Reading Assignment: Ch. 1 Amsco purpose



Download 190.52 Kb.
Date conversion20.04.2016
Size190.52 Kb.
Name:_______________________________________ Class Period:____ Due Date:___/____/____
Guided Reading & Analysis: A New World

Chapter 1- A New World of Many Cultures, 1491-1607, pp 1-13


Reading Assignment:

Ch. 1 AMSCO


Purpose:

This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for



reflections and analysis using your noggin (thinking skills) with new knowledge gained from the

reading. This guide, if completed in its entirety BOP (Beginning of Period) by the due date, can be

used on the first quiz. The benefits of this guided reading, however, go far beyond quiz help and

possible bonus points.  Mastery of the course and AP exam await all who choose to



process the information as they read/receive.

So… young Jedi… what is your choice? Do? Or do not? There is no try. (Image Source: AdventureTales.com)
Directions:

  1. Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter.

  2. Skim: Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read.

  3. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a

specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read!

  1. Write Write your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Complete it in BLUE INK!



Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 1:

On a North American continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas, and West Africa created a new world.

Key Concept 1.1 Before the arrival of Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of social, political, and economic structures

based in part on interactions with the environment and each other.



Key Concept 1.2: European overseas expansion resulted in the Columbian Exchange, a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic.

Key Concept 1.3: Contacts among American Indians, Africans, and Europeans challenged the worldviews of each group.

SECTION 1 - Period Perspectives, p.1

Consider the data in the chart at right as well as page 1 of

the text when completing this section.


  1. Period 1 begins with 1491. If the American Indian population in

what is now the United States was nearly 10 million before 1492,

why is the United States population in modern times only 2 to 3%

American Indian?



  1. Period 1 ends with the establishment of Jamestown, the first

permanent British settlement in North America. Explain why

1607 is a major turning point in United States history.




Are you using blue ink? Remember… no pencil!

SECTION 2 Guided Reading, pp 2-13

As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish reading the section and taking notes, process and analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. You do not need to write in complete sentences.




  1. Cultures pp 2-5




Key Concepts &

Main Ideas


Notes


Analysis


Before the arrival of Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of social, political, and economic structures based in part on interactions with the environment and each other.
As settlers migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed quite different and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments.



Cultures of Central and South America…
Cultures of North America…

Language…

Southwest Settlements…

Northwest Settlements…

Great Plains…

Midwest Settlements…

Northeast Settlements…

Atlantic Seaboard Settlements…


In what ways did native peoples transform North American environment before European colonization? (list)
a.
b.
c.
d.

Identify one key similarity and one key difference between societies that developed in Central and South America to those that developed in North America.
Similarity:

Difference:




Explain the significance of the difference between Central /South America and North America.





  1. Europe Moves Toward Exploration, pp 5-6




Key Concepts & Main Ideas


Notes


Analysis


New technology, new knowledge, and new goals spurred European exploration.






Improvements in technology…

Religious conflict…



Identify the key difference between Viking voyages of the 12th century to that of Columbus in the 15th century.

How did new technology enable Christopher Columbus to dominate the “New World?”


What was the impact of the Catholic victory in Spain and the European Reformation on North America?



  1. Expanding Trade, pp 6-7




Key Concepts & Main Ideas


Notes


Analysis



Economic motives drove exploration, and “discovery” altered the European, African, and America economically, politically, and culturally.




New Routes…


Slave Trading…


African Resistance…


Developing Nation-States…



List three main effects of Europe’s expanding trade in the 15th century.
a.
b.
c.

Which effect was most significant? Explain your answer.





  1. Early Explorations, pp 7-10




Key Concepts & Main Ideas


Notes


Analysis


European overseas expansion resulted in the Columbian Exchange, a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic.
The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere in the 15th and 16th centuries triggered extensive demographic and social changes on both sides of the Atlantic.
European expansion into the Western Hemisphere caused intense social/religious, political, and economic competition in Europe and the promotion of empire building.

Christopher Columbus…


Columbus’s Legacy…


Exchanges…
Dividing the Americas…


Spanish Exploration and Conquest…

English Claims…

French Claims…


Dutch Claims…



How did European expansion impact European society?

How did European expansion impact Native American society?


Which of these consequences were the most significant? Explain your answer.


  1. Spanish Settlements in North America, pp 10-11




Key Concepts & Main Ideas


Notes


Analysis


European expansion into the Western Hemisphere caused intense social/religious, political, and economic competition in Europe and the promotion of empire building.


