Reading Guide The Age of Nation States 1850-1914 The Crimean War 1853-1856



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Chapter 22 Reading Guide

The Age of Nation States 1850-1914


The Crimean War 1853-1856

Who are the countries involved?

Why did it begin? Who started it?

What was the outcome?

How did the Crimean War change foreign policy in many European nations?
Reforms in the Ottoman Empire (the crumbing of the Ottoman Power)

What happens to the Ottoman Empire following the Crimean War?


Are there major changes in government?


What is the role of religion in domestic policy at this point?


Who is leading the Ottoman Empire? Are they effective?



Italian Unification

What is the problem with Romantic Republicans? Who are the Carbonari?

Briefly explain who Mazzini and Garibaldi are… What did they want for Italy?

Who was Camilio Cavour? What are his underlying beliefs? (is he a romantic? A Liberal?)

Cavour was not a strong nationalist, but a keen politician. Discuss his success in unifying Italy… the process, the fights, the states…

Explain why Piedmont was such a crucial piece of land in the Unification of Italy.

What happened between Austria, France and Cavour?

What role did Garibaldi play in the successful unification of Italy? How did Garibaldi and Cavour come to unify Italy together?


Who was Victor Emmanuel II? How does he emerge as King of Italy when Cavour and Garibaldi did most of the work?

What did the “New Italy” look like? (which cities were now unified)



German Unification

What is Zollverein?


What power did it have over the states? The people?


Following the revolutions of 1848, what was happening between the Prussian monarch and Parliament?


Who is Otto von Bismarck? What was his role in Prussia? In the German Confederation?


What did he do (good or bad) to fix the problems between the monarch and Parliament?

How did Denmark stand in the way of a united Germany?


What happened during the Danish War?


How did the events of the Danish War impact efforts towards a united Germany? How did they impact Bismarck’s political career?

What events led up to the Austro-Prussian War?

What was the end result of the Austro- Prussian War?


What were Bismarck’s goals? Was he successful?
What did the strong national government look like? What is Reichstag?
What is Kulturkampf? How did it play into the people’s idea of a German Empire?

How did the Catholic Church respond to Kulturkampf?


In what ways did Bismarck take control of the German Empire?




The Franco-Prussian War

What events took place leading up to this conflict?


What actions made France (Napoleon III) decide to declare war on Prussia?

What was the outcome of the Franco-Prussian War?

How did the unification of Germany impact Europe?


France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic

Your book states that Historians divide Napoleon III’s reign into two parts, authoritarian and liberal, why?

How did his idea of government change? What happened?

Did the people of France agree with what he did? How? Why?

As the newly proclaimed emperor Napoleon III, what were his successful ventures?

What is the Paris Commune? How did it come about? What was it’s purpose?


Explain the Third Republic. Who are the people involved? What domestic and foreign policies were created?
Explain the Dreyfus Affair. Who is Alfred Dreyfus? What was he accused of? What happened to him?
What was the overall impact on France, on the military, on relations between France and other European countries?
The Habsburg Empire:

What are relevant events following the revolutions of 1848?


Who is Francis Joseph?

Explain the Dual Monarchy and the creation of Austria-Hungary.
How are they a united monarchy? How did they function as a government?
Unrest of Nationalities…

How many nationalities occupied the Austria-Hungary Empire?

What were some of the most agitated nationalities? What did they want?

Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings

Briefly describe Russia’s society in the 1850s.


Why would Russians need reform?


List/Describe the reforms of Alexander II

Was everyone receptive to these changes? Why or why not?

Explain the Zemstvo.

Who are the Revolutionaries? Why didn’t they like Alexander II?


What is “The People’s Will”? What did they want?

What happened to Alexander II?

Who is Alexander II? How was he different from his predecessor? How did he confront the revolutionaries?


Great Britain: Toward Democracy

What was the Second Reform Act of 1867? What did it bring to Britain?


How did this pit conservatives against liberals?



Who is Benjamin Disraeli? What were his accomplishments? Failures?
Who is William Gladstone? What were his accomplishments? Failures?
How did the different “ministries” deal with the Irish?

Chapter 22 FRQ Questions: Develop Thesis statements for all.

  1. The two dominant ideologies of the second half of the nineteenth century were Nationalism and Socialism. What were the key tenets of each ideology, and who were its leading thinkers or leaders? How did each of these ideologies change over the course of the second half of the nineteenth century? Which of these movements seem to be stronger?

  2. The decade of the 1860s saw the success of the nation-building efforts of Bismarck and Cavour in Germany and Italy respectively. Choose either case and describe the process by which unification was achieved, assess the reasons for success, and indicated the consequences.

  3. Explain the origins of modern Anti-Semitism in Europe.


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