Reading Test



Download 165.66 Kb.
Page5/6
Date conversion16.05.2016
Size165.66 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6

Answers and Explanations for Questions 31 through 41




Explanation for question 31.

Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 3, the authors of Passage 1 state society’s “common happiness” is dependent on women never becoming involved in politics. In this context, the authors of Passage 1 are suggesting that all members of society can have a “common,” or shared, happiness.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context, “common” does not mean average, coarse, or similar.
Explanation for question 32.

Choice C is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 3, the authors of Passage 1 state that women should seek “gentle occupations and the cares of the home” so they can avoid performing difficult, or “strenuous,” and unpleasant, or “onerous,” tasks.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because the authors of Passage 1 do not suggest that running a household and raising children are rewarding for both sexes, yield less value for society, or require professional or political skills.
Explanation for question 33.

Choice C is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 3, the authors of Passage 1 provide evidence that women should run households and raise children because these roles do not require “strenuous habits and onerous duties.”
Choices A, B, and D do not provide the best evidence that running a household and raising children entail very few activities that are difficult or unpleasant; rather, these lines offer general information about the differences between the sexes.
Explanation for question 34.

Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 1, paragraph 1 of passage 2, Wollstonecraft argues that if women do not receive an education “to become the companion of man,” or one that is comparable to men’s education, then society will not progress in “knowledge and virtue.”
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because Wollstonecraft does not suggest that society can progress only if women have happiness and financial security, follow societal rules, or replace men as figures of power.
Explanation for question 35.

Choice C is the best answer. Wollstonecraft argues that women should be granted an education comparable to men’s so that truth is “common to all” (sentence 1, paragraph 1 of passage 2). Wollstonecraft states that education will “strengthen [women’s] reason till she comprehend her duty” (sentence 2 of paragraph 1). In this context, Wollstonecraft is arguing that education will improve women’s “reason,” or intellect, and allow women to consider their role in society.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because in this context “reason” does not mean motive, sanity, or explanation.
Explanation for question 36.

Choice A is the best answer. In sentence 1, paragraph 3 of passage 2, Wollstonecraft argues that the laws passed by society’s leaders allow men to “contend for their freedom” but serve to “subjugate women.” In this context, “subjugate” means to control. Wollstonecraft is arguing that society’s leaders grant men freedoms that are denied to women.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because Wollstonecraft does not claim that society’s leaders have granted freedoms that created a general reduction in individual virtue, caused arguments about happiness, or ensured equality for all people.
Explanation for question 37.

Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 1, paragraph 3 of passage 2, Wollstonecraft provides evidence that society’s leaders grant freedoms that privilege men. She argues that while society’s leaders believe they “are acting in the manner best calculated to promote [women’s] happiness,” their decisions don’t allow women to “contend for their freedom.”
Choices A, B, and D do not provide the best evidence that society’s leaders grant freedoms that privilege men over women.
Explanation for question 38.

Choice C is the best answer. Wollstonecraft cites the statement made by the authors of Passage 1 that excluding women from political participation is “according to abstract principles . . . impossible to explain” (sentence 1, paragraph 2 of passage 2). Wollstonecraft then states that if the authors of Passage 1 can discuss “the abstract rights of man” they should be able to discuss the abstract rights of women (sentence 3 of paragraph 2). In these lines, Wollstonecraft is developing her argument by highlighting a flaw in the reasoning presented by the authors of Passage 1.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because Wollstonecraft does not refer to the statement made in Passage 1 to call into question the authors’ qualifications, dispute the assertion that women are excluded by their own government (sentence 1, paragraph 1 of Passage 1), or validate the authors’ conclusions on gender roles.
Explanation for question 39.

Choice A is the best answer. The authors of Passage 1 argue that while restricting women’s freedoms may be “impossible to explain” (sentence 1, paragraph 1 of passage 1), this restriction is necessary for society’s overall happiness (sentence 5 of paragraph 1). Wollstonecraft, however, strongly challenges this argument, asking the authors of Passage 1, “Who made man the exclusive judge” of which freedoms are granted to women, and likening society’s male leaders to tyrants as they deny women their “civil and political rights” and leave them “groping in the dark” (sentence 2, paragraph 3 through sentence 2, paragraph 4 of passage 2).
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because they do not characterize the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2.
Explanation for question 40.

Choice D is the best answer. The authors of Passage 1 admit that women are “excluded by the other half [men] from any participation in government” (sentence 1, paragraph 1 of passage 1), and Wollstonecraft states that society’s male leaders create laws that deny women “civil and political rights” (sentence 2, paragraph 4 of passage 2).
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the authors of both passages would not agree that women had the same preferences as men, required a good education, or were as happy as men.
Explanation for question 41.

