Reading Tasks: Vocabulary Tasks: Discussion Tasks: Writing Tasks: Essential Question(s): What did John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address mean to the people of the us, especially during a time when there was an intense fear of Communism?



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Inaugural Address

JFK


Reading Tasks:

Vocabulary Tasks:

Discussion Tasks:

Writing Tasks:

Essential Question(s):

What did John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address mean to the people of the US, especially during a time when there was an intense fear of Communism?

What does it mean to us today, as we face a similar, yet different fear (terrorism)?

Text Selection (Background):

John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address (January 20th, 1961):

Target Span: 10th grade US History

Reading Standards hit: R1, R2, R3, R4, R5,

Writing Standards hit:

Directions/Introduction

As written, this lesson will guide students through multiple days of looking at a historical document. It is meant to be a teachable model, but is freely available to be changed based on your students own unique needs.

What should be understood however, is that with the Common Core State Standards covering literacy in Social Studies, we need to give our students rich, complex texts in order to deepen their understanding of our important content, as well as give them opportunities to practice literacy across the content areas. If this is their first time, it may be rough, but students will get better at it the more practice they have.

We chose to follow the advice of Mike Schmoker, who, in his book Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning, recommends that any vocabulary which could hinder a student’s understanding be taught in advance (Schmoker, 2011). The Core standards call for students to be able to identify the meaning of words by the context in which they are used (National Governors Association, 2011), and by pre-teaching the vocabulary here, students still have to do this important step, even though the vocabulary was taught in advance.

In trying to provide a research based model, for vocabulary we’re following Marzano. Marzano identifies six steps to teaching vocabulary. We will be combining two steps (provide and restate) and eliminating step 6 which is practicing with games (Marzano & Pickering, 2005). You may adapt the lesson to include this step if you choose.

The recommended model for teaching each day is as follows:

Day 1: Provide Student Handout to students. Their document is complete and should be referred to every day of the lesson. You would then do vocabulary instruction as a group (just the words for the day from the teacher handout) and then follow the teacher directions within the document itself.

Day 2: Begin with vocabulary instructions, then follow the directions in the teacher Stage 2 handouts.

Day 3: Begin with vocabulary instruction, then follow the directions in the teacher Stage 3 handouts.

How you choose to assess this beyond what is provided here is up to you, but a discussion and activity based around the focus question is included in Day 3.

Section/Stage 1 Teacher Page



Text Under Discussion

Vocabulary

Directions for Teachers




John F. Kennedy

Inaugural Address

Friday, January 20, 1961
Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning—signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago.


   1

  The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe—the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God.


2

  We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

3

  Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

4

  This much we pledge—and more.

5

  To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.

6

  To those new States whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom—and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.

7

  To those peoples in the huts and villages across the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required—not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

8

  To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good deeds—in a new alliance for progress—to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.

9

  To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support—to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective—to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak—and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run.

10

  Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.

11

  We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.

12



Inaugural

Solemn


Forebears

Heirs


Ventures

Asunder


Tyranny

Alliance


Hemisphere

Sovereign

Invective

Adversary

Engulf


Before doing anything, have students LISTEN to the actual address as the follow along on their copy

ASK Students: What can you INFER about this reading just the opening paragraph? What is this going to be about? How do people feel about hearing this INAUGURAL address? Who is the audience of this speech?

Summarize paragraphs 2 – 4 in no more than 2 sentences. What is the purpose of stating this?

Quote of Interest: What does this mean? Translate this into simpler “English”

Discussion: Does JFK make this issue just an issue of the US? Or an issue of the world? Is he addressing just the US or a much larger audience?

Break students into small groups and assign each group a paragraph: They need to 1) identify the group being addressed (and translate who exactly JFK means), 2) What “we” pledge to them

Discussion: What does this imply about the status of the US on the world stage? What is our responsibility as a result of this status?

What are we “saving” them from?