Florida…


New Mexico…


Texas…


California…



What were three chief features of the Spanish empire in America?
a.
b.
c.
Identify one cause and one effect of Spanish settlement in North America.
Cause:

Effect:





  1. European Treatment of Native Americans, pp 11-12




Key Concepts & Main Ideas


Notes


Analysis


Contacts among American Indians, Africans, and Europeans challenged the worldviews of each group.
European overseas expansion and sustained contacts with Africans and American Indians dramatically altered European views of social, political, and economic relationships among and between white and nonwhite peoples


Spanish Policy…


English Policy…

French Policy…


Native American Reaction…



Identify three major consequences of European contact with American Indians?
a.
b.
c.

Which of these were the most significant? Explain your answer.

In what ways was English policy toward Native Americans different from those of France and Spain?
Different from France in that…


Different from Spain in that…


How effective were Native Americans in overcoming the negative aspects of European policies?

  1. Historical Perspectives: Was Columbus a Great Hero? p.13




Key Concepts & Main Ideas


Notes


Analysis


European overseas expansion and sustained contacts with Africans and American Indians dramatically altered European views of social, political, and economic relationships among and between white and nonwhite peoples.




Washington Irving…

President Franklin Roosevelt…

Revisionists…

Arthur Schlesinger…


Fact and fiction…


Support or refute the following statement: Christopher Columbus was a hero.
List 3 pieces of evidence to support your answer.
a.

b.

c.


List 3 pieces of evidence that support the alternate view.
a.

b.

c.







  1. Explain the HIPP of the image below.

Image Source: Public Domain, Library of Congress,

First landing of Columbus on the shores of the

New World, at San Salvador, W.I., Oct. 12th 1492,

Dióscoro Teófilo Puebla Tolín



HAPPY:

Historical Context:


Audience:

Author’s Purpose:

Author’s Point of View:

+Other Context (similar in kind, from a different time…give an example of similar theme in a different place/time period):


This marks the halfway point of the guide. Remember there is a lot of college credit and money on the line.

All we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given us.” Gandalf discussing the importance of doing APUSH notes



SECTION 3 Term Review AMSCO Pg. 14

Below are some key terms pulled from the College Board Concept Outline for Period 1. These include “Terms to Know,” “Illustrative Examples,” and “Other Terms.” Complete the charts by adding definitions and analysis of historical significance. When considering significance, consider causes and effects or how the item illustrates a major theme or idea from the era. Some entries have been completed for you.


The Terms to Know are items you are likely to see on a quiz or test. They are explicit in the College Board framework for the class, and you will be expected to thoroughly understand them on the AP exam. Complete the chart by defining and analyzing each item.


Terms to Know

Definition, Examples, Context, and Historical Significance to Pre-English Settlement in North America in 1607


American Indians

Who are they?

Where were they?

When did they arrive?

How did they live?

Why is this group significant to the era of exploration and colonization?

How did they interact with pre-Jamestown, Spanish explorers and missionaries?




Maize

What is it?

Where was it?

Who manipulated it?

When was it manipulated?

How did it impact the development of North American peoples?





Portuguese & Spanish Explorers

Who were they?

When did they begin exploring?

Where did they explore?

Why were they exploring?

What impact did they have on Europe?

What impact did they have on America?

What impact did they have on Africa?






Terms to Know

Definition, Examples, Context, and Historical Significance to Pre-English Settlement in North America in 1607

Columbian Exchange
(including but not limited to horses, cows, sugar, silver, smallpox, corn, potatoes)

What was it?

Where did it take place?

Who was involved?

Why did it happen?

How did it impact North America?

How did it impact Europe?

How did it impact Africa?





Spanish Caste System

What was it?

Who implemented it?

Where was it implemented?

Why was it implemented?

How did it impact Native Americans?

How did it impact African Americans?

How did it impact Spanish Americans?





Encomienda System

What was it?

Who implemented it?

Where was it implemented?

Why was it implemented?

How did it impact Native Americans?

How did it impact Spanish Americans?


The Illustrative Examples are simply examples provided on the College Board concept outline that could be used to illustrate key themes, BUT will not show up on the AP exam (although they may show up on class quizzes and tests); they are excellent choices for outside information on short answer or essay questions. Complete the chart by defining and analyzing these terms using the thematic learning objectives (BAGPIPE).


B eliefs and ideas (roles of ideas, beliefs, social mores, and creative expression in development of United States)

A merica in the world (global context of how United States originated and developed as well as its role in world affairs)

G eography (role of environment, geography, and climate on the development of United States and individual actions)

P eopling (migration, immigration, adaptation and impact of various groups on social and physical environments)

I dentity (development of American national identity, including focus on subpopulations such as women and minorities)

P olitics and power (changing role of government/state, the development of citizenship and concept of American liberty)

E conomy (work, exchange, technology) (development of American economy; agriculture, manufacturing, labor, etc.)