Choice A is the best answer. Wollstonecraft argues in the final paragraph of Passage 2 that society’s male leaders are like “tyrants” that deny women “civil and political rights” (sentences 1 and 2 of paragraph 4). The authors of Passage 1 would most likely argue that allowing women these rights would be “a reversal of [society’s] primary destinies” as society’s leaders should only seek women’s interests as they pertain to the “wishes of nature,” such as women’s role as mothers (sentence 1, paragraph 2 through sentence 3, paragraph 3 of passage 1). The authors of Passage 1 clarify that “nature” created two sexes for a particular reason, so while men can exercise civil and political rights, women are not naturally suited to these activities (sentences 4 and 5 of paragraph 3).
Choices B and C are incorrect because they are not supported by information in Passage 1. Choice D is incorrect because the authors of Passage 1 do not mention “natural law,” only the “wishes of nature.”
This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 31 through 41. Go on to the next page to begin a new passage.


Questions 42 through 52 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.



This passage is adapted from Richard J. Sharpe and Lisa Heyden, “Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder is Possibly Caused by a Dietary Pyrethrum Deficiency.” ©2009 by Elsevier Ltd. Colony collapse disorder is characterized by the disappearance of adult worker bees from hives.
Honey bees are hosts to the pathogenic large ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Varroa mites). These mites feed on bee hemolymph (blood) and can kill bees directly or by increasing their susceptibility to secondary infection with fungi, bacteria or viruses. Little is known about the natural defenses that keep the mite infections under control.
Pyrethrums are a group of flowering plants which include Chrysanthemum coccineum, Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, Chrysanthemum marschalli, and related species. These plants produce potent insecticides with antimite activity. The naturally occurring insecticides are known as pyrethrums. A synonym for the naturally occurring pyrethrums is pyrethrin and synthetic analogues of pyrethrums are known as pyrethroids. In fact, the human mite infestation known as scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei) is treated with a topical pyrethrum cream.
We suspect that the bees of commercial bee colonies which are fed monocrops are nutritionally deficient. In particular, we postulate that the problem is a diet deficient in antimite toxins: pyrethrums, and possibly other nutrients which are inherent in such plants. Without, at least, intermittent feeding on the pyrethrum producing plants, bee colonies are susceptible to mite infestations which can become fatal either directly or due to a secondary infection of immunocompromised or nutritionally deficient bees. This secondary infection can be viral, bacterial or fungal and may be due to one or more pathogens. In addition, immunocompromised or nutritionally deficient bees may be further weakened when commercially produced insecticides are introduced into their hives by bee keepers in an effort to fight mite infestation. We further postulate that the proper dosage necessary to prevent mite infestation may be better left to the bees, who may seek out or avoid pyrethrum containing plants depending on the amount necessary to defend against mites and the amount already consumed by the bees, which in higher doses could be potentially toxic to them.
This hypothesis can best be tested by a trial wherein a small number of commercial honey bee colonies are offered a number of pyrethrum producing plants, as well as a typical bee food source such as clover, while controls are offered only the clover. Mites could then be introduced to each hive with note made as to the choice of the bees, and the effects of the mite parasites on the experimental colonies versus control colonies.
It might be beneficial to test wildtype honey bee colonies in this manner as well, in case there could be some genetic difference between them that affects the bees’ preferences for pyrethrum producing flowers.

Pathogen Occurrence in Honey Bee Colonies With and Without Colony Collapse Disorder






Percent of colonies affected by pathogen

Pathogen

Colonies with colony collapse disorder (%)

Colonies without colony collapse disorder (%)

Viruses







I A P V

83

5

K B V

100

76

Fungi







Nosema apis

90

48

Nosema ceranae

100

81

All four pathogens

77

0

Adapted from Diana L. CoxFoster et al., “A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Collapse Disorder.” ©2007 by American Association for the Advancement of Science.


The preceding table shows, for colonies with colony collapse disorder and for colonies without colony collapse disorder, the percent of colonies having honey bees infected by each of four pathogens and by all four pathogens together.
Question 42.

How do the words “can,” “may,” and “could” in the third paragraph help establish the tone of the paragraph?

A. They create an optimistic tone that makes clear the authors are hopeful about the effects of their research on colony collapse disorder.

B. They create a dubious tone that makes clear the authors do not have confidence in the usefulness of the research described.

