Reading Questions Ch. 8 Part 2 including Varying Viewpoints “Whose Revolution”*** Varying Viewpoints pp. 162-163 Notes “Whose Revolution?” - a compilation of Historiography---views of historians over time on the same subject---in this case, The Revolution—they are known by their “Schools” of thought 1-1830s to 1870s – The Whig School – George Bancroft- often considered America’s 1st Great Historian and also the “Founder of the US Naval Academy.” The Whig historians believed that the American Revolution was just a chapter in the “Divinely Inspired” unfolding story of progress of human liberty—a pathway of a pre-ordained progress to moral perfection. 2-1870s to early 1900s – The Imperial School – Beer/Gipson/Andrews – at the time of the Imperialist competition to control the worlds resources— The Imperial historians believed that the Revolution was a Constitutional conflict within the British Empire—a product of a collision between two different views of Empire—The Americans moved steadily, from their founding due to salutary neglect, to a view of Self-Government---and Britain moved towards a strengthening of control over their colonies. 3-1900s to 1950s – The Progressive View – Carl Becker and J. Jameson – at a time of deep class conflict in America—growth of Labor Unions and questions about what role the Federal Government should take in our everyday lives. The Progressive historians believed that the Revolution stemmed from class conflict that produces a truly transformed social order. “The American Revolution was not about ‘Home Rule, BUT, WHO should rule at home,’ and inspired ordinary Americans to seek greater economic and political power—and in that desire democratized society by their efforts. 4-1950s – The Consensus View – Brown and Morgan- the political climate of the 1950s became more conservative—a country obsessed with the spread of communism— The Consensus historians, similar to the Whig view of early America, believed that colonists of all classes and ranks shared a commitment to fundamental political principles of self-gov’t and that the “UNIFYING POWER OF IDEAS” drove them all to rebellion. 5 -1950s to 1980s – Neo Consensus V. Neo Progressive – influenced by the conflict in America between liberals and conservatives that takes place during this era… a conflict among historians who believe in POLITICAL IDEAS V. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL REALITIES. Neo-Consensus historian Bernard Bailyn contends “The Power of Ideas”-Enlightenment philosophers influenced the colonists to grow suspicious of “tightening control” –new taxes (NCP) and Mercantilism enforced—created a “conspiracy” to rob them of their rights and that they fought due to their commitment to “Liberty.” Neo-Progressive historians, like Gary Nash and Edward Countryman, believed that increasing social and economic divisions in urban seaports and in the “backcountry” in the 1760s and 70s led to rebellions against the political elite and wealthy in the colonies (Paxton Boys and Regulators for example). That colonial society was breeding Revolutionary change from within---The varying class and social groups that existed in the growing colonies had unique ideas of what “Republicanism” meant to each of them. This is a more complex view that takes into consideration the collision of ideas and interests (economic). 6-Modern Historians Today – a Trans-Atlantic View –the debate turns to - when the colonists begin to see themselves as uniquely “American” V. “British?” Fred Anderson sees the French and Indian War helping to create a sense of American Identity apart from British. T.H. Breen argues that an “Anglicanization” (becoming more British) occurs due to the increased economic and cultural ties that grew stronger after the 1700s ---Trade and the influence of the “Marketplace of Ideas” spread by a growing “print culture” spread this “Anglicanization” of the colonies—AND IS NOT UNTIL THE COLONISTS REALIZED THAT THE BRITISH DID NOT VIEW THEM AS EQUALS WITH RIGHTS AS ENGLISHMEN ---that the colonists begin to see themselves as AMERICANS—AND REBEL. So…is there a question here…YES… #1 – After reading these different interpretations of the causes of the American Revolution…. WHICH OF THESE INTERPRETATIONS DO YOU BELIEVE IS MOST ACCURATE AND WHY? [MAKE SURE TO GIVE AT LEAST ONE SPECIFIC PIECE OF EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT YOUR VIEW) HAVE FUN… YOU COULD CHOOSE TWO OR THREE DIFFERENT VIEWS AS WELL, IF YOU WANT---AND GIVE A % … FOR EACH TO EQUAL 100%... TO ACCOUNT FOR “MULTIPLE CAUSATION.” HAVE FUN… 1: answer here: Minimum 1 paragraph 5 sentences
VISUAL QUESTIONS FOR 8 PART 2 – 1 Famous Painting 151 -Title? - What is the result of GWs actions? - What errors are there in the Painting?
