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Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 17

Author: Bleicher, Robert; Lindgren, Joan

Year: 2005

Title: Success in Science Learning and Preservice Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

Journal: Journal of Science Teacher Education

Volume: 16

Issue: 3

Pages: 205-225

Short Title: Success in Science Learning and Preservice Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

Keywords: self-efficacy, preservice trainings, conceptual understanding, pedagogy, science content

Abstract: This study examined relationships between conceptual understanding, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy beliefs as preservice teachers learned science in a constructivist-oriented methods class. Participants included 49 preservice elementary teachers. Analysis revealed that participants increased in self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and conceptual understanding. Engaging preservice teachers in hands-on, minds-on activities and discussion were important contributors. Participants reported that they would be inclined to teach from a constructivist perspective in the future. One implication from this study is that increasing the quantity of science content courses that preservice elementary teachers are required to take may not be sufficient to overcome their reluctance to teach science if some of their learning does not take place in a constructivist environment. In our teaching, we have tried to integrate pedagogy with learning science content.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 18

Author: Briscoe, Carol; Wells, Elaine

Year: 2002

Title: Reforming primary science assessment practices: A case study of one teacher's professional development through action research

Journal: Science Education

Volume: 86

Issue: 3

Pages: 417-435

Short Title: Reforming primary science assessment practices: A case study of one teacher's professional development through action research

Accession Number: citeulike:387942

Keywords: acition, research, science, teacher

Abstract: Calls for reform have suggested that classroom practice can best be changed by teachers who engage in their own research. This interpretive study examines the process of action research and how it contributes to the professional development of a first-grade teacher. The purpose of the study was to explore the research process experienced by the teacher as she examined whether portfolios could be used as an effective means for facilitating and assessing young children's development of science process skills. Data sources included a journal kept by the teacher, documents produced by the teacher and students as part of the portfolio implementation process, hand-written records of teacher's informal interviews with students, and anecdotal records from research team meetings during the study. Data analysis was designed to explore how the teacher's classroom practices and thinking evolved as she engaged in action research and attempted to solve the problems associated with deciding what to assess and how to implement portfolio assessment. We also examined the factors that supported the teacher's learning and change as she progressed through the research process. Data are presented in the form of four assertions that clarify how the action research process was influenced by various personal and contextual factors. Implications address factors that facilitated the teacher as researcher, and how this research project, initiated by the teacher, affected her professional development and professional life.

Notes: 1098-237X

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sce.10021

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 19

Author: Brugiere, C.; Lacotte, J.

Year: 2001

Title: Fonctions du cahier d'expériences et role de la médiation enseignante dans un dispositif " La main à la pate " en cycle 3

Journal: Aster

Volume: 33

Pages: 135 -161

Short Title: Fonctions du cahier d'expériences et role de la médiation enseignante dans un dispositif " La main à la pate " en cycle 3

Keywords: written productions, formative assessment, primary school, La main à la pâte, science notebook

Abstract: This study examines the written work produced by a class of 9-10 years old pupils during a session on fossilisation that is part of La main à la pâte program. The program recommends the use of a "laboratory notebook" in which each pupil writes notes on the procedure followed. In this class, the notebook serves mainly to record the path followed collectively (where we left from and where we ended up) and to support individual oral expression during discussions in the classroom. The didactical analysis of the content of the notebook shows that it plays a minor role in the individual conceptual construction since the scientific reasoning, in this case is mainly elaborated in a collective manner, under the guidance of by the teacher.The verbal interactions between the teacher and the pupils lead to the production of another type of written work, transcribed in the "science exercise book", which respects the norms of the scientific discourse and which will later be memorised or even published in the scholl's scientific journal the constructivist process promoted by La main à la pâte is therefore used more during the collective oral sessions where the teacher plays an important role of mediation, than in a systematic use of their own personal writings by pupils.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 20

Author: Carlisle, J.F.; Fleming, J.E.; Gudbrandsen, B.

