Recovery History Constructing Race: The Inidan, Black and White Roots of Mexican Americans



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Recovery History Constructing Race: The Inidan, Black and White Roots of Mexican Americans

Marthat Menchaca; University of Texas Press, 2001



  1. Racial Foundations P.14

  • Textual Politics

  • Aztlan: History, Myth or Mythologized History?

  • The Peoples of Mexico and the Southwest p.26

  • The Chicimec and the Aztec

  • Spain a history of whiteness? P. 36

  • West African Heritage: The Malinke p. 43

  • West Africa

  1. Racial Formation: Spain’s Racial Order p.48

  • Spain’s Racial Order

  • Shifting Political Alliances

  • The Noble Savage: Ideology and Practice p.51

  • Changing Intermarriage Laws: The Eve of Racial Hierarchy p.53

  • Factionalism Among the Indian Nobility and the Epidemics of Central

Mexico P. 57

  • Malinke Slaves p. 59

  • Why the Children of Black Male Slaves Were Born Free p.61

  • The Racial Order and the Move North p.63



  1. The Move North: The Gran Chichimeca and New Mexico P.67

  • The Gran Chichimeca and Indian Resistance p.68

  • Chichimec Resistance Under the Leadership of Tenamaxtle p[.72

  • Silver Mines and the Conquest of the Gran Chichimeca p.75

  • Tlaxcalan Indians P.79

  • Racial Politics Behind the Settlement of New Mexico p. 81

  • Who were the Colonists? P.83

  • The Colonists Rebel P. 88

  • The Great Rebellion and the ‘Settlement of the El Paso Valley p.90

  • The Reconquest

  • The People of New Mexico p. 95

  • The Growth of Spanish Colonies p.93



  1. The Spanish Settlement of Texas and Arizona p. 97

  • Texas Colonial Settlements

  • Civilian Colonies p.101

  • The Northeast p.105

  • Success and Failures: Laredo and West Texas p.107

  • The Canary Islanders and a Flexible Casta System p. 110

  • The Christian Indians p.113

  • Rubi’s Policy Recommendations p.174

  • The Racially Diverse People of Texas

  • The Founding of Arizona p.117

  • The Arrival of the Colonial Settlers in Arizona p. 120

  • Residential Patterns p.121

  • Blurred Racial Categories among the Colonists p.122

  • Christian Indians P. 124



  1. The Settlement of California and the Twilight of the Spanish Period p.127

  • Setting Claim to Alta California p. Establishing a Land Route Through Yuma Crossing p. 132

  • Colonies of Captains Rivera y Moncada and Juan Bautista de Anda p.135 California Mission Indians p.140

  • Broken Promises and Revenge at Yuma

  • Spanish Towns and Ranchos p[.148

  • Racial Boundaries p.154

  • Liberal Racial Legislation and Mexican Independence p.157



  1. Liberal Racial Legislation during the Mexican Period 1821-1848 P.161

  • Anglo-American Immigration: Mexico’s Strategy to Pacify the Non Christian Indians p. 163

  • Racial and Cultural Border Zones: Changing Racial Labels p.166

  • Demographics during the Mexican Period p. 169

  • Indian Acculturation and Mexican Citizenship p.173

  • Christian Indian Acculturation p. 174

  • Land: The Reorganization of the Mexican Settlements p.181



  • Privatizing Claims p.182



  1. Land, Race, and War p.184

This chapter examines the aftermath of the land reorganization laws instituted in the Southwest following Mexican Independence under the 1824 General Colonization Law of the (Mexican Federal Government)”

  • The landless Commoners of New Mexico p.190

  • Land Reforms in Arizona p.191



  1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Racialization of the Mexican

  • Population P. 215

  • Racialization: Indians Denied U.S. Citizenship

  • Citizenship and Racialization: California

  • Afromestizos and the Nomadic Indians of California

  • Citizenship and Racialization: New Mexico

  • Citizenship and Racialization: Arizona

  • Citizenship and Racialization: Texas

  • Citizenship Denied to Tribal Indians and Blacks in California

  • US Congressional Land Policies and Racialization in the Southwest

  • Texas Unfair Land Policies Affecting Blacks and Indians

  • Land Rights in Texas for Those Declared Mexicans

  • New Mexican Land and Pueblo Indians

  • New Mexicans, Communal Land Grants and Documents

  • Land in Southern Arizona

  • California Land and Indians

  • Land Displacement and the California Christian Indians

  • Mexicans and Property

  • Overlapping Claims and Ranching Elites: Different Scenarios



  1. Racial Segregation and Liberal Policies of Race and History p. 277

  • Liberal Racial Legislation: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments

  • Dismantling Naturalization Laws

  • De Jure Racial Segregation as a Response to Reverse Discrimination

  • Liberal Legislation: The End of De Jure Segregation p.290

  • Cjharge of Reverse Discrimination p. 294



  1. Epilogue p.297


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