Illustrative Examples / Definitions

Historical Significance for exploration and colonization … identify and explain broad trends using BAGPIPE thematic learning objectives, highlight theme

The Chinook were a settled tribe in the Pacific northwest. They had distinct social castes. Upper castes included shamans, warriors, and successful traders and were a minority of the community population compared to common members of the tribal group. The Chinook were fisherman and hunters. Salmon and elk were the most popular proteins. The built canoes and lived in longhouses which often housed up to 50 people. Some practiced slavery.  At birth some would flatten children's heads by binding them under pressure between boards, a process said to have been initiated when the infant was about 3 months old and to have continued until the child was about one year of age…flat-headed community members were above those with round heads. Such tribes were known by early white explorers as "Flathead Indians."




Peopling: Early settlers migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed quite different and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments.


Algonquian are a collection of many tribes speaking a similar, Algonquian language, located in the Atlantic northeast. lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn, beans, squash, etc.. The Algonquians of New England (who spoke Eastern Algonquian) practiced a seasonal economy. The basic social unit was the village: a few hundred people related by a clan kinship structure. Villages were temporary and mobile. The people moved to locations of greatest natural food supply, often breaking into smaller units or recombining as the circumstances required. This custom resulted in a certain degree of cross-tribal mobility, especially in troubled times. The lived in longhouses, built canoes, had portable homes called wigwams, Men fished in the sea (hunted whales, walruses, and seals as well as caught fish), and women and children gathered scallops, mussels, clams and crabs, all the basis of menus in New England today.




Iroquois Confederation … Hiawatha was the legendary leader of the group, a group of 5 tribes in New York state composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations. After 1722 the Tuscarora joined the League, forming what became the Six Nations. The Five Nations are believed to have emerged as distinct tribes by the 15th century or earlier. Each nation had a distinct territory and function within the League. Iroquois influence extended into Canada, westward into the Great Lakes and down both sides of the Allegheny mountains into Virginia and Kentucky. To reduce conflict, these people came together in an association known today as the Iroquois League, which in their language was known as the League of Peace and Power. They were matrilineal as authority and possessions passed down through the female line. Each tribe kept their independence, but met occasionally to discuss matters of common interest, like war/defense.




A sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the object's altitude. Using this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight and it is an essential part of celestial navigation. 








Triangular Trade operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, furs (North America), cash crops like sugar (Caribbean/Barbados) and tobacco (Chesapeake) and rice (Carolinas), and manufactured goods between West frica, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe. The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing colonial cash crops, which were exported to Europe. European goods, in turn, were used to purchase African slaves, which were then brought on the sea lane west from Africa to the Americas, the so-called Middle Passage.









Illustrative Examples / Definitions

Historical Significance for exploration and colonization … identify and explain broad trends using BAGPIPE thematic learning objectives, highlight theme


The Spanish mission system were Christian missions established by the Spanish Empire during the 15th to 17th centuries mainly in Mexico and the southwestern portions of what today are the United States. The Spanish colonial enterprise was based on the necessity to develop European commerce and the obligation to propagate the Christian faith. (missions set up in places like St. Augustine, Florida, Sante Fe, New Mexico, San Diego, California, San Antonio, Texas)






Bartolome De Las Casas was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies and focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples. He eventually opposed the atrocities committed against the Native Americans by the Spanish colonists, freed his slaves and Encomienda, and urged Spain to change its policies. Juan de Sepulveda He was the adversary of Bartolomé de las Casas in the Valladolid Controversy in 1550 concerning the justification of the Spanish Conquest of the Indies. Sepúlveda was the defender of the Spanish Empire's right of conquest, of colonization, and of evangelization in the so-called New World. He argued on the base of natural law philosophy. 





Pueblo people live in the Southwestern United States comprising several different language groups and two major cultural divisions, one organized by matrilineal kinship systems and the other having a patrilineal system. These determine the clan membership of children, and lines of inheritance and descent. Their traditional economy is based on agriculture and trade. At the time of Spanish encounter in the 16th century, they were living in villages that the Spanish called pueblos, meaning "towns".






Don Juan de Oñate (1550–1626) was a Spanish Conquistador, explorer, and colonial governor of the Santa Fe Viceroyalty of New Spain. He led early Spanish expeditions to the Great Plains and Lower Colorado River Valley, encountering numerous indigenous tribes in their homelands there. Oñate founded settlements within the province and in the present day American Southwest. Using the mission system and Encomienda he sought to exploit both land and people to better the Spanish crown and Catholic Church.