Year: 2000

Title: Incidental Word Learning in Science Classes

Journal: Contemporary Educational Psychology

Volume: 25

Issue: 2

Pages: 184-211

Short Title: Incidental Word Learning in Science Classes

Keywords: formative assessment, language skills, primary school, applied problems

Abstract: The purpose of the project was to investigate students' incidental word learning in science classes that depended on discussion and hands-on activities. In separate studies, 4th- and 8th-grade students were given pretests and posttests that assessed depth of knowledge of topical words used in a single unit. In both studies, students made significant improvement in their knowledge of topical words; knowledge of nontopical words did not improve. Students who started the unit with partial knowledge of topical words were likely to learn meanings appropriate for the unit. Depth of topical word knowledge also contributed significantly to improvement on a test of applied problems. While significant incidental word learning occurred over the science units, students with little or no understanding of topical words at the outset tended to make limited progress in both word learning and learning the ideas and information of the unit. The educational implications are potentially serious and need to be explored in further studies.

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 21

Author: Carulla, Cristina; Duque, Mauricio; Figueroa, María

Year: 2003

Title: Percibir el mundo con los cinco sentidos. Emociones y Razones para innovar la enseñanza de las ciencias. Siete experiencias pedagógicas de la Escuela Básica.

(Perceive the World with 5 senses. Feelings and reasons for innovating sciences teaching: 7 pedagogical experiences at primary school.)



Editor: IDEP

Book Title: Emociones y Razones para innovar la enseñanza de las ciencias. Siete experiencias pedagógicas de la Escuela Básica.

Publisher: IDEP

Short Title: Percibir el mundo con los cinco sentidos. Emociones y Razones para innovar la enseñanza de las ciencias. Siete experiencias pedagógicas de la Escuela Básica.

(Perceive the World with 5 senses. Feelings and reasons for innovating sciences teaching: 7 pedagogical experiences at primary school.)



ISBN: 958-8066-26-X

Keywords: Language, science education IBSE

Abstract: This paper presents examples of qualitative effects of inquiry based science education through the testimonies of Colombian teachers implementing it in their classes. The paper refers to the example of the school La giralda of Bogota, for low income students where, 20 classes and close to 500 children are involved in Pequeños cientificos, the local inquiry based science education program. Teachers were trained (in service training) to implement first the “insight” unit: the 5 senses. Teachers noticed that students performed their observation skills, and enhanced their scientific vocabulary related to the senses. But also teachers gain on noises discrimination. One of the problems encountered by the teachers was to leave bigger independence to students respecting to traditional teaching. First attempts were hard but with the time they were benefit for teachers management of big groups (40 students by class) and for students its was the occasion to develop their collaborative skills. About language, main initial focus was rather given to the development of oral skills, then place to written skills was given progressively. Teachers recognized that the scientific coaching was vital to implement that type of teaching in their classes. It was basically provided by under graduated engineering students of the local University that help teachers during the science sessions. Pedagogical coaching was weekly provided in order to solve teachers’ questions (visits of Karen Worth were welcome providing tips and suggestions of how better perform in the classroom. This was particularly true for questions related to students’ socialization.

(written by P. Lucas)



Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 142

Author: Charpak, Georges; Léna, Pierre; Quéré, Yves

Year: 2005

Title: L'Enfant et la science : La main à la pâte 10 ans après

Series Title: Sciences

City: Paris

Publisher: Odile Jacob

Number of Pages: 240

Short Title: L'Enfant et la science : La main à la pâte 10 ans après

ISBN: 2738116841

Keywords: La main à la pâte, France, scaling up

Abstract: Since almost 10 years, the French operation La main à la pâte has developed a broad network of teachers, trainers and scientists not only in France but through world-wide collaborations to reconcile children and teachers with science. Inquiry-based science teaching has proven to be highly eficient in revitalizing science education in primary schools. Focussing on interdisciplinary activities several exciting projects have been developed, which involve hundreds of schools at international scale and propose simple scientific activities for young pupils. Testimonies about the process, existing and future prospects.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 24

Author: Chin, C.; Kayalvizhi, G.

Year: 2002

Title: Posing Problems for Open Investigations: what questions do pupils ask?

Journal: Research in Science & Technological Education

Volume: 20

Issue: 2

Pages: 269-287

Short Title: Posing Problems for Open Investigations: what questions do pupils ask?

