Reading Guide Revolution, Rebuilding, and New Challenges: 1985 to the Present



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Chapter 31 Reading Guide

Revolution, Rebuilding, and New Challenges: 1985 to the Present



The Decline of Communism in Eastern Europe
What did the invasion of Czechoslovakia prove to Soviet leaders?

What was the Soviet domestic situation like? Stable? Unstable?


Explain why re-Stalinization became popular in the 1980s.


Who are Great Russians?

What changes were made during the Brezhnev Era?



Solidarity in Poland

What was Poland’s interaction with the Soviets post World War II?


How was Poland changing during the 1970s? Give specific examples.
Explain the Gdansk Agreement and what it meant, socially, for Poland and its people.

How did the Brezhnev Doctrine affect Poland during the 1970s and 1980s?




Gorbachev’s Reform in the Soviet Union

What plans did he have to stimulate the economy?


During his first year in office, Gorbachev attacked what?
What is perestroika? How was this revolutionary to Russia?

How did Gorbachev treat the Soviet Satellites?



The Revolutions of 1989

The collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe

Which event dramatized the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe?

Which country rose out of these revolutions as the only super power?

Which country “left” communism first? Which countries followed?


What is “shock therapy” as it applies to political restructuring?
Where did the Velvet Revolution take place? Why was it unique?

Where all revolutions peaceful?



The Disintegration of the Soviet Union

What happened during the elections of 1990 in the Soviet Union?

What was happening across the USSR? Who were the leaders of movements?
What happened on December 25, 1991?

What new countries formed after the fall of the Soviet Union?




German Unification and the End of the Cold War

How was Germany unified? When? Any setbacks or opposition to the reunification?

What is the Alliance for Germany?

Explain the Paris Accord?

What did the United States do at the end of the Cold War?

Building a New Europe in the 1990s

Common Patterns and Problems

What did all European leaders have in common as far as their policies?

What were the “rules” for the Global Economy?

Discuss Globalization.

Discuss these liberal governments and the thoughts of the people.

What is the European Union? What is its purpose? When was it formed?


Recasting Russia

Describe their economic reforms? Social reforms? Problems?

How was Vladimir Putin seen by the people? Was he good for Russia? Explain.

Progress and Tragedy in Eastern Europe

These former USSR satellites and newly formed countries of the former USSR had problems. The “Balkan States” still revolted and faced growing unrest.


1993 Czechoslovakia splits into Czech Republic and Slovakia

1991 Croatia & Slovenia declare independence from Serbia, and fight to gain it

1992 Bosnia-Herzegovina civil war

1998 ethnic war in Kosovo as Albanians fight for their independence


See maps on page 1046-1047, many changes take place in the 1990s in terms of countries developing and fighting for their independence. (they are still struggling)
Unity and Identity in Western Europe
How has the European Union shaped Europe? Is it good? Bad? Give specific examples.

What is the Maastricht treaty?


Who are the member countries of the European Union?


New challenges for the Twenty-First Century

Why does the European birthrate drop? What reasoning is given?


Have the numbers changed?
The growth of immigration

Do European countries have problems with illegal immigration?

What does the rise in immigration mean for the European “identity”?
In 1970s where were most immigrants to Europe coming from?

In 1990s where are most immigrants to Europe coming from?



Promoting Human Rights

What actions are being taken to ensure countries are protecting basic human rights?

Give specific examples

What countries are the biggest violators of Human Rights?




The al-Qaeda Attack of September 11, 2001
Was this the only attack on the US? Who are those responsible? What is the overall state of the World after these attacks?


The West Divided and the War in Iraq

Did European countries support the United States efforts to attack Iraq?


How did Europe respond to the US’s invasion and ultimate over throw of the Iraqi government?

How/Why did the invasion of Iraq split the Western world?

Who is Kofi Annan and what role did he play in this?


FRQ Questions:


The Gorbachev “revolution” in the Soviet Union focused on four main areas. What were these areas and how successful was the reform effort? What forces for change were already present? To what extent were Gorbachev’s reforms responsible for the revolutions of 1989 and 1991?

The year 1989 witnessed an almost unbelievable turn of events in the Eastern bloc. Discuss those changes. What were the long term causes? What new problems were created?

The recent past has seen a quickening of the pace in the process of European integration and unification. Describe this process since 1985. What are the key issues? How have Europeans reacted to the “new Europe?”

The collapse of the Soviet Union led quickly to the declaration that the cold war was over. What have been the consequences of this historic event?



The most disturbing consequence of the collapse of the Soviet Union has been the resurgence of ardent nationalism in central and Eastern Europe as well as border states of the former Soviet Union. Trace nationalistic developments in the former Soviet Empire. What signs are there of a peaceful resolution of this problem?


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