2 Map(s) 152 – 156 - 157 152- Name the British Generals on the map?
156 Name the British General’s “Route” shown on the map? Name the two (2) battles close to North Carolina? Name the city where the BR. Gen. surrenders? 157
Name the American General? Name the three (3) battles he wins?
3 Portrait 154
who? How old was he when he is sent to France? How long does he stay? What does he accomplish in France? (2) 4 Golden Box Quote 155 – Chart 155 GBQ What Country officially sends an ambassador to the USA “recognizing” them as a Country to the world? Chart Title? Who fought on the British side? Who fought with America?
Who were the members of the “Armed Neutrality” who opposed GB W/Economic Sanctions?
5 Golden Box Quote 158 Who? From where? Did what during the Revolutionary war? How does he explain the “genius” of Americans?*** 6 Painting 159
Title? Which two (2) Countries are in battle? Who wins? How does this effect Br. Gen. Cornwallis at Yorktown? READING QUESTIONS (151) [PHASE II OF REV. WAR—WAR IN THE NORTH JULY 5, 1776 -1780] GEORGE WASHINGTON AT BAY 7 Where do the British look to move their base of operations after leaving Boston (they stay here until the end of the war)? 8 July 1776 – How many British ships and how many men ? How many men for GW and the Americans?
9 After the destruction of the Americans @ Long Island and Manhattan—To which State does GW escape to across the Delaware River to save the American Army and the American Cause---(remember GW has to keep an army in the field… to keep hope alive and the possibility of INDPEPENCE)?
10 Which British General was chasing GW? 11***Which two (2) battles in New Jersey (locations) become HUGE VICTORIES for the Americans beginning Dec. 26,1776?
BURGOYNE’S BLUNDERING INVASION ***** British Strategy for this phase of the war****12 What river valley do the British want to capture? By taking this river valley---What REGION do they want to cut off (sever) from the rest of the States?
*****13 Which city was the target for ALL 3 BRITISH GENERALS ---do they all go this way? Why not?
14 Which BR. Gen. goes the wrong way & to many historians, perhaps, cost the British a victory in this war?
15 Which American General stops the British by quickly building “green ships” on the side of the lake and forcing the Brits to retreat back to Canada….and sets up the victory ---IN THE MOST SIG. BATTLE OF THE REV. –LATER?
16 AT THE SAME TIME*** Which two (2) battles does GW lose (where) to Br. Gen. Howe?
17 What is the significance of the American Winter at Valley Forge?
18 What happens October 12, 1777---Which American General was in Command---BUT (see internet) WHO should have gotten more credit for this MONUMENTAL AMERICAN VICTORY?
19 WHY does Saratoga rank high among decisive battles of both American and World History? (3) REVOLUTION OR DIPLOMACY 20 Americans wanted an end to ____________________ and __________________. The Strongly supported ____________________ ________________ and ________________________ of the _______________________.
21 Novus Ordo Seculorum ? (translate the Latin)
22 Describe the three (3) parts of the Model Treaty from a US perspective ---(no__, no__, only__)?
23 A momentous turning point when ____________ _____________ would be abandoned and the bonds of ________________ _________________ ___________________ would guarantee peaceful relations among States (Countries).
24 Franklin was loved, in Paris, as a specimen of a new what?
25 What “measure” is passed by the British Parliament in 1777 after Saratoga?
26 What are the three (3) conditions or parts of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778? (***note- this is the last treaty where America will guarantee military assistance until the NATO agreement is signed after WWII-1949)
28 “Daddy and I Killed the bear” –What nation is “Daddy?”