Keywords: questions identification, primary school, investigations, pose problems and questions

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to (a) find out the types of questions that pupils ask for open-ended science investigations, and (b) discuss how teachers can help pupils to identify problems and pose questions that are feasible for investigations. The study was conducted in a class of 39 primary 6 pupils of mixed ability. The pupils wrote down questions for two investigations that they would like to work on. The questions for the first investigation were generated individually, but those for the second investigation were posed in groups after the pupils were shown some examples of investigable questions. Among the questions that were posed individually, only 11.7% could be answered by performing hands-on investigations. Most of the questions asked were based on general knowledge and covered a wide range of topics. However, when questions were generated in groups after examples were shown, there was a significant increase in the number of questions that were amenable to science investigations (71.4%) but they related to fewer topics. A typology of investigable and non-investigable questions is proposed. Suggestions on how teachers can help pupils to pose problems and questions that are feasible for investigations are given.

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 25

Author: Chittenden, Edward; Jones, Jacqueline

Year of Conference: 1998

Title: Science Assessment in Early Childhood Programs

Conference Name: Forum on early childhood science , mathematics and technology education

Conference Location: Washington, D.C.

Pages: 17pp

Date: Feb 6- 8, 1998

Short Title: Science Assessment in Early Childhood Programs

Keywords: Alternative Assessment; Child Language; Educational Change; Evaluation Methods; Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Science Education; Student Evaluation

Abstract: The momentum toward reform of science education brings pressures on schools and teachers to evaluate or otherwise account for children's progress in science. Although this interest can bring with it a certain amount of rush to judgment, it brings an opportunity to explore assessment alternatives that are fundamentally different from conventional evaluation methods. This paper focuses on one purpose of assessment, to inform instruction and support learning, starting from the premise that the foremost function of classroom assessment in the early years is to enhance teachers' powers of observation and understanding of children's learning. The paper discusses the guiding principles of preschool assessment: (1) including multiple forms and sources of evidence; and (2) using evidence collected over time, evidence highlighting what the individual knows, and evidence showing the collective knowledge of groups of learners. The paper also discusses documentation as an approach to assessment, including children's talk, guidelines for documenting science discussions, and a sample document recording a class discussion. The paper concludes with an examination of how lessons from early literacy assessment can be applied to early science assessment. (EV)

URL: http://www.project2061.org/publications/earlychild/online/experience/cjones.htm

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 26

Author: Ciotola, Nicholas A.; Ragona, Anthony J; Ulrich, Darlene

Year: 2004

Title: A Review of The Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science 13 Year Experience Implementing Inquiry Based Learning in Illinois Public Schools

City: Chicago, IL

Institution: Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science

Pages: 35

Short Title: A Review of The Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science 13 Year Experience Implementing Inquiry Based Learning in Illinois Public Schools



Keywords: Sub-population Comparisons, Academy Performance, primary school, long term effect

Abstract: Since 1991 Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science (“TAMS” or the “Academy”) has been providing training in inquiry-based learning to schoolteachers of mathematics and science. TAMS serves exclusively teachers of students in grades pre-kindergarten through 8. Located in Chicago, Illinois the Academy has limited its professional development services to low-income public schools in the State of Illinois. The teaching and learning environments for TAMS schools are challenging. The term “low-income school” means that at least 75% of the students in the school are eligible for the free or reduced lunch program funded by the U.S. government. Much of this paper presents the results of quantitative data that shows the effects of TAMS training on schools, teachers and students. The Academy has invested much time and money in developing assessments and in gathering and analyzing data. You will see that there are issues with both the data and the analytics. The statistical work uses a number of techniques. Each technique has its limitations. However, collectively the body of analytical work points to a clear conclusion. Students of teachers practicing inquiry-based methods show significant improvement on Illinois state tests.

Notes: Since 1991 Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science (“TAMS” or the “Academy”) has been providing training in inquiry-based learning to schoolteachers of mathematics and science. TAMS serves exclusively teachers of students in grades pre-kindergarten through 8. Located in Chicago, Illinois the Academy has limited its professional development services to low-income public schools in the State of Illinois. The program focuses on the best practices in mathematics and science education, emphasizing hands-on, inquiry-based instruction.

The teaching and learning environments for TAMS schools are challenging. The term “low-income school” means that at least 75% of the students in the school are eligible for the free or reduced lunch program funded by the U.S. government.