Native peoples and Africans in the Americas strove to maintain their political and cultural autonomy in the face of European challenges to their independence and core beliefs. European attempts to change American Indian beliefs and worldviews on basic social issues such as religion, gender roles and the family, and the relationship of people with the natural environment led to American Indian resistance and conflict. Following a rebellion of Pueblo in 1598 when Oñate demanded supplies, Oñate led the Spanish slaughter of 800 villagers, including women & children, enslaved 500, and amputated the left foot of every Acoma man over the age of twenty-five. (Acoma Massacre)


Maroon societies were communities of runaway slaves in the Americas, most common in the Caribbean and Brazil but were also elsewhere. To slave owners and ruling groups they represented a constant and serious challenge to the institution of African slavery. In British North America and, after 1783, the United States of America, Maroon societies formed and reformed repeatedly. There is evidence for at least 50 such communities during the period 1672–1864 in the mountains, forests, and swamps from Florida to Louisiana to Virginia.


Native peoples and Africans in the Americas strove to maintain their political and cultural autonomy in the face of European challenges to their independence and core beliefs. Not only did African slaves maintain and continue many of their cultural characteristics such as music, but they also rebelled and fought for their freedom to live as they please in such communities. African culture influenced the development of the new American identity over time.



Mixing of Christianity and African religions occurred in the Americas. The harsh circumstances under which most slaves lived—high death rates, separation of families and tribal groups, and concerted effort of white owners to eradicate "heathen" customs—rendered the preservation of religious traditions difficult and often unsuccessful. Isolated songs, rhythms, movements, and beliefs in the curative powers of roots and the efficacy of a world of spirits and ancestors did survive but increasingly combined in with Christianity. In Latin America, slaves mixed African beliefs and practices with Catholic rituals and theology, resulting in the formation of entirely new religions such as vaudou in Haiti (later referred to as "voodoo").



The mixing of Christianity and traditional African religions led to new beliefs and practices such voodoo illustrate ways slaves rebelled and fought to maintain their culture.





Illustrative Examples / Definitions

Historical Significance for exploration and colonization … identify and explain broad trends using BAGPIPE thematic learning objectives, highlight theme


Mestizo is a person of combined European and Native American descent. The term was used as a racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire's control of their American colonies. The system of castas (caste system) was based on the accepted knowledge that the character and quality of people varied according to their birth, color, and race.
Metis are an indigenous people of mixed Native American/First Nations and European ancestry. Some Métis also have African or/and Asian or/and Pacific Islander ancestry.
Zambo are individuals who descended from the racial mixing of African slaves and American Indians. Also known as sambo, however, in the early United States, the word "sambo" is thought to refer to the racial cross between a black slave and a white person.


The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere in the 15th and 16th centuries (peopling) triggered extensive demographic and social changes on both sides of the Atlantic including the emergence of racially mixed populations, and a caste system defined by an intermixture among Spanish settlers, Africans, and Native Americans.
Spanish and Portuguese traders reached West Africa and partnered with some African groups to exploit local resources (geography) and recruit slave labor for the Americas. This part of the economic Triangular Trade (Middle Passage with slaves) plus migration of Spanish and Portuguese had a huge racial and cultural impact on the developing Americas. English, Dutch, Swedish, French colonists in North America intermixed to lesser extent with slaves and Indians.


Other Terms are simply additional facts to support your reading and review, and they MAY show up on the test. They are also valuable evidence for historical analysis (evidence for defending a thesis).



Other Terms / Definitions

Historical Significance for exploration and colonization … identify and explain broad trends using BAGPIPE thematic learning objectives, highlight theme


Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas developed large civilizations in Central and South America. The Mayas preceded the Aztecs in what is now Mexico, and the Incas dominated what is now Peru.


Although outnumbered, the Spanish easily defeated the Aztecs due to disease, superior weapons, and cultural manipulation. The impact of Spanish and Portuguese peopling of Central and South America was the decimation of many native groups.


Cahokia was the Mississippian settlement near present-day St. Louis. At times it held over 25,000 people. (there would not be a city more populous in North America until 1800) More than 100 large earth mounds marked their civilization, many remain today. Declined and disappeared before colonization and were at their height around 1200.

In North America, where the 13 English colonies developed, there were no large civilizations, only hundreds of smaller bands and a few loose confederations that were not formidable in preventing English, encroachment. Thus, America developed largely due to defensive weaknesses of American Indians.


Three-sister” farming was a technique that made plants essentially work together to survive. Specifically, beans grew on the trellis of cornstalks while squash covered the planting mound, retaining moisture.