29 From 1778 to 1783 the French provided what? (5)
30 Due to France’s powerful Navy Britain withdrew from where & concentrated their strength where?
31 What were the awful conditions during the battle at Monmouth, NJ---What happened---Who is Molly Pitcher (XC)? BLOW AND COUNTER BLOW [War in the South –Phase III of the American Revolution 1780-1783]
32 Where is the first place that the French ARMY lands in America? Who commanded the French Troops?
33 Who turns traitor, stunning America, in 1780? -What does he attempt to sell, is he successful?
34 Which Region do the British decide to attack next? WHY?
35 Which two (2) cities in the South are captured in 1779 and 1780? In which do the Americans lose 5000 men and 400 cannon (larger than the BR. Losses at Saratoga)?
Which BR. Gen. is in Command?
36 What two (2) battles **** American Victories*** turn the tide in the South—Jan 1780 & Oct 1780 –
37 Who was the American Commander in the South, “The Fighting Quaker,” who takes over after the “hero” of Saratoga, Gen. Horatio Gates had earlier during the battle at Camden, SC “run away” all the way home…and Leads the Americans along with help from the Swamp Fox, Francis Marion, in a series of actions that allows the Americans to turn the tide in the South and bring the Revolution to a close---very soon?
39 Who is the Mohawk Chief who led 4 of the 6 tribes in the Iroquois Confederacy to support the British in the Revolution? Which two (2) of the Iroquois fought with the Americans?
40 Why does the Iroquois Chief fight with the British?
*****41**** The Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1784 is significant as the 1st what? (details) 42 The ______________________________ was ablaze during ALL of the Revolutionary War?
43 Which two (2) Kentucky cities are named for a battle _____________________________ and a Monarch_______________________?
44 ****Which American General attacks the British in Illinois Country and is victorious at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes? How are these, perhaps, MASSIVELY SIGNIFICANT, in affecting the borders of the new USA determined in the Treaty of Paris, 1783?
***45 Who is the ONLY American Naval Hero during the Revolutionary War (of course he is a Scotsman) (he is buried at the US Naval Academy) ---his most famous naval battle is between the two ships, The Serapis and the Bonhomme Richard. (extra credit possible)
46**** More numerous and damaging were swift____________________________ or pirates with “Letters of Marquee” that legalized their plunder of BOOTY.
How many Privateers were authorized by Congress to search for BOOTY?
How many British ships do they take?
How specifically do they help the American Cause?
YORKTOWN AND THE FINAL CURTAIN [THE END OF THE WAR ] 47 Why specifically was 1780-81 a “dark time” for the Americans? (2)
48 Explain how the Americans AND French---“TRAP” BR. GEN. CORNWALLIS?
49 Name the French Admiral who traps Cornwallis by Sea?
Name the French General who with Gen. GW traps Cornwallis by land?
50 How is the “world turned upside down” on October 19, 1781?
- Lord North cried, what? How many thousands of British troops are still in the USA? How long does fighting continue after Yorktown?
51 What three (3) specific things does GW do during the war that was so valuable?
PEACE AT PARIS
52 Which political party takes over in Britain in March of 1782? (remember these folks wanted to give the American colonists more freedom to trade etc… and opposed the strong hand of the Tories---thus the USA is fortunate to be negotiating with them at the end of the war---one reason the treaty is so favorable for the USA)
53 Name the three (3) Americans who are sent to Paris to negotiate the Treaty that ends the American Revolution?****
54***What two (2) specific instructions do our representatives in Paris take with them from Congress?
55 Why, specifically, (reasons) were Spain and France---less than helpful to the USA after the War---and, perhaps, might have even been working against our interests?
56 What does John Jay do….to attempt to overcome the French and Spanish intentions?
57 HUGE********THE TREATY OF PARIS, 1783 ****BOUNDARIES OF THE NEW USA:
Which Nation now controls Florida?
What about the Fisheries?
*****America was supposed to do: [do we keep our promises? Consequences---***] Loyalists?
Congress was supposed to recommend to the States to do what? Debt?