Reference Type: Journal Article Record Number: 139 Author



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Year: 2002

Title: Echelles des niveaux de compétence: Enseignement primaire : 4.2- Science et technologie.

The competency levels by cycle : Primary school (Québec Gouvernment)



Series Editor: Québéc, Bibliothèque nationale du

City: Montréal

Publisher: Direction de la formation générale des jeunes, Gouvernement du Québéc, Ministère de l'éducation

Number of Pages: 47-50

Short Title: Echelles des niveaux de compétence: Enseignement primaire : 4.2- Science et technologie.

The competency levels by cycle : Primary school (Québec Gouvernment)



ISBN: 2-550-39033-4

Keywords: assessment grids, Canada, skills, primary school

Abstract: Presentation of grids designed to support pedagogical interventions of teachers related to pupils learning and standard aims. They describe the progression of the pupils and thus make possible to have a global view of the skills development in order to best orient learning or to draw up evaluation.

Notes: This is the presentation of “grids” designed to support pedagogical interventions of teachers related to pupils learning and standard aims. The document should be seeing as guidelines to recognize certain stages in the development of competencies, the competency levels fall within the general field of interpretation by criteria and provide teachers with a common frame of reference to help them interpret their observations and form opinions about the development of competencies. They detail, for each competency, different levels of development along a continuum. Each level must be understood and interpreted in light of the indications provided in the Program.

These sets of competency levels are intended to support the educational approaches of teachers in relation to students’ learning and the evaluation of their competencies

Science and technology are not part of the timetable in Elementary Cycle One. The related essential knowledges are developed through the other subjects, but especially through the broad areas of learning.

Competency 1: to propose explanations for or solutions to scientific or technological problems.

Competency 2: to make the most of scientific and technological tools, objects, and procedures.

Competency 3: to communicate in the languages used in science and technology

Cycle 2 : Level 1: The student discovers a few elements of a problem.

Cycle 2 : Level 2 : The student discovers a few scientific and technological elements of a problem and uses his or her own words to explain the nature of the problem.

Cycle 2 : Level 3 : On the whole, this last level of the cycle corresponds to the end-of-cycle outcomes of the Québec Education Program. The student recognizes a few scientific and technological elements of a problem. He or she makes connections between the elements of the problem. He or she sometimes reformulates the problem in his or her own words.

Cycle 3: Level 4: The student recognizes scientific or technological elements of a problem. With help, the student makes connections between the knowledge he or she already has and his or her tentative explanations when exploring ideas related to explanations or solutions.

Cycle 3, Level 5: The student points out scientific or technological elements of a problem and uses his or her own words to explain the nature of the problem. With help in some of the more complex situations, the student makes connections between the knowledge he or she already has and his or her tentative explanations when exploring ideas related to explanations or solutions.

Cycle 3, level 6: The student points out scientific or technological elements of a problem. He or she makes connections between these elements and the problem and reformulates the problem in his or her own words. The student makes connections between the knowledge he or she already has and his or her tentative explanations when exploring ideas related to explanations or solutions.

(written by P. Lucas)

URL: http://www.meq.gouv.qc.ca/DGFJ/de/pdf/echellesduprimaire.pdf

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 39

Author: Gray, Donald; Sharp, Bob

Year: 2001

Title: Mode of Assessment and its Effect on Children’s Performance in Science

Journal: Evaluation and Research in Education

Volume: 15.

Issue: 2

Pages: 55-68

Short Title: Mode of Assessment and its Effect on Children’s Performance in Science

Keywords: assessments types, low achievers, parctically based tasks, gender differences

Abstract: The research described here was an attempt to focus on and examine the phenomenon of differential performance on different modes of assessment noticed in the Assessment of Achievement Programme (Science), in Scotland. The research examined the performance of a sample of Primary 6 (10/11 years old) children non two modes of assessment.

Comparable tasks were devised in both pencil and paper and more ‘practical’ formats and children’s performance on these tasks analysed. The assessments and procedures used were refined and repeated in a second phase. Results suggest there is evidence that children, particularly lower achievers, perform better on more interactive, practically based tasks than on comparable tasks presented in a purely pencil and paper format. There is also evidence to suggest that there may be gender related differences in performance.



Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 40

Author: HANEY, Jodi J.; MCARTHUR, Julia

Year: 2002

Title: Four case studies of prospective Science teachers' beliefs concerning constructivist teaching practices

Journal: Science education

Volume: 86

Issue: 6

Pages: 783 - 802

Short Title: Four case studies of prospective Science teachers' beliefs concerning constructivist teaching practices

Keywords: constructivist teaching practices, formative assessment, teacher assessment, CLES

Abstract: This article begins by identifying the major components of constructivist teaching practices. These components come from an article by Brooks & Brooks (1999) and describe a classroom “in which students are viewed as partners in the learning process.” The components include: an emphasis on big concepts in the curriculum, pursuit of student questions, heavy reliance on primary sources of data, viewing students as thinkers, teachers mediate and create an interactive environment, teachers value the students’ point of view, assessment is based on student learning during activities and demonstrated through exhibitions and portfolios, and students often work in groups. These components are compared with a traditional classroom, which largely consists of reliance on a fixed curriculum, textbooks, teachers behaving didactically, teachers looking for correct answers, and assessment through testing.The research section of the article looks at 4 prospective science teachers and seeks to compare their beliefs about constructivist teaching with their implementation of constructivist teaching in the classroom. The authors use a survey called the Classroom Learning Environment Survey (CLES), developed by Taylor, Fraser, and White (1994), to determine which science teachers they chose for the study. They chose four with varying scores, and therefore varying beliefs about constructivist teaching. The survey and study looked at beliefs and implementation of the following ideas by the teachers: 1) scientific uncertainty (no certain answers), 2) student negotiation (group work), 3) shared control of the curriculum by students and teacher, 4) critical voice (students’ questioning why they are studying a given topic), and 5) personal relevance of curriculum to students’ lives. The study identified the prospective teachers’ core beliefs (those that were being implemented) and peripheral beliefs (those that were not being implemented). The study found that the core beliefs of the constructivist-minded prospective teachers were #1, 2, and 5, but they were struggling to implement #3, which was called a peripheral belief. #4 was hardly mentioned. A conflict existed for the teachers who desired to implement shared control of curriculum decisions (#3). This conflict existed because of pressure on them to implement a more or less fixed curriculum which covered certain content and prepared students for state/national tests. I could very much relate to this conflict. In the conclusion, the article also brought up the idea of whether student teachers should be paired with cooperating who have the same/different beliefs about constructivist teaching practices. In two of the cases, the student teachers said they felt supported by their coop. in implementing constructivist practices, while two of the student teachers did not feel supported.

Reference Type: Electronic Book

Record Number: 144

Author: Harlen, Wynne

Year: 2002

Title:A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and tests on students' motivation for learning

Publisher: EPPI

Keywords: Summative assessment, impact of assessment

Abstract: The aims of the review were as follows: 1. To conduct a systematic review of research evidence of the impact of summative assessment and testing on students’ motivation for learning 2. To determine the conditions and processes (including teaching) associated with summative assessment and testing having a positive or a negative impact on students’ motivation for learning 3. To identify actions that could be taken to increase the positive and decrease the negative impact of assessment on students’ motivation for learning 4. To consider evidence relating motivation for learning to learning achievements and learning strategies 5. To make recommendations for policy and practice based on these findings 6. To identify questions that need to be addressed by research so that decisions on policy and practice in summative assessment can be evidence-based Review questions Thus the review was designed to identify and synthesise research relevant to the question: • What is the evidence of the impact of summative assessment and testing on students’ motivation for learning? In order to achieve all the aims of the review, it was necessary to address the further questions: How does any impact vary with the characteristics of the students and the conditions of the assessment or testing? • In those stmudies where impact on students has been reported, what is the evidence of impact on teachers and teaching? • What actions in what circumstances would increase the positive and decrease the negative impact on students of summative testing and assessment programmes? In particular, what is the evidence that any impact is increased by ‘raising’ the stakes? • What are the implications for assessment policy and practice of these findings?

Notes: "Assessment is a term that covers any activity in which evidence of learning is collected in a planned and systematic way, and is used to make a judgment about learning. If the purpose is to help in decisions about how to advance learning and the judgement is about the next steps in learning and how to take them, then the assessment is formative in function. If the purpose is to summarise the learning that had taken place in order to grade, certificate or record progress, then the assessment is summative in function." pag 6
Research Notes: Muestra el interés que tiene una evaluación sumativa realizada por el profesor en contraste con los efectos negativos de una evaluación de este tipo conducida externamente.

