I here declare my unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule -- to all political, social and business connection with the Yankees and to the Yankee race. Would that I could impress these sentiments, in their full force, on every living Southerner and bequeath them to every one yet to be born! May such sentiments be held universally in the outraged and down-trodden South, though in silence and stillness, until the now far-distant day shall arrive for just retribution for Yankee usurpation, oppression and atrocious outrages, and for deliverance and vengeance for the now ruined, subjugated and enslaved Southern States!
...And now with my latest writing and utterance, and with what will be near my latest breath, I here repeat and would willingly proclaim my unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule--to all political, social and business connections with Yankees, and the perfidious, malignant and vile Yankee race."
The South in Ruins
Reconstruction: Meaning and Problems
1865-1877: Putting the Union back together
Questions to be answered:
What conditions should be put on Southern states before readmitting them to the Union?
Which branch of government – executive or legislative – should determine the conditions for return of the Southern states?
What political, economic, and social rights should be granted to blacks and how should these rights be enforced?
South should be treated harshly and punished to deter future challenges to Federal authority
Endangered Republican Influence
Democrats including former Confederates, kept Blacks from voting, depriving Republicans of black votes
Fear that Democrats would gain control of Congress
It shall not be lawful for any freedman, free negro or mulatto to intermarry with any white person; nor for any person to intermarry with any freedman, free negro or mulatto; and any person who shall so intermarry shall be deemed guilty of felony
Every freedman, free negro and mulatto shall, have a lawful home or employment, and shall have written evidence thereof.
Must have a license authorizing him or her to do irregular and job work; or a written contract, which license may be revoked for cause at any time by the authority granting the same.
Every civil officer shall, and every person may, arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any freedman, free negro, or mulatto who shall have quit the service of his or her employer. Said officer and person shall be entitled to receive for arresting the sum of five dollars, and ten cents per mile from the place of arrest to the place of delivery; and the same shall be paid by the employer, and held as a set off for so much against the wages of said deserting employee.
All freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes in this State, over the age of eighteen years, with no lawful employment or business, or found unlawful assembling themselves together, shall be deemed vagrants, and on conviction thereof shall be fined in a sum not exceeding fifty dollars, and imprisonment at the discretion of the court not exceeding ten days.
All fines collected by the provisions of this act shall be paid into the county treasury. It shall be the duty of the sheriff to hire out said freedman, free negro or mulatto, to any person who will pay said fine and forfeiture and all costs:
If any freedman, free negro, or mulatto shall fail or refuse to pay any tax it shall be prima facie evidence of vagrancy, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff to arrest such freedman, free negro, or mulatto, and proceed at once to hire for the shortest time such delinquent taxpayer to any one who will pay the said tax.
“No negro or freedmen shall be allowed to come within the limits of the town without special permission from his employers. .
"No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . .
No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town. . . .
No negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission from the mayor or president of the board of police.. ..
No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons....
No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise without permission in writing from his employer
Every negro [is] to be in the service of some white person, or former owner.
“No negro, mulatto, or person of color may keep any bowie-knife, dirk, sword, firearms, or ammunition" without a license.
A black owning any weapon of any kind must surrender his arm or arms to the informer, stand in the pillory ... for one hour, and then [be] whipped with thirty-nine lashes on the bare back." The same penalty shall be invoked for "any person of color . . . who shall intrude himself into any religious or other public assembly of white persons or into any railroad-car or other vehicle set apart for the accommodation of white persons."
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave Blacks equal rights with whites; authorized Federal troops for enforcement (Johnson vetoed - overridden)
Freedman’s Bureau Act
Set up agency to help provide schooling, food, clothing, jobs, protect civil rights. Bureau could use Federal troops for enforcement (Johnson vetoed - overridden)
Made individuals citizens of United States and state of residence
No state may “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law” or deny any person equal protection
Congress has power to enforce
Guaranteed blacks right to vote
Reconstruction Act (Johnson vetoed - overridden)
Divided South into five military districts with a military governor
To return to Union, states had to:
Conduct an election open to Blacks and Whites for a Constitutional Convention
Must guarantee black suffrage, receive approval of voters, and Congress
State legislature must ratify 14th and 15th amendments
Force Acts (1870 and 1871) kept troops in South
Impeachment of Johnson
Radical Republicans incensed at Johnson’s lenient policies toward South and vetoes of Freedmen’s Bureau, Civil Rights, and Reconstruction Acts and failure to act in a massacre of blacks and Republicans in New Orleans.
1867 House passed Tenure in Office Act – preventing President from dismissing cabinet members without Senate approval
Johnson intentionally violated the Act because he thought it unconstitutional.
House of Representatives passed 11 Articles of Impeachment
Articles 1-9 and 11 relate to violation of Tenure of Office Act
Article 10 claims Johnson did “. . . attempt to bring into disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt and reproach the Congress of the United States.”