The TAMS program consists of a two-year long, comprehensive, standards-based professional development program in mathematics and science for public elementary school teachers. Teachers from participating schools complete a series of courses totaling 120 hours specifically targeted to the teaching of mathematics and science to elementary school students. In addition to providing professional development courses, Academy personnel attend 15 actual classroom sessions of each individual teacher participating in the program. This review focuses on the research and empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of the program. Issues related to the conditions under which the program has been found to be most effective are not addressed.

Prior to beginning the program teachers complete a background questionnaire (an attitude survey and skill tests on knowledge in mathematics and science), at the end of the first year and at the conclusion of the second program year.

The information collected is used in assessing the program’s impact on teacher attitudes and content knowledge.

In addition, the Academy has collected both school-level and student-level test score information to the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (taken annually by students in Chicago District #299), as well as the Illinois Goal Achievement Program (IGAP), and the Illinois Student Achievement Test (ISAT). Quantitative data are supplemented by qualitative observations.

In this work, TAMS first had to have a clear idea of what inquiry meant. According to the standards, “Inquiry is a multifaceted activity that involves making observations; posing questions; examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known; planning investigations; reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence; using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data; proposing answers, explanations, and predictions; and communicating the results. Inquiry requires identification of assumptions, use of critical and logical thinking, and consideration of alternative explanations.

Some problems are encountered; generally they come from the teachers themselves rather than the students. Many teachers are so fearful of science and even mathematics that they struggle to let students find out information on their own.

Assessing Program “Effects”: It has at least two components:

-The first is the “Effect” the program has on teachers: the form of changes in content knowledge, teaching techniques and orientation.

- The second component is the “Effect” on student learning. How well teachers transfer the knowledge gained through their participation in TAMS coursework and how effective they are in using the new teaching skills developed in the courses to increase student learning. This is measured by changes in standardized test scores and changes in the percentage of students meeting or exceeding standards.

Results


- the impact is greater in the lower grades.

- the effect is greater in districts outside Chicago, where both student and teacher mobility are lower.

- the impact is also greater in smaller schools (less than 700 students) than in larger schools, and greater in schools where the school administration strongly endorses the program.

- While statewide the percentage of students meeting or exceeding mathematics standards in 3rd, 5th and 8th grade are higher than in Academy schools. Similarly for students meeting 4th and 7th grade science standards statewide respecting to Academy schools. The gap in performance between Academy and non-Academy schools in Chicago is much smaller.

- However, the percentage of students in Academy schools meeting or exceeding state standards in both math and science is equal to or exceeds that in similarly situated Chicago schools.

- Change over time: in Chicago, Academy schools showed increases in the percentage of students meeting or exceeding standards of 50% and 37% in mathematics and science respectively, while non-Academy schools are seen to have posted less gains of 18% and 31% in mathematics and science. Out Chicago, these percentages rise to 75 and 32 % (math, sciences respectively) into Academy schools respecting to 29% and 6% in non-Academy schools.

- For a same school in Chicago, students taught by Academy trained teachers answered a higher percentage of questions correctly than did students in the same schools who were not taught by Academy trained teachers.

- The assessment of the program’s impact on male and female students as well as an on its impact on ethnic populations was carried out: with respect to the change in the percentage of students meeting or exceeding State science standards (4th to 7th grade science), boys outperformed Academy girls and Academy African-American students out performed the Academy’s Hispanic and Caucasian students.

- Qualitative evidence of effective impact (recorded and hand-written observations)

1. Teachers attempt lessons that they would not have tried before.

2. Students that have trouble in reading, sometimes out-perform some of the other students.

3. Teachers see their students become more lively and excited when involved in hands on activities. Conversations that are focused on the activities are observed.

4. Students that were not interested in any classroom activities, are now interested in these inquiry based lessons.

5. Cooperative group skills used in mathematics and science activities are used in other subject areas.

6. Teachers incorporate graphing in more areas of their science and mathematics lessons.

7. Students extend their own knowledge by replicating investigations or rebuilding models at home.

8. Teachers begin to create different ideas for analyzing information for the science kits that they are using.

- In general, Chicago Academy schools do better than similar non-Academy schools on state standardized assessments.

(written by P. Lucas)

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