URL: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/EPPIWeb/dl.aspx?Path=reel%5Creview_groups%5Cassessment%5Cass_rv1&FileName=ass_rv1
Reference Type: Conference Paper

Record Number: 42

Author: Harlen, Wynne

Year: 2004

Title: Evaluating Inquiry-based Science Developments

Conference Name: Evaluation of Inquiry-based Science

Conference Location: Washington, USA

Publisher: National Research Council

Date: May 11, 2004

Keywords: inquiry implementation, formative assessment, teacher's actions, students's actions, program's impacts

Abstract: This paper is written to provide an introduction to discussions of what can be learned from existing research and experience relating to the effects of inquiry-based teaching

and learning. It considers the meaning of inquiry and of inquiry-based instruction and the obstacles to implementation and evaluation, some of which follow from the nature of the

changes in teaching that are required. Some case studies of evaluations are used to illustrate factors that need to be taken into account, and from these are drawn

implications for future evaluations.



URL: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Inquiry_Based_Science_Homepage.html

Reference Type: Electronic Book

Record Number: 145

Author: Harlen, Wynne

Year: 2004

Title:A systematic review of the evidence of the impact on students, teachers and the curriculum of the process of using assessment by teachers for summative purposes

Publisher: EPPI

Keywords: Summative assessment, impact of assessment

Abstract: Considerations of the policy and practice background to this review led to the identification of the main review question as:

What is the impact on students, teachers and the curriculum of the process of using assessment by teachers for summative purposes?

To achieve its aims the review addressed the subsidiary question: What conditions and contexts affect the nature and extent of the impact of using teachers’ assessment for summative purposes?

The findings are used to address the further question: What are the implications of the findings for policy and practice in summative assessment? The outcomes of the review are as follows: 1) the production of a map of studies reporting on the impact of using teachers’ assessment for summative purposes on students, teachers and the curriculum, 2) the identification of the implications of the findings for different user groups, principally practitioners and policy-makers, 3) publication of the full report and of short summaries for different user groups in the Research Evidence and Education Library (REEL), 4) identification of further research that is needed in this area.



URL: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/EPPIWeb/dl.aspx?Path=reel/review_groups/assessment/ass_rv4&FileName=ass_rv4
Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 44

Author: Heins, George

Year: 1990

Title: The Assessment of Hands-On Elementary Science Programs

Publisher: North Dakota Study Group on Evaluation

Short Title: The Assessment of Hands-On Elementary Science Programs

Keywords: Achievement; Educational Assessment; Elementary Education; Elementary School Science; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Evaluation Problems; Foreign Countries; Hands on Science; Measurement Techniques; Needs Assessment; Performance Factors; Science Education; Science Programs; Testing; Thinking Skills

Abstract: This document contains 15 chapters on various topics related to elementary science assessment. A comprehensive description of efforts to introduce alternatives to multiple-choice, paper and pencil tests to assess science learning is provided. The monograph includes an analysis of assessment issues, descriptions of current practice, and suggestions for new assessment methods. Part One, "Lessons from the Assessment of Reading and Writing," discusses literacy and testing, and contains papers by Brenda Engel and Patricia Stock. Part Two, "Assessment Theory," discusses thinking skills of students, and the validity of science assessments; articles are written by Audrey Champagne, Jerome Pine, and Frank Davis. In Part Three, "Large Scale Assessments," state assessments and the United Kingdom's Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) are discussed in studies by Joan Baron and Patricia Murphy. Part Four, with articles by Maryellen Harmon and Jan Mokros, and by Rosalind Driver, "Assessment in Science Education Research and Development," assesses the NSF elementary science curricula and the progress of children's understanding in science. Part Five, "New Approaches to Science Assessment," includes young children's discussion of science topics and a source of data for assessment in elementary school science based on children's investigations; contributions are by Edward Chittenden and Hubert Dyasi. (KR)

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 46

Author: HICKEY, Daniel T.; ZUIKER, Steven J.

Year: 2003

Title: A new perspective for evaluating innovative science programs

Journal: Science education

Volume: 87

Issue: 4

Pages: 539 - 563

Short Title: A new perspective for evaluating innovative science programs

Keywords: summative evaluation, science programs, individual assessment

Abstract: This paper outlines a stridently sociocultural perspective on educational program evaluation. This perspective emerged across successive attempts to evaluate science programs in a manner consistent with sociocultural views of knowing and learning, while still yielding conventional evidence of achievement. The perspective is characterized by (1) rigorous use of multiple-choice tests, performance assessments, and interpretive event-based analyses, (2) a dialectical approach to reconciling conflicting conclusions from different types of individual assessments, and between individual and event-oriented assessments, and (3) a pragmatic focus on the differences among various implementations of the innovation, with judicious, targeted use of comparison groups. Innovators facing the tension between contemporary views of knowing and learning and conventional views of accountability should find this perspective particularly useful. It is relevant for a broad range of evaluation contexts, including large-scale externally funded innovations as well as more informal practitioner-initiated studies, and should be useful in many content domains.

