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REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800s
Power Point Slide Show
DIRECTIONS: Watch the slide show carefully and listen as your teacher narrates. Complete your notes page accurately as you will want to study from this for your unit test.
The first half of the nineteenth century was a time of “movers and shakers,” people who saw injustices in American society and worked to abolish those injustices. These reforms would change the lives of many individuals; they still impact us today.
1. WHAT WERE THE MAJOR REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800s?
Treatment of the MENTALLY ill
Abolition of SLAVERY
EDUCATION or COMMON SCHOOL MOVEMENT
2. VOCABULARY TO KNOW:
NINETEENTH CENTURY = 1800s
ABOLISH = eliminate; get rid of
INJUSTICE = unfairness; inequality
REFORMER = someone who changes something by correcting faults and removing abuses
3. TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL:
Leader: DOROTHEA DIX
Goal: IMPROVE TREATMENT of persons with mental illnesses
Reason: PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS WERE TREATED LIKE CRIMINALS AND LOCKED IN JAIL
D. Dorothea Dix investigated the conditions in hundreds of prisons, jails, and poorhouses. She found the prisoners were often living in inhuman conditions. Prisoners were often chained to the walls with little or no clothing, often in unheated cells.
E. Dix appealed to the Massachusetts state legislature to build more hospitals so mentally ill persons could receive treatment for a disease rather than crime.
4. VOCABULARY TO KNOW:
5. TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
A. Leader: AMERICAN TEMPERANCE UNION; RELIGIOUS LEADERS; CARRIE NATION
B. Goal: to eliminate CONSUMPTION AND ABUSE OF ALCOHOL
C. Reason: alcohol led to crime, poverty, ABUSE AND BREAKUP OF FAMILIES
D. Alcohol abuse was common, especially in the West and among urban workers.
E. Reformers blamed alcohol for POVERTY, CRIME, INSANITY AND BREAKUP OF FAMILIES
F. Employers often paid part of a worker’s wages in rum or whiskey.
G. The American TEMPERANCE Society was formed in 1826. They gave speeches, printed pamphlets, and held meetings. They tried to convince people to give up drinking alcohol.
6. VOCABULARY TO KNOW:
TEMPERANCE = restraint when using alcohol; abstinence from alcohol
7. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
A. Leaders: HARRIETT TUBMAN, Frederick DOUGLAS, Sojourner TRUTH,
William Lloyd GARRISON, and numerous anti-slavery groups
B. Goal: to eliminate SLAVERY
C. Reason: IT IS IMMORAL FOR ONE PERSON TO OWN ANOTHER HUMAN BEING.
D. By 1840, nearly 2.5 million ENSLAVED AFRICAN-AMERICANS lived in the South.
E. The Southern ECONOMY depended on slave labor.
F. The first group to speak up about the abolition of slavery was the QUAKERS, a religious group. In 1775 they formed the first anti-slavery society.
G. The American COLONIZATION Society was founded in 1817. This group set up a colony for free African Americans in LIBERIA, in Africa. It was not very successful.
H. In 1831 WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON founded The Liberator, a Boston anti-slavery newspaper. He demanded the immediate emancipation, or freeing, of all enslaved persons.
I. The North had many important and well-known African American abolitionists.
ISABELLA BAUMFREE, better known as SOJOURNER TRUTH. She gave speeches about the cruelty of slavery.
His newspaper was known as THE NORTH STAR.
J. A secret system of helping enslaved persons escape slavery in the South was known as the UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. Slaves wanted to get north of the Ohio River and into the North or even further to CANADA, which had abolished slavery.
K. HARRIET TUBMAN was a conductor on the Underground Railroad. She helped more than 300 people escape slavery. Her nickname was Moses.
William Lloyd Garrison Sojourner Truth Frederick Douglass Harriet Tubman
8. VOCABULARY TO KNOW:
ABOLITIONIST = a person who works to abolish slavery
ENSLAVED PERSON = a person who is kept in bondage; a person with no freedom
9. WOMEN’S RIGHTS
A. Leaders: Elizabeth Cady STANTON, Lucretia MOTT, Susan B. ANTHONY, and Sojourner TRUTH,
B. Goal: to obtain EQUAL RIGHTS for women, including the right to vote (SUFFRAGE), the right to own PROPERTY, and EDUCATION.
C. Reason: women did not have the same RIGHTS as men.
D. Women were first involved in the ABOLITION movement and gained important skills.
E. Women learned that they could not bring about social change if they themselves lacked SOCIAL and POLITICAL rights.
F. On July 19, 1848, the first women’s rights convention opened in SENECA FALLS, New York. The delegates issued the Seneca Falls Declaration that “all men and WOMEN are created equal.”
G. SUSAN B. ANTHONY was extremely vocal for women’s
RIGHTS. She wanted African American women to become involved. Because of her, women gained the right to have custody of their children and gain control of their own wages.
10. VOCABULARY TO KNOW:
SUFFRAGE = the right to vote
Lucretia Coffin Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony
11. EDUCATION REFORM
A. Leader: HORACE MANN
B. Goal: to educate EDUCATE ALL AMERICANS
C. Reason: more Americans were qualified to vote and needed to be able to make wise decisions about their government
D. Education was not equal around the country.
Public schools were required in most of New England
Private societies raised money to fund schools in NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA
In the South, most children learned at HOME if they learned anything at all.
E. Educational reformers started the COMMON SCHOOL movement. This meant tax-supported public schools.
F. Not everyone was allowed to pursue an education. WOMEN and AFRICAN-AMERICANS were often denied the right to an education. Colleges were established in the late 1800s for them.
12. VOCABULARY TO KNOW:
COMMON SCHOOLS = free, tax-supported schools