Reading Guide, pp. 292-301 Pledged

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AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 292-301 Pledged:
Answer the following questions clearly and concisely. Terms in bold should be incorporated within the specified response and underlined!
1. After reading the chapter introduction, “Webs of Stone and Blood,” imagine that you are a tour guide at St. Vitus Cathedral. In 2-3 sentences, explain how the architectural style reflects the political concerns of the fourteenth century. Peter Parler

2. Using the map on p. 295, take the role of Charles IV, king of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, and issue an edict explaining how the Golden Bull of 1356 recognizes and affirms the complex geography and recent history of Central Europe.

3. Identify and explain THREE causes of the 100 Years War. Edward III Philip VI Flemish cloth Gascony


4. Fill out the following chart for the Hundred Years' War.







Crecy Poitiers Agincourt longbow pillage & plunder chivalry

Charles VII Joan of Arc gunpowder Philip of Burgundy
5. Imagine you are an advocate for Joan of Arc’s canonization (“being made a saint”), which occurred in 1920. Argue your case.

6. Analyze the impact of the 100 Years War on the chivalric tradition of warfare.

7. Explain in 1-2 sentences the results of the Wars of the Roses in England. Tudors

AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 301-08 Pledged:

1. Demographics is the study of population statistics. How did the fourteenth century in Europe differ demographically from the High Middle Ages? Great Famine

2. For the balance sheet below identify the positive (+) and negative (-) results of the Black Death. Provide a brief rationale. Flagellants Jews Dance of Death

positives negatives



3. Draw a visual to accompany Boccaccio’s Decameron (p. 303) that demonstrates the impact the Black Death had on Italy’s urban civilization.

4. Make a diagram in which you show how the demographic catastrophes of the fourteenth century undermined the class structure and feudalism.

5. Fill out the following chart for the appropriate revolt. E. Marcel





jacquerie (1358)

English Peasants Revolt (1381)

ciompi (1378)

6. Write THREE diary entries over a generation as a burgher (townsperson) in which you explain the changing social and economic environment of medieval cities. hospitals Hanseatic League confraternities pesthouses crime executioner

AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 308-18 Pledged:
1. Using the Web document referenced on p. 308, analyze the claims made by Pope Boniface VIII’s Unam Sanctam. How might these claims be greeted by secular rulers?

2. Rank in order of importance and EXPLAIN the results of the Papacy in Avignon (1307-78), also known as the "Babylonian Captivity." John XXII indulgences curia




3. Why did the prestige of the Papacy decline in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries? Great Schism conciliarism Council of Pisa (1407) Council of Constance (1415-17)

4. Read the inquisition account of the Cathar heresy (p. 311) and imagine you are a clerical observer. Write a note to your bishop explaining what in these attitudes you find threatening to the church.

5. Take the role of a pious but discontented Catholic in the 14th/early 15th centuries. Develop an itinerary (schedule) using the terms that shows the religious attitudes and practices of the time. Witch Hammer Beguines/Beghards Brethren of the Free Spirit Brethren of the Common Life Imitation of Christ Eucharist Catherine of Siena

6. Using the document on p. 313 and text, explain and account for the increasing religious conflict in many areas of Europe. What impact did it have on have on the Church and intellectual life. Inquisition moriscos/converses J. Wycliffe/Lollards J. Hus William of Ockham nominalism

7. As a literary critic, analyze how vernacular literature expressed a new individualism in late medieval society. Dante/Divine Comedy Chaucer Christine de Pisan F. Villon

8. Write a 1-2 sentence thesis on the importance of the fourteenth century as a transitional period.

AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 322-30 Pledged:

1. In 1-2 sentences, explain how the feature, “A Civic Procession,” demonstrates the civic context of Renaissance society.

2. What are the merits and limitations of the term “Renaissance” to describe Italy in the period 1350-1550? Petrarch

3. Draw a crude map of 15th-century Florence and using the discussion in the text, pp. 324-27, 329-30, indicate 8-10 important features of Renaissance economic and social life.

4. Fill out the chart below based on the discussion in the text and the document (p. 328), as well as the Web source (p. 327). wet nurses birth control rape dowry homosexuality










5. Imagine you travel back to Renaissance Italy and experience daily life for a week. Identify 4-5 ways in which it differs from the U.S. in the 21st century.

Renaissance Italy modern America

6. List 4-5 reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy. Feel free to go beyond the text.


AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 330-39 Pledged:

1. Imagine you are a curator at the Uffizi Gallery and explain how the artists below employ the following in their art: naturalism, classics, perspective, anatomy, portraiture.
Masaccio (1401-28)
Botticelli (1445-1510)
Donatello (1386-1466)
Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
Leonardo (1452-1519)
Michelangelo (1475-1564)
Francesca (1420-96)
Raphael (1483-1520)
Alberti (1404-72)

2. How does the document on p. 337 illustrate the changing status and role of the artist in Renaissance society?

3. Define humanism in your own words.

4. Devise a web with “humanism” at the center and that clearly organizes the following terms around it (also add your own): Mirandola/Oration on Dignity of Man, philology, rhetoric, neo-Platonism, Bruni, Alberti, Scholasticism, Valla, Cicero, classics, human body, civic humanism, Castiglione/Book of Courtier, etiquette, science, Galen, Hippocrates, ballistics.

AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 339-50 Pledged:
1. Using the text and the document on p. 340, list 4-5 principles of Machiavelli’s The Prince and analyze the extent to which modern leaders employ his ideas.






2. For the FIVE Great Powers of Italy, explain which modern actor/actress would best portray them in a movie and then give 1-2 facts about each. Alfonso of Aragon (1442-58)

F. Sforza (1401-66) doge condottieri Great Council Book of Gold Medici Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-92)



Papal States--


3. How did the Italian states alter European diplomacy?

4. Analyze the political and economic conditions that led to the end of the Renaissance in Italy around 1500. Peace of Lodi (1454) Ludovico il Moro Mehmed II (1451-80)

Charles VIII (1483-98) sack of Rome, 1527

5. Imagine you are a reporter and give a brief account of how the Turks captured Constantinople and indicate the significance of this event.

AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 356-66 Pledged:

1. Explain the following as the means and motives for exploration/colonization. Lusiads caravel spices gold astrolabe dead reckoning compass Albuquerque




2. Provide an interpretation on how these factors interacted to promote exploration.

3. Write a response to the document on p. 359 from the perspective of a Native American to your experience of contact with Europeans.

4. Rank the following explorers in terms of importance and offer a 1-sentence explanation: Balboa, Columbus, Cortes, da Gama, Dias, Magellan, Pizarro, Prince Henry the Navigator

5. Check out the Web document referenced on p. 363 and analyze how it displays the attitude of the conquistadores.

6. Solve the mystery: Why was the small nation of Portugal (1 M people) with few natural resources able to create a maritime empire (see p. 364)? Connected mystery: Why was Spain able to overwhelm the highly sophisticated Aztecs with only 550 men and 16 horses? Treaty of Tordesillas

7. Many historians rank the discovery of the New World as the single most important event of the last millennium. Using the document reference on p. 366 and text discussion, evaluate this claim. de las Casas Columbian Exchange tomato potato

AP European History Name:

Unit 1--Renaissance and Exploration

Reading Guide, pp. 354-55, 360-61, 367-79 Pledged:
1. How does the portrait of Henry VIII convey the power of the king and his nation in the 16th century (“Astride the World”)?

2. After reading “Isabella of Castile,” imagine you are the queen and give a speech summing up your life and reign.

3. On the map below and using the text discussion, indicate the important features for each nation or region, such as population, trade, rulers, or historical context. New Monarchs Mongols Ottomans Balkans Teutonic knights Jagiellons Holy Roman Empire Moors

Low Countries reconquista Ferdinand & Isabella

4. Make a balance sheet of those forces which hindered and promoted the centralization of power in the sixteenth century.

promoted hindered

5. Fill out the following chart for the respective nations. Note terms.










* Burgundy 100 Years War army langue d’oil/d’oc taille gabelle aide Battle of Nancy

* War of Roses Privy Council Henry VII/Henry VIII parliament Thomas Cromwell confiscation of Church lands

* reconquista corregidores/hermandades Charles V Moors/Granada Spanish Inquistion Cardinal Jimenes cortes Castile & Aragon converses/Jews

* serfdom Mongols Novgorod Byzantine Tatars Ivan III boyars streltsy Zemsky Sobor Ivan IV

* Vladislav II Casimir IV nobility

6. As Anne Boleyn’s sister, write a letter to a friend describing how she died (see p. 374).

7. Use the document on p. 376 and map on p. 377 to draw a conclusion about the process of state-building in France in the 15th/16th centuries.

AP European History Name:

Unit 2--Religious Reform and Upheaval

Reading Guide, pp. 388-96 Pledged:

(Note: underline use of all terms in your responses!)

1. What does the feature, “Sola Scriptura,” reveal about the importance of the printing press in the success of religious reform?

2. List FIVE ways in which printing changed European culture. Gutenberg






3. Draw a Venn diagram that briefly illustrates the similarities and differences of the Italian and Northern Renaissances.

4. In 3-4 sentences, explain the 1. interests, 2. methods, and 3. goals of the Christian humanists. Erasmus Thomas More Juan Luis Vives Polyglot Bible Marguerite of Navarre

5. After reading the selection from Utopia (see Web), the “Closer Look” (pp. 394-95), and the document from Erasmus (p. 393), devise a Christian humanist curriculum and mission statement for your school.

AP European History Name:

Unit 2--Religious Reform and Upheaval

Reading Guide, pp. 396-401, 379-83 Pledged:

1. Describe the religious mood on the eve of the Protestant Reformation.

2. Imagine that you are a member of the clergy and write a letter to the pope in which you criticize the attitudes and practices of your colleagues. pluralism absenteeism simony nepotism

3. Take the role of a Lutheran propagandist. Draw a political cartoon on how Luther came to oppose the Catholic Church. indulgences 95 Theses J. Eck salvation

Frederick “the Wise” Albrecht of Brandenberg

4. Using the Web document (“The German Mass”), “On Marriage” (p. 400), and the text discussion, write a brief paragraph with the following sentence as a thesis: “Luther was a theological revolutionary but a social and political conservative.”

