Reading Guide For Chapter Two



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Reading Guide For Chapter Two: The Planting of English America
England's Imperial Stirrings

1. What prompted the change in the relationship between Spain and England?


Elizabeth Energizes England
Know: Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Spanish Armada

2. What steps from 1575-1600 brought England closer to colonizing the New World?



England on the Eve of Empire
Know: Enclosure Movement, Primogeniture, Joint-stock company

3. Explain how conditions in England around 1600 made it "ripe" to colonize N. America.



England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
Know: Virginia Company Charter, Jamestown, John Smith, Starving Time

4. Give at least three reasons that so many of the Jamestown settlers died.



Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake
Know: Powhatan's Confederacy

5. Describe the reasons for and results of the First and Second Anglo-Powhatan Wars



The Indian’s new World

6. What were the major demographic and cultural impacts of European colonization on Native American life?



Virginia: Child of Tobacco
Know: John Rolfe, House of Burgesses

7. "By 1620 Virginia had already developed many of the features that were important to it two centuries later." Explain.



Maryland: Catholic Haven
Know: Lord Baltimore, Indentured Servants, Act of Toleration

8. In what ways was Maryland different than Virginia?



The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America
Know: Barbados Slave Code

9. What historical consequences resulted from the cultivation of sugar instead of tobacco in the British colonies in the West Indies?



Colonizing the Carolinas
Know: Savannah Indians, Rice

10. Why did Carolina become a place for aristocratic whites and many black slaves?

 The Emergence of North Carolina
Know: Tuscarora & Yamasee Indians

11. North Carolina was called "a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit." Explain.



Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony

Know: James Oglethorpe

12. In what ways was Georgia unique among the Southern colonies?

The Plantation Colonies
13. Which similarities did the Southern colonies have?

Reading Guide questions: Chapter #3 Settling the Northern Colonies 1619—1700

The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
Know: John Calvin, Puritans, Separatists

1. How did John Calvin's teachings result in some Englishmen wanting to leave England?



The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
Know: Mayflower Compact, Plymouth, William Bradford

2. Explain the factors that contributed to the success of the Plymouth colony.



The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
Know: Puritans, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Great Migration, John Winthrop

3. Why did the Puritans come to America and how did this influence the settling of Massachusetts?



Building the Bay Colony
Know: Bible Commonwealth, John Cotton, Protestant Ethic

4. How democratic was the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Explain.



Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
Know: Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism, Roger Williams

5. What happened to those whose religious beliefs differed from others in Massachusetts Bay Colony?



The Rhode Island "Sewer"

6. How was Rhode Island different than Massachusetts?



New England Spreads Out
Know: Thomas Hooker, Fundamental Orders

8. Describe how Connecticut, Maine and New Hampshire were settled.



Puritans versus Indians
Know: Pequot War, Praying Towns, Metacom, King Philip's War

9. Why did hostilities arise between Puritans and Native Americans? What was the result?



Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
Know: New England Confederation

10. Assess the following statement, "The British colonies were beginning to grow closer to each other by 1700."



Andros Promotes the First American Revolution
Know: Dominion of New England, Navigation Laws, Glorious Revolution, Salutary Neglect

11. How did events in England affect the New England colonies' development?



Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands
Know: Dutch East & West India Company, Henry Hudson, New Amsterdam

12. Explain how settlement by the Dutch led to the type of city that New York is today.



Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors
Know: Wall Street, New Sweden

13. "Vexations beset the Dutch company-colony from the beginning." Explain.



Dutch Residues in New York

14. Explain the Dutch legacy in the United States?



Penn's Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania
Know: William Penn

15. Describe the Quakers and their attraction to a colony in America.



Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors
Know: New Jersey, Delaware

16. Why was Pennsylvania attractive to so many Europeans and Native Americans?



The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies

17. What do the authors mean when the say that the middle colonies were the most American?

Reading Guide: Chapter #4 American Life 1607-1692
The Unhealthy Chesapeake

1."Life in the American wilderness was nasty, brutish, and short for the earliest Chesapeake settlers." Explain.