Who are the “dark powers of destruction unleashed by science?” (atomic bombs/nuclear warfare)

Important Quote: Think about the context of this statement in regards to the Cold War. What is this encouraging? (Which is ironic considering he is preaching peace earlier)

Closing writing/discussion piece: Did your initial impression of what the purpose of this piece was going to be line up with how you feel about it at the end of this first section?


Stage 1 – Additional Information/Instructions/Performance Tasks

Section/Stage 2 Teacher Page



Text Under Discussion

Vocabulary

Directions for Teachers

  But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course—both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war.

13

  So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.

14

  Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.

15

  Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms—and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations.

16

  Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.

17

  Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah—to "undo the heavy burdens ... and to let the oppressed go free."

18

  And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved.

19

  All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.

20



civility

Sincerity

Belaboring

Eradicate

Endeavor


Who are the two “great and powerful groups of nations?” Who is JFK addressing in these paragraphs? Is it the US? OR is it someone else? WHY?

JFK dictates a list of things these “two great powers” should do. Have students list them by translating them into easy to understand English.

Important Quote: JFK LOVES to use Chiasmus (which two or more clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures in order to make a larger point) to make points. What do you notice about this structure? Why does he use it? Identify other places in the text where he uses this Chiasmus and the messages he is trying to send.

Closing Discussion/Writing Piece: What is the primary purpose of this section of his speech? Does the audience remain the same from the first section? Does it shift to a different audience? What evidence from this section confirms your answer?



Stage 2 – Additional Information/Instructions/Performance Tasks

Section/Stage 3 Teacher Page



Text Under Discussion

Vocabulary

Directions for Teachers

  In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.

21

  Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.

22

  Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?

23

  In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.

24

  And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.

25

  My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

26

  Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.






Summons

Embattled

Tribulation

Forge


Alliance

Conscience



Opening: We’ve been looking at the audience throughout this speech and how it shifts. Who has JFK addressed thus far, and who does he end his speech focusing on?

Important Quote: According to JFK, WHO is ultimately responsible for the fate of the country? Why does he place the responsibility on this group?

Use of language: It’s interesting to note that JFK wants to forge against his enemies, not necessarily forge with them a global alliance.

Probably the MOST famous line from this entire speech. Why is this line so powerful? Interestingly enough, most people don’t remember the next line. What is JFK suggesting about the problems the world faces through this second line? And what does the first line about the US suggest the role of the US is in the larger picture?

In a time where the interests of the US are pulled in many directions, what does the bolded line say about the role of the US on the global stage?

Throughout this entire speech, JFK places responsibility for certain things on certain groups of people. Thinking of the principles on which this nation was founded, what does the last line of this speech say about WHO is responsible for the perseverance and preservation of these principles?

Closing discussion/writing:

What did John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address mean to the people of the US during a time when there was an intense fear of Communism?

What does it mean to us today, as we face a similar, yet different fear (terrorism)?


Stage 3 – Additional Information/Instructions/Performance Tasks

Student Page



Text Under Discussion

Vocabulary

My Thoughts/Notes

John F. Kennedy

Inaugural Address

Friday, January 20, 1961
Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning—signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago.


   1

  The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe—the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God.


2

  We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

3

  Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

4

  This much we pledge—and more.

5

  To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.

6

  To those new States whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom—and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.

7

  To those peoples in the huts and villages across the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required—not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

8

  To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good deeds—in a new alliance for progress—to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.

9

  To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support—to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective—to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak—and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run.

10

  Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.

11

  We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.

12

  But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course—both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war.

13

  So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.

14

  Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.

15

  Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms—and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations.

16

  Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.

17

  Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah—to "undo the heavy burdens ... and to let the oppressed go free."

18

  And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved.

19

  All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.

20

  In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.

21

  Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.

22

  Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?

23

  In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.

24

  And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.

25

  My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

26

  Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.






Inaugural

Solemn


Forebears

Heirs


Ventures

Asunder


Tyranny

Alliance


Hemisphere

Sovereign

Invective

Adversary

Engulf

civility


Sincerity

Belaboring

Eradicate

Endeavor


Summons

Embattled

Tribulation

Forge


Alliance

Conscience






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