Answers and Explanations for Questions 21 through 30
Explanation for question 21.
Choice D is the best answer. The author explains that Ken Dial created an experiment to study the evolution of flight by observing how baby Chukars learn to fly. During the experiment, Dial noticed the unusual way Chukars use their “‘wings and legs cooperatively’” to scale hay bales (sentences 4 and 6 of paragraph 3), and he created “a series of ingenious experiments” (sentence 1 of paragraph 4) to study this observation. After his additional experiments, Dial determined that these baby birds angle “their wings differently from birds in flight” (sentence 2 of paragraph 4).
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because they do not accurately reflect the sequence of events in the passage.
Explanation for question 22.
Choice A is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 1, the author explains that Dial was “challenged,” or dared, by graduate students to develop “new data” on a long-standing scientific debate (the “ground-up-tree-down” theory).
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because in this context “challenged” does not mean required, disputed with, or competed with.
Explanation for question 23.
Choice A is the best answer. The author explains that Dial created his initial experiment to try and create “new data on the age-old ground-up-tree-down-debate,” and that he looked for “clues” in “how baby game birds learned to fly” (sentence 3 of paragraph 1). The note at the beginning of the passage explains the “age-old ground-up-tree-down debate” and offers two different theories on how birds evolved to fly. Finally, the last paragraph of the passage discusses W A I R in an evolutionary context.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because they do not identify Dial’s central assumption in setting up his research.
Explanation for question 24.
Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 1, the author provides evidence that Dial’s central assumption in setting up his research is that the acquisition of flight in young birds is linked to the acquisition of flight in their ancestors. The author notes that Dial created a project to “come up with new data on the age-old ground-up-tree-down debate.”
Choices A, B, and C do not provide the best evidence that Dial’s central assumption in setting up his research is that the acquisition of flight in young birds is linked to the acquisition of flight in their ancestors. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because they focus on Dial’s experiment and his observations on ground birds.
Explanation for question 25.
Choice C is the best answer. When a rancher observed Dial’s laboratory setup, he was “incredulous” that the Chukars were living on the ground, and he advised Dial to give the birds “something to climb on” (sentences 2 through 5 of paragraph 2). This “key piece of advice” (sentence 1 of paragraph 2) led Dial to add hay bales to his laboratory. Dial later noticed that the Chukars were using their legs and wings to scale the hay bales, and this observation became the focal point of his research.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the incident with the local rancher did not serve to reveal Dial’s motivation for creating the project, emphasize differences in laboratory and field research, or introduce a contributor to a scientific theory.
Explanation for question 26.
Choice C is the best answer. The author explains that Dial’s “‘aha’ moment” came when he determined the Chukars used “their legs and wings cooperatively” to scale the hay bales (sentences 5 and 6 of paragraph 3). Dial then created additional experiments to study how the birds dealt with gradually steeper inclines: “[he filmed] the birds as they raced up textured ramps tilted at increasing angles” (sentence 1 of paragraph 4).
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because Dial’s “‘aha moment’” was not followed by Dial teaching the birds to fly, studying videos to find out why the birds no longer hopped, or consulting with other researchers.
Explanation for question 27.
Choice B is the best answer. Dial observed that as the Chukars raced up steep ramps, they “began to flap” and “aimed their flapping down and backward, using the force . . . to keep their feet firmly pressed against the ramp” (sentences 2 and 3 of paragraph 4). Dial determined that the position of their flapping wings facilitated the baby Chukars’ traction on the steep ramps.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because the passage does not indicate that the Chukars’ speed, alternation of wing and foot movement, or continual hopping movements facilitated their traction on steep ramps.
Explanation for question 28.
Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 5, the author explains that Dial named his scientific finding “W A I R, for wingassisted incline running, and went on to document it in a wide range of species.” In this context, Dial “documented,” or recorded, the existence of W A I R in numerous bird species.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context, “document” does not mean to portray, publish, or process.
Explanation for question 29.
Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 2 of paragraph 6, the author explains that gliding animals do not use a “flapping flight stroke,” or W A I R, wing-assisted incline running. Since Chukars, a ground bird, use W A I R to help scale steep inclines, it can be reasonably inferred that gliding animals do not use W A I R to aid in climbing slopes.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the passage does not include information on gliding animals’ offspring, method of locomotion, or feeding habits.
Explanation for question 30.
Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 2 of paragraph 6, the author provides evidence that “the flapping flight stroke” is “something gliding animals don’t do.”
Choices A, B, and C do not provide the best evidence that gliding animals do not use a flapping stroke to aid in climbing slopes. Choices A, B, and C do not contain information about gliding animals.
This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 21 through 30. Go on to the next page to begin a new passage.
Questions 31 through 41 are based on the following two passages.
Passage 1 is adapted from Talleyrand et al., Report on Public Instruction. Originally published in 1791. Passage 2 is adapted from Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Originally published in 1792. Talleyrand was a French diplomat; the Report was a plan for national education. Wollstonecraft, a British novelist and political writer, wrote Vindication in response to Talleyrand.
That half the human race is excluded by the other half from any participation in government; that they are native by birth but foreign by law in the very land where they were born; and that they are propertyowners yet have no direct influence or representation: are all political phenomena apparently impossible to explain on abstract principle. But on another level of ideas, the question changes and may be easily resolved. The purpose of all these institutions must be the happiness of the greatest number. Everything that leads us farther from this purpose is in error; everything that brings us closer is truth. If the exclusion from public employments decreed against women leads to a greater sum of mutual happiness for the two sexes, then this becomes a law that all Societies have been compelled to acknowledge and sanction.