The Norse discovery of the Americas occurred in around 1000 AD. They landed on L’Anse aux Meadows (present day Newfoundland) but the Norse, who came from Scandinavia, soon moved on because it lacked resources and was not able to sustain them.






Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in a book.






Arab scholars preserved the writings of the ancient Greeks in their libraries. When the Italian cities traded with the Arabs, ideas were exchanged along with goods. About 1450, European scholars became more interested in studying the world around them. The new age in Europe was eventually called "the Renaissance." The Renaissance began in northern Italy and then spread through Europe.





Prince Henry the Navigator


Efforts to expand sea navigation, routes, trading relationships inspired new economic ventures among European powers which ultimately led to the discovery and settlement (peopling) of the Americas. It also began a fierce competition among developing imperial powers/nation states in Europe first with Spain and Portugal, then Netherlands, France, England, etc.


Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 – Portugal and Spain feuded over who got what land. The Pope drew this line as he was respected by both. The line ran North-South. Portugal got everything east of the line and Spain got everything west of it.





Illustrative Examples / Definitions

Historical Significance for exploration and colonization … identify and explain broad trends using BAGPIPE thematic learning objectives, highlight theme

The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-five theses. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals, and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church.





Adena-Hopewell


Hokokam, Anasazi, & Pueblos


Woodland mound builders


Lakota Sioux




Before colonization began in North America, there were many diverse groups throughout what is now the United States, peopling the continent long before Columbus. Groups included many different languages and cultures and some intense rivalries. Although complex in t heir own right, they were viewed as uncivilized when compared to European culture, religion, and technology. The cultural (beliefs) differences and rivalries made it difficult to prevent encroachment of European colonists and the development of a new nation (Americas place in the world).


John Cabot

Jacques Cartier

Samuel de Champlain

Henry Hudson




European explorers sought to claim land and resources for their nation state as well as search for a better route to Asia. The main economic goal of the European powers was to further develop their trade with Asia. Eventually the discoveries and subsequent settlements led to a new economic goal of triangular trade and mercantilism. These explorers’ impact on North America -in part -was inspiring more French and English settlers to people what is now United States and Canada …to live, work, trade.


Asiento System operated between the early 16th and the mid-18th century, an agreement between the Spanish crown and a private person or another sovereign power by which the latter was granted a monopoly in supplying African slaves for the Spanish colonies in the Americas. The contractor agreed to pay a certain amount of money to the crown for the monopoly and to deliver a stipulated number of male and female slaves for sale in the American markets






New Laws of 1542 provided sweeping changes in Spain’s colonies. The natives were to be considered free, and the owners of the Encomienda could no longer demand free labor or services from them. They did need to pay a certain amount of tribute, but any extra work was to be paid for. Natives were to be treated fairly and given expanded rights. Conquistadores were outraged and they were repealed.






Roanoke Island




It illustrates a change in British economic policy from raiding to colonizing, a change in global power from Spanish domination to British domination, and the beginning of English peopling of North America. The first permanent colony was 1607 Jamestown.



Section 4 MAP

The College Board framework for the course includes specific places and locations significant to the development of North America and the United states. This section provides you with the opportunity to locate and review these items.


Directions:

  1. Read the framework excerpts located to the right of the map, and ensure you understand & know where/what is referenced.

  2. Circle or highlight the following groups: Pueblo, Chinooks, Iroquois, Algonquian, Wamponoags, Pequot, Powhatan

  3. Label/Trace the starting point and expansion of maize cultivation.



On a North American continent The spread of maize cultivation from present-day Mexico northward into the American Southwest and beyond supported economic development and social diversification among societies in these areas; a mix of foraging and hunting did the same for societies in the Northwest and areas of California.
Societies responded to the lack of natural resources in the Great Basin and the western Great Plains by developing largely mobile lifestyles.
In the Northeast and along the Atlantic Seaboard some societies developed a mixed agricultural and hunter–gatherer economy that favored the development of permanent villages.
European overseas expansion resulted in the Columbian Exchange, a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic. The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere in the 15th and 16th centuries triggered extensive demographic and social changes on both sides of the Atlantic.

Source: North American Continent; Western Hemisphere Indian Culture Map, http://lochgarry.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/ancient-winds-and-memories-of-a-time-long-ago/


Sources include but are not limited to: 2015 edition of AMSCO’s United States History Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination, Wikipedia.org, College Board Advanced Placement



United States History Framework, writing strategies developed by Mr. John P. Irish, Carroll High School, 12th edition of American Pageant, USHistory.org, Britannica.com,

LatinAmericanHistory.about.com, and other sources as cited in document and collected/adapted over 20 years of teaching and collaborating..


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page