Reconstruction Putting Humpty {America} Back Together Again

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Putting Humpty {America} Back Together Again??

I here declare my unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule -- to all political, social and business connection with the Yankees and to the Yankee race. Would that I could impress these sentiments, in their full force, on every living Southerner and bequeath them to every one yet to be born! May such sentiments be held universally in the outraged and down-trodden South, though in silence and stillness, until the now far-distant day shall arrive for just retribution for Yankee usurpation, oppression and atrocious outrages, and for deliverance and vengeance for the now ruined, subjugated and enslaved Southern States!

...And now with my latest writing and utterance, and with what will be near my latest breath, I here repeat and would willingly proclaim my unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule--to all political, social and business connections with Yankees, and the perfidious, malignant and vile Yankee race."

  • The South in Ruins

Reconstruction: Meaning and Problems

  • 1865-1877: Putting the Union back together

  • Questions to be answered:

    • What conditions should be put on Southern states before readmitting them to the Union?

    • Which branch of government – executive or legislative – should determine the conditions for return of the Southern states?

    • What political, economic, and social rights should be granted to blacks and how should these rights be enforced?

Lincoln’s Plan of Reconstruction

  • Rebellion the work of individual Southerners

  • Reconstruction was the job of the President because only the President could pardon acts against the government

  • The 10% Plan

  • Southerners (except leaders) pardoned upon taking Oath of Allegiance

  • When 10% of voters in any state took the oath, they could form a legal state government

Johnson Retained Lincoln’s Plan

  • Andrew Johnson, Vice-President, became President when Lincoln was assassinated

  • Pro-Union Tennessee Democrat

  • Followed Lincoln’s plan: Pardoned most Southerners, accepted Southern governments

  • By 1866 white Southerners had reestablished all state governments, elected Senators and Representatives, including some prominent ex-Confederates

Radical Republicans

  • Senator Charles Sumner

  • Representative Thaddeus Stevens

Congressional Condemnation of the Lincoln-Johnson Plan

  • Infringing on the Powers of Congress

    • Only Congress can admit states to Union

  • Too Lenient

    • South should be treated harshly and punished to deter future challenges to Federal authority

  • Endangered Republican Influence

    • Democrats including former Confederates, kept Blacks from voting, depriving Republicans of black votes

    • Fear that Democrats would gain control of Congress

  • Abandoned Blacks

Black Codes

  • It shall not be lawful for any freedman, free negro or mulatto to intermarry with any white person; nor for any person to intermarry with any freedman, free negro or mulatto; and any person who shall so intermarry shall be deemed guilty of felony

  • Every freedman, free negro and mulatto shall, have a lawful home or employment, and shall have written evidence thereof.

  • Must have a license authorizing him or her to do irregular and job work; or a written contract, which license may be revoked for cause at any time by the authority granting the same.

  • Every civil officer shall, and every person may, arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any freedman, free negro, or mulatto who shall have quit the service of his or her employer. Said officer and person shall be entitled to receive for arresting the sum of five dollars, and ten cents per mile from the place of arrest to the place of delivery; and the same shall be paid by the employer, and held as a set off for so much against the wages of said deserting employee.

  • All freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes in this State, over the age of eighteen years, with no lawful employment or business, or found unlawful assembling themselves together, shall be deemed vagrants, and on conviction thereof shall be fined in a sum not exceeding fifty dollars, and imprisonment at the discretion of the court not exceeding ten days.

  • All fines collected by the provisions of this act shall be paid into the county treasury. It shall be the duty of the sheriff to hire out said freedman, free negro or mulatto, to any person who will pay said fine and forfeiture and all costs:

  • If any freedman, free negro, or mulatto shall fail or refuse to pay any tax it shall be prima facie evidence of vagrancy, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff to arrest such freedman, free negro, or mulatto, and proceed at once to hire for the shortest time such delinquent taxpayer to any one who will pay the said tax.

  • No negro or freedmen shall be allowed to come within the limits of the town without special permission from his employers. .

  • "No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . .

  • No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town. . . .

  • No negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission from the mayor or president of the board of police.. ..

  • No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons....

  • No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise without permission in writing from his employer

  • Every negro [is] to be in the service of some white person, or former owner.

  • No negro, mulatto, or person of color may keep any bowie-knife, dirk, sword, firearms, or ammunition" without a license.

  • A black owning any weapon of any kind must surrender his arm or arms to the informer, stand in the pillory ... for one hour, and then [be] whipped with thirty-nine lashes on the bare back." The same penalty shall be invoked for "any person of color . . . who shall intrude himself into any religious or other public assembly of white persons or into any railroad-car or other vehicle set apart for the accommodation of white persons."