C. They create a tentative tone that makes clear the authors suspect but do not know that their hypothesis is correct.

D. They create a critical tone that makes clear the authors are skeptical of claims that pyrethrums are inherent in monocrops.

Explanation for question 42.
Question 43.

In sentence 1 of paragraph 4, the authors state that a certain hypothesis “can best be tested by a trial.” Based on the passage, which of the following is a hypothesis the authors suggest be tested in a trial?

A. Honeybees that are exposed to both pyrethrums and mites are likely to develop a secondary infection by a virus, a bacterium, or a fungus.

B. Beekeepers who feed their honeybee colonies a diet of a single crop need to increase the use of insecticides to prevent mite infestations.

C. A honeybee diet that includes pyrethrums results in honeybee colonies that are more resistant to mite infestations.

D. Humans are more susceptible to varroa mites as a result of consuming nutritionally deficient food crops.

Explanation for question 43.
Question 44.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 43?

A. “These mites feed on bee hemolymph (blood) and can kill bees directly or by increasing their susceptibility to secondary infection with fungi, bacteria or viruses.”

B. “In fact, the human mite infestation known as scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei) is treated with a topical pyrethrum cream.”

C. “We suspect that the bees of commercial bee colonies which are fed monocrops are nutritionally deficient.”

D. “Without, at least, intermittent feeding on the pyrethrum producing plants, bee colonies are susceptible to mite infestations which can become fatal either directly or due to a secondary infection of immunocompromised or nutritionally deficient bees.”

Explanation for question 44.



Question 45.

The passage most strongly suggests that beekeepers’ attempts to fight mite infestations with commercially produced insecticides have what unintentional effect?

A. They increase certain mite populations.

B. They kill some beneficial forms of bacteria.

C. They destroy bees’ primary food source.

D. They further harm the health of some bees.

Explanation for question 45.
Question 46.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 45?

A. “Honey bees are hosts to the pathogenic large ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Varroa mites).”

B. “Little is known about the natural defenses that keep the mite infections under control.”

C. “In addition, immunocompromised or nutritionally deficient bees may be further weakened when commercially produced insecticides are introduced into their hives by bee keepers in an effort to fight mite infestation.”

D. “Mites could then be introduced to each hive with note made as to the choice of the bees, and the effects of the mite parasites on the experimental colonies versus control colonies.”

Explanation for question 46.



Question 47.

As used in sentence 6 of paragraph 3, “postulate” most nearly means to

A. make an unfounded assumption.

B. put forth an idea or claim.

C. question a belief or theory.

D. conclude based on firm evidence.

Explanation for question 47.



Question 48.

The main purpose of the fourth paragraph is to

A. summarize the results of an experiment that confirmed the authors’ hypothesis about the role of clover in the diets of wild-type honeybees.

B. propose an experiment to investigate how different diets affect commercial honeybee colonies’ susceptibility to mite infestations.

C. provide a comparative nutritional analysis of the honey produced by the experimental colonies and by the control colonies.

D. predict the most likely outcome of an unfinished experiment summarized in the third paragraph.

Explanation for question 48.



Question 49.

An unstated assumption made by the authors about clover is that the plants

A. do not produce pyrethrums.

B. are members of the Chrysanthemum genus.

C. are usually located near wild-type honeybee colonies.

D. will not be a good food source for honeybees in the control colonies.

Explanation for question 49.
Question 50.

Based on data in the table, in what percent of colonies with colony collapse disorder were the honeybees infected by all four pathogens?

A. 0 percent

B. 77 percent

C. 83 percent

D. 100 percent

Explanation for question 50.



Question 51.

Based on data in the table, which of the four pathogens infected the highest percentage of honeybee colonies without colony collapse disorder?

A. I A P V

B. K B V

C. Nosema apis

D. Nosema ceranae

Explanation for question 51.
Question 52.

Do the data in the table provide support for the authors’ claim that infection with varroa mites increases a honeybee’s susceptibility to secondary infections?

A. Yes, because the data provide evidence that infection with a pathogen caused the colonies to undergo colony collapse disorder.

B. Yes, because for each pathogen, the percent of colonies infected is greater for colonies with colony collapse disorder than for colonies without colony collapse disorder.

C. No, because the data do not provide evidence about bacteria as a cause of colony collapse disorder.

D. No, because the data do not indicate whether the honeybees had been infected with mites.

Explanation for question 52.


Stop

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section.
Answers and explanations for questions 42 through 52 are provided in the next section of this document.


1   2   3   4   5   6


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page