The Tobacco Economy

Know: Freedom Dues, Headright System

2. What conditions in Virginia made the colony right for the importation of indentured servants and how did those servants fare in Virginia?

Frustrated Freemen and Bacon's Rebellion

Know: William Berkeley, Nathaniel Bacon

3. Who is most to blame for Bacon's rebellion, the upper class or the lower class? Explain.

Colonial Slavery

Know: Middle Passage, Slave Codes, Chattel Slavery

4. Describe the evolution of the slave trade in the colonies.

Africans in America (and read Makers of America: From African to African American)

Know: Stono Rebellion

5. Describe slave culture and contributions.

Southern Society

Know: Plantations, Yeoman Farmers

6. Describe southern culture in the colonial period, noting social classes.

The New England Family

Know: The Scarlet Letter

7. What was it like to be a woman in New England in contrast to Chesapeake?

Life in the New England Towns

Know: Town Meetings

8. Explain the significance of New England towns.

The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trial

Know: Half-Way Covenant

9. What evidence shows that New England was becoming more diverse as the 17th century wore on?

The New England Way of Life

Know: Yankee Ingenuity

10. How did the environment shape the culture of New England?

The Early Settlers' Days and Ways

11. How much equality was evident in the colonies?



Reading Guide, Chapter 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775

Conquest by the Cradle

1. What was the significance of the tremendous growth of population in Britain's North American colonies?


A Mingling of Races

Know: Pennsylvania Dutch, Scots-Irish, Paxton Boys, Regulator Movement

2. What was the significance of large numbers of immigrants from places other than England? Be sure to know who is coming & from where?

The Structure of Colonial Society

3. Assess the degree of social mobility in the colonies.



Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists

4. How were each of the above professions regarded?


Workaday America

Know: Triangular Trade, Molasses Act

5. Describe some of the more important occupations in the colonies.

Horsepower and Sailpower

6. What was it like to travel in early America?


Dominant Denominations

7. In what ways was religion “established” in the colonies and how did the denominations in America affect relations with Great Britain?


The Great Awakening

Know: Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield

8. How was the religion encompassed in the Great Awakening different from traditional religion? What was important about the difference?

Schools and Colleges

9. What kind of education could a young person expect in colonial times?


A Provincial Culture

Know: Benjamin Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac

10. Did Americans distinguish themselves in the arts during the colonial period? Explain.

Pioneer Presses

Know: John Peter Zenger

11. Why was the jury verdict in the Zenger case important?

The Great Game of Politics

Know: Royal Colonies, Proprietary colonies, self-governing colonies, colonial assemblies

12. How democratic was colonial America?

Colonial Folkways

13. Describe everyday life in the colonies.


Varying Viewpoints: Colonial America: Communities of Conflict or Consensus?

14. Which viewpoint do you agree with the most and why?



Reading Guide, Chapter 6: Duel for North America, 1608-1763

France Finds a Foothold in Canada

Know: Samuel de Champlain, New France

1. How was the colony of New France different from the British North American colonies?

New France Fans Out

Know: Robert de La Salle

2. What factors led to the French settlement of New France?
The Clash of Empires

3. Describe the early wars between France and Britain.



George Washington Inaugurates War with France

Know: Fort Necessity, Acadians

4. How did George Washington spark the French and Indian War?
Global War and Colonial Disunity

Know: Albany Plan of Union, "Join or Die"

5. What was the purpose and result of the Albany Congress?

Braddock's Blundering and Its Aftermath

6. What setbacks did the British suffer in the early years of the French and Indian War?



Pitt's Palms of Victory

Know: Battle of Quebec

7. What was the significance of the British victory in the French and Indian War?

Restless Colonials

8. How did the French and Indian War affect the relationship between the colonies and with the mother country?



War’s Fateful Aftermath

Know: Pontiac’s Uprising, Proclamation of 1763



9. How did French defeat lead to westward expansion and tension with Native Americans and the British?


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