ensure that they keep up-to-date with any changes. There are separately published regulations on the conduct of courses, classes and final assessment. Details of the classes provided for these courses each year is available in the Programme, published in June.

Further information about this award, and about other awards and courses provided by the Faculty of Continuing Education may be obtained from:
Programme Manager for Psychology


University of London

Faculty of Continuing Education

26 Russell Square

London WC1B 5DQ
Telephone 020 7631 6669/6665

Fax 020 7631 6686
Date of last revision: June 2002

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