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 146

Author: Inspection Générale de l'Education, Nationale

Year: 2003

Title: L’École aujourd’hui

City: Paris

Institution: Inspection générale de l'éducation nationale

Pages: 19-42

Short Title: École primaire: observation et suivi de deux grands chantiers - chapter 1



Accession Number: ISBN : 2-11-005452-2

Keywords: primary school, scaling up, La main à la pâte,

Abstract: During the school year 2001-2002, the general inspection of national education was charged to ensure the follow-up of adopted measures concerning the two major primary school questions: the renovation of science and technology teaching as well as the generalization of languages teaching. Document based on Loarer's report.

URL: http://lesrapports.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/BRP/034000494/0000.pdf

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 51

Author: Jarvis, T.; Pell, A.

Year: 2002

Title: Changes in primary boys' and girls' attitudes to school and science during a two year science in-service programme.

Journal: The Curriculum Journal

Volume: 13

Issue: 1

Pages: 43-69

Short Title: Changes in primary boys' and girls' attitudes to school and science during a two year science in-service programme.

Keywords: children attitudes, in-service programme, gender

Abstract: A pupils attitude test was developed to monitor change over the two years of a primary science in-service programme. It explores pupils' views about school in general so that changes in science attitudes can be contextualized within the whole school experience; feelings towards science experiments; and perceptions of real-world science. The test was piloted with schools outside the in-service programme. Approximately 2000 pupils were tested in January 1999, September 1999 or January 2000. A random sample of children were retested in June 1999 and compared with a 'control' school. All the children in the project were tested again in July 2000. The results indicate a generally positive attitude towards coming to school, with particular preferences for work with computers and working together. As the pupils get older, their enthusiasm for science falls as they find it less difficult or demanding. This relationship appears to be broken by teacher in-service to some extent. Girls in particular showed a greater enthusiasm for independent investigative science after the programme.

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 147

Author: Kerlan, A.; Rossi, Chr.; Cottet-Emard, G.

Year: 1988

Title: Evaluer pour former : l'initiation scientifique à l'école élémentaire

Series Editor: INRP

Series Title: Rencontres pédagogiques

City: Paris

Publisher: INRP

Volume: 22

Number of Pages: 128

Short Title: Evaluer pour former : l'initiation scientifique à l'école élémentaire

ISBN: 2-7342-0194-1

Keywords: primary school, sciences, didactics, self-assessment

Abstract: The scientific activities are considered here under the scope of the assessment and more generally of the regulation. On the basis of analysis of real practices, difficulties and obstacles stated by teachers, the authors propose instruments of evaluation (self assessment, booklet of self-checking, scientific initiation booklet) and tools to manage and program activities.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 55

Author: Kern, B.B.

Year: 2002

Title: Enhancing accounting students' problem-solving skills: the use of a hands-on conceptual model in an active learning environment

Journal: Accounting Education

Volume: 11

Issue: 3

Pages: 235-256

Short Title: Enhancing accounting students' problem-solving skills: the use of a hands-on conceptual model in an active learning environment

Keywords: effects hands-on conceptual model, formative assessment, problem-solving skills

Abstract: This study documents and evaluates the effectiveness of using a hands-on conceptual model in an active learning environment in a first accounting class. A hands-on model that can be used to help students learn inventory cost allocations is described. The model's potential for enhancing student learning is assessed. Three learning scenarios are evaluated. The first is predominately a traditional lecture-oriented approach using numerical examples to illustrate concepts. The second adds the use of a model within a lecture setting. The third uses an active learning approach along with the model. Student performance and preferences are assessed. Students indicate they perceive that the model helped them understand inventory cost allocations better than solely using numerical examples. Results from an assessment instrument indicate that students who use the model in an active learning environment show enhanced problem-solving skills over that which can be attained in a lecture-oriented environment. There is no evidence, however, that the use of a conceptual hands-on model enhances conceptual recall over that which can be attained in a lecture-oriented environment.

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