Any other ambition would be a reversal of our primary destinies; and it will never be in women’s interest to change the assignment they have received.
It seems to us incontestable that our common happiness, above all that of women, requires that they never aspire to the exercise of political rights and functions. Here we must seek their interests in the wishes of nature. Is it not apparent, that their delicate constitutions, their peaceful inclinations, and the many duties of motherhood, set them apart from strenuous habits and onerous duties, and summon them to gentle occupations and the cares of the home? And is it not evident that the great conserving principle of Societies, which makes the division of powers a source of harmony, has been expressed and revealed by nature itself, when it divided the functions of the two sexes in so obviously distinct a manner? This is sufficient; we need not invoke principles that are inapplicable to the question. Let us not make rivals of life’s companions. You must, you truly must allow the persistence of a union that no interest, no rivalry, can possibly undo. Understand that the good of all demands this of you.
Contending for the rights of woman, my main argument is built on this simple principle, that if she be not prepared by education to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of knowledge and virtue; for truth must be common to all, or it will be inefficacious with respect to its influence on general practice. And how can woman be expected to cooperate unless she know why she ought to be virtuous? unless freedom strengthen her reason till she comprehend her duty, and see in what manner it is connected with her real good? If children are to be educated to understand the true principle of patriotism, their mother must be a patriot; and the love of mankind, from which an orderly train of virtues spring, can only be produced by considering the moral and civil interest of mankind; but the education and situation of woman, at present, shuts her out from such investigations. . . .
Consider, sir, dispassionately, these observations—for a glimpse of this truth seemed to open before you when you observed, “that to see one half of the human race excluded by the other from all participation of government, was a political phenomenon that, according to abstract principles, it was impossible to explain.” If so, on what does your constitution rest? If the abstract rights of man will bear discussion and explanation, those of woman, by a parity of reasoning, will not shrink from the same test: though a different opinion prevails in this country, built on the very arguments which you use to justify the oppression of woman—prescription.
Consider—I address you as a legislator—whether, when men contend for their freedom, and to be allowed to judge for themselves respecting their own happiness, it be not inconsistent and unjust to subjugate women, even though you firmly believe that you are acting in the manner best calculated to promote their happiness? Who made man the exclusive judge, if woman partake with him the gift of reason?
In this style, argue tyrants of every denomination, from the weak king to the weak father of a family; they are all eager to crush reason; yet always assert that they usurp its throne only to be useful. Do you not act a similar part, when you force all women, by denying them civil and political rights, to remain immured in their families groping in the dark?
As used in sentence 1, paragraph 3 of passage 1, “common” most nearly means
Explanation for question 31.
It can be inferred that the authors of Passage 1 believe that running a household and raising children
A. are rewarding for men as well as for women.
B. yield less value for society than do the roles performed by men.
C. entail very few activities that are difficult or unpleasant.
D. require skills similar to those needed to run a country or a business.
Explanation for question 32.
Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 32?
A. (“they are . . . representation”)
B. (“If the . . . sanction”)
C. (“Is it . . . home”)
D. (“And . . . manner”)
Explanation for question 33.
According to the author of Passage 2, in order for society to progress, women must
A. enjoy personal happiness and financial security.
B. follow all currently prescribed social rules.
C. replace men as figures of power and authority.
D. receive an education comparable to that of men.
Explanation for question 34.
As used in sentence 2, paragraph 1 of passage 2, “reason” most nearly means
Explanation for question 35.
In Passage 2, the author claims that freedoms granted by society’s leaders have
A. privileged one gender over the other.
B. resulted in a general reduction in individual virtue.
C. caused arguments about the nature of happiness.
D. ensured equality for all people.
Explanation for question 36.
Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 36?
A. “Contending for the rights of woman, my main argument is built on this simple principle, that if she be not prepared by education to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of knowledge and virtue…”
B. “…truth must be common to all, or it will be inefficacious with respect to its influence on general practice.”
C. “If so, on what does your constitution rest?”
D. “Consider—I address you as a legislator—whether, when men contend for their freedom, and to be allowed to judge for themselves respecting their own happiness…”
Explanation for question 37.
In sentence 1 of paragraph 2, the author of Passage 2 refers to a statement made in Passage 1 in order to
A. call into question the qualifications of the authors of Passage 1 regarding gender issues.
B. dispute the assertion made about women in the first sentence of Passage 1.
C. develop her argument by highlighting what she sees as flawed reasoning in Passage 1.
D. validate the concluding declarations made by the authors of Passage 1 about gender roles.
Explanation for question 38.
Which best describes the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2?
A. Passage 2 strongly challenges the point of view in Passage 1.
B. Passage 2 draws alternative conclusions from the evidence presented in Passage 1.
C. Passage 2 elaborates on the proposal presented in Passage 1.
D. Passage 2 restates in different terms the argument presented in Passage 1.
Explanation for question 39.
The authors of both passages would most likely agree with which of the following statements about women in the eighteenth century?
A. Their natural preferences were the same as those of men.
B. They needed a good education to be successful in society.
C. They were just as happy in life as men were.
D. They generally enjoyed fewer rights than men did.
Explanation for question 40.
How would the authors of Passage 1 most likely respond to the points made in the final paragraph of Passage 2?
A. Women are not naturally suited for the exercise of civil and political rights.
B. Men and women possess similar degrees of reasoning ability.
C. Women do not need to remain confined to their traditional family duties.
D. The principles of natural law should not be invoked when considering gender roles.
Explanation for question 41.
Answers and explanations for questions 31 through 41 are provided in the next section of this document. You may skip directly to the beginning of the next passage if you do not want to review answers and explanations now.