Congressional Reconstruction

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    • Gave Blacks equal rights with whites; authorized Federal troops for enforcement (Johnson vetoed - overridden)

  • Freedman’s Bureau Act

    • Set up agency to help provide schooling, food, clothing, jobs, protect civil rights. Bureau could use Federal troops for enforcement (Johnson vetoed - overridden)

  • 13th Amendment

    • Abolished slavery

  • 14th Amendment

    • Made individuals citizens of United States and state of residence

    • No state may “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law” or deny any person equal protection

    • Congress has power to enforce

  • 15th Amendment

    • Guaranteed blacks right to vote

  • Reconstruction Act
    (Johnson vetoed - overridden)

  • Divided South into five military districts with a military governor

  • To return to Union, states had to:

    • Conduct an election open to Blacks and Whites for a Constitutional Convention

    • Must guarantee black suffrage, receive approval of voters, and Congress

    • State legislature must ratify 14th and 15th amendments

  • Force Acts (1870 and 1871) kept troops in South

  • Reconstruction Acts

Impeachment of Johnson

  • Radical Republicans incensed at Johnson’s lenient policies toward South and vetoes of Freedmen’s Bureau, Civil Rights, and Reconstruction Acts and failure to act in a massacre of blacks and Republicans in New Orleans.

  • 1867 House passed Tenure in Office Act – preventing President from dismissing cabinet members without Senate approval

  • Johnson intentionally violated the Act because he thought it unconstitutional.

  • House of Representatives passed 11 Articles of Impeachment

  • Articles 1-9 and 11 relate to violation of Tenure of Office Act

  • Article 10 claims Johnson did “. . . attempt to bring into disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt and reproach the Congress of the United States.”

  • The Impeachment Trial

  • Results of the Trial

  • Johnson did not attend

  • Trial began on March 30, 1868

  • Both sides presented arguments and witnesses

  • May 16, 1868 vote was taken; 2/3 needed to convict

  • Acquitted by one vote.

Reconstruction Governments

  • Carpetbaggers

    • Northerners who went south

  • Scalawags

    • Pro-Union Southern Whites

Evaluation of Reconstruction Governments

  • Criticism of Reconstruction Governments

    • Graft & Corruption

    • Wild Spending

    • Heavy Taxation

    • High Public Debt

  • Defense of Reconstruction Governments

    • New Constitutions, guaranteed civil rights, universal manhood suffrage, fair apportionment, abolished imprisonment for debt.

    • Began to rebuild South

    • Free compulsory public education for all children

    • No more guilty of graft and corruption than northern governments

Factors Leading to Home Rule

  • Ku Klux Klan & Similar Groups

  • Increased Number of Southern White Voters

  • Waning Northern Interest in Problems of Blacks

  • Presidential Election of 1876

Results of the Civil War and Reconstruction

  • Abolition of Slavery

    • 13th Amendment

  • Legal Guarantee of Black Rights

    • 14th Amendment

    • 15th Amendment

  • Legal Discrimination in the South

    • Segregation

    • Poll taxes and Literacy Tests

Literacy Test

  • Who is the President of the U.S.?

  • What is the term of office of the President of the U.S.?

  • May the President be legally elected for a second term?

  • If the President of the U.S. dies in office who succeeds him?

  • How may groups compose the Congress of the United States?

  • How many United States Senators are there from California?

  • What is the term of office of a United States Senator?

  • Who are the United States Senators from California?

  • Who is the Governor of California?

  • Who is the Lieutenant Governor of California?

  • Who is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California?

  • Who is the chief judge of the Court of Appeals of California?

  • Into what two groups is the legislature of California divided?

  • Does each county have at least one representative in the Assembly?

  • Do all counties have the same number of representatives in the Assembly?

  • In what city are the laws of the United States made?

  • How old do you have to be to vote in California?

  • How many states are there in the United States?

  • What is the capital of the United States?

  • Who is the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army?

  • In what Congressional District do you live?

  • Who represents your Congressional District in the House of Representatives?

  • In what State Senatorial district do you live?

  • Who is the State Senator that represents your Senatorial District?

  • Who represents your county in the Assembly?

  • In what county do you live?

  • What is the name of the county seat of your county?

  • Who is Public Defender in your county?

  • Who is the Judge of the Superior Court in your county? If there is more than one, list all.

  • Who is the Secretary of State of California?

Results Continued

  • Beginnings of Education for Blacks

    • Although segregated

  • Supremacy of the Federal Government

    • Settled by force of arms

  • Official National Thanksgiving Day

    • Officially declared by Lincoln in 1863 as the last Thursday in November

  • Expansion of Presidential Power

    • War Powers”

    • The “Solid South”

    • Democratic voting block for almost 100 years

  • Economic Prosperity in the North and Improvement of Southern Economy

    • Industrialization

  • Technology

    • Arms/weapons

    • Anesthetics

    • Medical Care

Final Result: The Last West

  • Outlaw Gangs:

    • James, Younger, Dalton, Wellman, Dynasty of Western Outlaws

  • Homestead Act

    • Passed after South seceded

  • Transcontinental Railroad

    • Passed after South seceded

    • Brought settlers to plains

    • Destroyed Buffalo

    • Wellman’s Dynasty of Outlaws

  • Indian Wars

    • Reaction to destruction of buffalo and settlers

    • Reaction to the Reservation System

  • Long Drive

    • Wild cattle in Texas during the war

    • Demand for food in East

    • Railroad provided viable transportation

    • Drive from Texas to Kansas, etc.

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