|Reading 47. Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail
Outline with Study Questions
1. What is King’s response to the argument that blacks should avoid direct action and patiently wait for their civil rights?
II. Civil Disobedience
1. What is a person’s moral responsibility when confronted with an unjust law?
2. What determines whether a law is just or unjust?
3. Why are segregation statutes unjust?
4. What is King’s example of a just law unjustly applied?
5. What obligations fall on someone who breaks an unjust law?
III. White Moderates
1. How does negative peace differ from positive peace?
2. Why are white moderates a serious obstacle to the civil rights movement?
3. What is King’s response to the charge that direct action is wrong because it precipitates violence?
IV. The Charge of Extremism
1. Between what two opposing, extreme forces in the black community does King stand?
2. What does King urge his fellow blacks to do with their discontent?
3. In what sense is King an extremist?
1. What hopes does King express at the end of his letter?
Questions for Reflection and Discussion
1. Is it morally permissible to disobey an unjust law? Is it morally obligatory?
2. What is the proper criterion for determining whether a law is unjust?
3. Are those who commit civil disobedience morally obligated to accept the legal penalties?
4. Is nonviolence a more effective strategy than violence for changing unjust social conditions?
5. In what circumstances (if any) is it morally permissible to use violence to protest unjust social conditions?
For Further Reading
Ansbro, John J. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Making of a Mind. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1982. 352 pp.
See Chapter 4, “The Moral Obligation to Resist Collective Evil” (pp. 110–62), which examines the thinkers who influenced King, and Chapter 5, “King’s Rejection of Violent Resistance” (pp. 231–65).
Bass, S. Jonathan. Blessed Are the Peacemakers: Martin Luther King Jr., Eight White Religious Leaders, and the “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001. 322 pp.
Chapter 6, “The Prison Epistle” (pp. 110–30), describes the arrest and jailing of King in Birmingham, explains how his “Letter from Birmingham Jail” was produced, and analyzes the content of the letter.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches That Changed the World. Edited by James Melvin Washington. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992. 210 pp.
This is a collection of twenty works by King, including “Pilgrimage to Nonviolence” (1960; pp. 54–62); “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (1963; pp. 84–100); “I Have a Dream,” a speech delivered to over 200,000 participants in a civil rights demonstration in Washington, DC (1963; pp. 101–6); and his article “Nonviolence: The Only Road to Freedom” (1966; pp. 126–34).
King, Martin Luther, Jr. Why We Can’t Wait. New York: Harper & Row, 1964. 178 pp.
King discusses the origins of the civil rights movement, his nonviolent campaign to end racial segregation and discrimination in Birmingham, and the work still to be done. The book includes King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”
McWorter, Diane. Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama: The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. 719 pp.
This is a detailed, Pulitzer Prize–winning account of the historic civil rights events in Birmingham, with the focus on 1963, the year that King led nonviolent demonstrations and the Ku Klux Klan bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church.