5. Fill out the following chart on Luther, using the terms, making sure to provide brief explanations/summaries. Address to the German Nobility Charles V

sola fide, sola scriptura, sola gratia "priesthood of all believers" On the Freedom of the Christian

Real Presence peasant revolts On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
Major Works:


Allies (A) and Opponents (O):

Church and State:

Style and Worship:

Areas of Strength:

6. Imagine you are a religious woman in the mid-16th century. Explain what you find appealing and lacking in the reformed faiths.

AP European History Name:

Unit 2--Religious Reform and Upheaval

Reading Guide, pp. 401-05, 408-09 Pledged:
1. How and why did Luther’s ideas spread to Scandinavia? Gustav Vasa Olaus Petri

2. Write a brief sermon in your own words defending the doctrine of predestination.

3. Mystery: Why do you think the attack on the Catholic Church split into so many different movements? Give at least 2-3 reasons.

4. Fill out the following chart for Zwingli, Calvin, and the Anabaptists, incorporating the terms, along with brief explanations/summaries. Zurich Charles V Swiss Civil War Institutes of the Christian Religion Francis I predestination Geneva Ecclesiastical Ordinances Consistory democracy adult baptism Menno Simons Balthasar Hubmaier Moravian Brethren




Major Works



Allies and


Church and


Style and


Areas of


5. Find a brief account of the Marburg Colloquy (use the Web), 1529, and write a headline and brief report on this debate between Luther and Zwingli, with some analysis.

AP European History Name:

Unit 2--Religious Reform and Upheaval

Reading Guide, pp. 405-07, 379-83, 416 Pledged:
1. Imagine you are a supporter of Luther living in England. Write briefly to a friend on the continent on the prospects for reform in England. Defense of the Seven Sacraments
2. Create a soap opera title for the shifting religious situation in England, 1533-58. Then give a brief character sketch of each of the "actors" below. Put the events in chronological order, explaining briefly what impact they had on the "plot." Title:

Cardinal Wolsey-- Book of Common Prayer ( )--
Henry VIII-- Act of Supremacy ( )--

Thomas Cranmer-- 39 Articles ( )--

Thomas Cromwell-- Thomas More’s execution ( )--

Charles V-- Marian exiles ( )--

Clement VII-- king’s divorce ( )--

Anne Boleyn-- Treason Act ( )--

Thomas More-- Pilgrimage of Grace ( )--

Edward VI-- confiscation of church lands ( )--

Mary I--

Catherine of Aragon--

3. List 4-5 changes in warfare in the sixteenth century and write a one-sentence thesis regarding the impact of these wars.


4. In a paragraph, analyze the political and religious goals of Charles V and assess the extent to which he met these? Francis I Italian (Hapsburg-Valois) Wars Treaty of Madrid Suleiman “the Magnificent”/Ottoman Empire Diet of Augsburg Schmalkaldic League/Wars Peace of Augsburg

5. Look carefully at the map of Europe ca. 1555 on p. 415. Analyze the political repercussions of the Protestant Reformation for Europe.

AP European History Name:

Unit 2--Religious Reform and Upheaval

Reading Guide, pp. 409-16 Pledged:
1. Using the terms as examples, create a profile of the new kind of clergyman of the Catholic revival. New Piety Imitation of Christ Brethren of the Common Life Jimenez de Cisneros John Colet Gianlorenzo Giberti Capuchins (M. Bascio) Teresa of Avila Ursulines (A. Merici)

2. How do the documents on p. 411 and pictures on pp. 412-13 illustrate the new Catholic piety?

3. See the Web document (“Rules of Thinking”) and analyze how Loyola’s rules demonstrate his experiences and the goals and practices of the Jesuits.

4. Make a diagram that shows how the Catholic Church responded to the Protestant Reformation. Teresa of Avila Capuchins Jesuits Paul III Ursulines/A. Merici Paul IV Cardinal Contarini/Reform Commission Roman Inquisition Council of Trent Index of Prohibited Books

5. Two-part analysis as an historian: A. Why is the Council of Trent important (2-3 sentences)? AND B. Was the Catholic Church successful in responding to the Protestant Reformation (2-3 sentences and include your criteria for "success")?

AP European History Name:

Unit 2--Religious Reform and Upheaval

Reading Guide, pp. 420-32, 434 Pledged:
1. How does the painting, “Massacre of the Innocents,” comment on the religious warfare of the period, 1555-1648?

2. Take the role of a European ruler and explain the importance to your power of the concept “one king, one faith, one law.” Peace of Augsburg

3. Choose one or more female rulers of the sixteenth century and answer John Knox’s charge (“Monstrous Regiment of Women”) with specifics of how women can rule.

4. Philip II has generally earned a bad reputation among English historians. Based on the textbook account, do you think this reputation is deserved?

5. Fill out the chart for the relevant religious war, making sure to place terms in the proper section and offer brief explanations.

French Relig. Wars

Neth. v. Spain

England v. Spain





key events



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