|APAH Reading Guide Name: ______________________________________
Directions – After reading pp. 370-399, explain the significance of the following terms.
1. Andrew Johnson -
2. Atlanta Compromise –
3. Black Codes –
4. Booker T. Washington –
5. Carpetbaggers –
6. Compromise 1877 –
7. Crop-lien system –
8. Enforcement Acts –
9. Fourteenth Amendment –
10. Freedmen’s Bureau –
11. Ida B. Wells –
12. Jim Crow Laws –
13. Ku Klux Klan –
14. Panic of 1873 –
15. Plessy v. Ferguson –
16. Radical Republicans –
17. Redeemers –
18. Scalawags –
19. Sharecropping –
20. Thaddeus Stevens –
21. Wade-Davis Bill –
22. William Seward –
Directions: Read pages 370 – 399 and answer the following questions using many details and examples from the text.
1. What effects did the Civil War have on the economy and social system of the South?
2. What special problems did the freedmen face immediately after the war? What efforts were made to help them?
3. What was the impact of Lincoln’s death on the efforts of Reconstruction?
4. What were the differences among the radical and moderate factions of the Republican Party during Reconstruction? Where did Andrew Johnson’s Republican ideals fit?
5. Describe the Black Codes and the congressional reaction to them. How did President Johnson respond to Congress?
6. What were the key provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment? What happened to it in 1866?
7. Explain the basic provisions of the congressional plan of Reconstruction of 1867 and tell how it was implemented. What were the implications of waiting so long after the war to get a comprehensive plan in place?
8. What measures did the Radical Republicans take to keep President Johnson and the Supreme Court from interfering with their plans? What ultimately happened to Johnson's influence?
9. How do the facts of political life in the Reconstruction states compare to the oft-stated white charges of corruption, black domination, and misrule?
10. What changes in southern education began to emerge during Reconstruction? Who pushed for these changes?
11. What changes in land ownership occurred in the South after the Civil War? What pattern of land occupancy characterized most blacks in the postwar South?
12. How did the typical agricultural credit systems in the postwar South affect farmers—especially poor ones?
13. How did freedom affect black family life?
14. How did Ulysses S. Grant's political accomplishments compare with his military ability?
15. What episodes led to the Liberal Republican break over "Grantism" and later to the second-term scandals?
16. People in what financial condition were most likely to favor expansion of the currency supply with greenbacks? What sparked interest in greenbacks?
17. What tactics did white southern Democrats use to restrict or control black suffrage?
18. Why did northern Republicans begin to take less interest in Reconstruction and the cause of the freedmen after 1870?
19. Why was the presidential election of 1876 disputed? How was the controversy resolved by the "Compromise of 1877"?
20. What was President Rutherford B. Hayes's objective in the South? Did he succeed?
21. Compare white and black expectations for Reconstruction with the actual results. Why were most black hopes dashed? What black gains were actually made?
22. What were the typical socioeconomic and political characteristics of the "Redeemers" (Bourbons)?
23. In what particular products was industrialization in the South most advanced? What factors attracted industrial capital to the region after the war?
24. Describe the composition of the industrial work force in the South. What was life in a mill town like?
25. Describe the typical pattern of southern agriculture in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. What problems confronted most farmers? What groups were most notably affected?
26. Describe the rise of the black middle-class.
27. What was Booker T. Washington's prescription for black advancement as expressed in the "Atlanta Compromise" and elsewhere?
28. How did the civil right cases of 1883 and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) substantially negate the effect of the equal-protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment?
29. What strategies and legal devices did the southern states use to evade the spirit of the Fifteenth Amendment? What motivated the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century crackdown on black voting?
30. Describe the pervasive nature of "Jim Crow" laws. How was the system enforced, formally and informally?
31. Explain the historic debate over Reconstruction and show how the various interpretations were reflections of the time in which they were written.
32. How did the balance of power shift from the executive branch to legislative during Reconstruction? What were the results of that shift?
33. Was Reconstruction a success or a failure? If it was a success, for whom was it a success? If it was a failure, for whom did it fail? Justify your answer.
34. Use the following chart to show how African American political rights and participation changed between 1861-1877. The box on the left, label the term or event and use the space in the arrow to explain how rights and participation changed.
Changing rights of African American political rights & participation: 1861-1877.