|English III Pretest
Read this selection. Then answer the questions that follow it.
In the early sixteenth century, Spanish soldier Bernal Díaz del Castillo took part in expeditions to Mexico. Decades later, he recorded his experiences and interactions with native Mexicans in The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico.
from The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico
Bernal Díaz del Castillo
1 As we came nearer in we saw the water breaking over the bar at the mouth of the river, so we got out boats, and by sounding we found out that the two larger vessels could not enter the river, so it was agreed that they should anchor outside in the sea, and that all the soldiers should go up the river in the other two vessels which drew less water and in the boats.
2 When we arrived within a half a league of the town we could hear the sound of chopping wood for the Indians were making barriers and stockades and getting ready to give us battle. When we were aware of this, so as to make certain, we disembarked half a league from the town on a point of land where some palm trees were growing. When the Indians saw us there a fleet of fifty canoes approached us full of warriors. Many other canoes full of warriors were lying in the creeks, and they kept a little way off as though they did not dare approach as did the first fleet. When we perceived their intentions we were on the point of firing at them, but it pleased God that we agreed to call out to them, and through Julianillo and Melchorejo, who spoke their language very well, we told them that they need have no fear, that we wished to talk to them, for we had things to tell them which when they understood them they would be glad that we had come to their country and their homes. Moreover, we wished to give them some of the things we had brought with us. As they understood what was said to them, four of the canoes came near with about thirty Indians in them, and we showed them strings of green beads and small mirrors and blue cut glass beads, and as soon as they saw them they assumed a more friendly manner, for they thought that they were chalchihuites1 which they value greatly.
3 Then through Julianillo and Melchorejo as interpreters, the Captain told them that we came from a distant country and were the vassals of a great Emperor named Don Carlos, who had many great lords and chiefs as his vassals, and that they ought to acknowledge him as their lord, and it would be to their advantage to do so, and that in return for the beads they might bring us some food and poultry.
4 Two of the Indians answered us, and said that they would bring us the food which we asked for, and would barter their things for ours; but as for the rest, they already had a chief, that we were only just now arrived and knew nothing about them, and yet we wanted to give them a chief. Let us beware not to make war on them as we had done at Champoton, for they had more than three jiquipiles of warriors from all the provinces around in readiness (every jiquipil numbers eight thousand men) and they said that they were well aware that only a few days earlier we had killed and wounded more than two hundred men at Champoton but that they were not weaklings such as those, and for this reason they had come to talk to us and find out what we wanted, and that whatever we should tell them they would go and report to the chiefs of many towns who had assembled to decide on peace or war.
1. Chalchihuite is jadeite, which the Indians treasured as a precious stone.
5 Then our Captain embraced the Indians as a sign of peace, and gave them some strings of beads and told them to go and bring back an answer as soon as possible, but he said that although we did not wish to anger them, that if they did not return we should have to force our way into their town.
6 The following day more than thirty Indians with their chief came to the promontory under the palm trees where we were camped and brought roasted fish and fowls, and zapote fruit and maize bread, and braziers with live coals and incense, and they fumigated us all. Then they spread on the ground some mats, which here they call petates, and over them a cloth, and they presented some golden jewels, some were diadems, and others were in the shape of ducks, like those in Castile, and other jewels like lizards and three necklaces of hollow beads, and other articles of gold but not of much value, for they were not worth more than two hundred dollars. They also brought some cloaks and skirts, such as they wear, and said that we must accept these things in good part as they had no more gold to give us, but that farther on, in the direction of the sunset, there was plenty of gold, and they said “Colua, Colua, Méjico, Méjico,” but we did not know what this Colua or Méjico could be. Although the present that they brought us was not worth much, we were satisfied, because we thus knew for certain that they possessed gold. Captain Juan de Grijalva thanked them for their gift and gave them a present of beads. It was decided that we should go on board at once, for the two ships were in much danger should a northerly gale blow, for it would put them on a lee shore, and moreover we wanted to get nearer to where we were told there was gold.
7 We returned on board and set our course along the coast and in two days came in sight of a town called Ayagualulco, and many of the Indians from that town marched along the shore with shields made of the shells of turtle, which sparkled as the sun shone on them, and some of our soldiers contended that they were made of low grade gold.
8 The Indians who carried them as they marched along the sandy beach, knowing that they were at a safe distance, cut capers, as though mocking the ships. We gave the town the name of La Rambla, and it is thus marked on the charts.
9 Coasting along we came in sight of a bay into which flows the river Tonalá.
10 As we sailed along we noted the position of the great river Coatzacoalcos. Soon we came in sight of the great snow mountains, which have snow on them all the year round, and we saw other mountains, nearer to the sea.
11 As we followed along the coast, the Captain Pedro de Alvarado, went ahead with his ship and entered a river which the Indians call Papaloapan, and which we then called the Rio de Alvarado because Alvarado was the first to enter it. There, some Indian fishermen, natives of a town called Tlacotalpa gave him some fish. We waited at the mouth of the river with the other three ships until Alvarado came out, and the General was very angry with him for going up the river without his permission, and ordered him never to go ahead of the other ships again, lest an accident should happen when we could not give him help.
____ 1. The reader can tell this narrative is a primary source because it is a —
A. participant’s report B. personal interview C. published document D. private letter
____ 2. Which descriptive details most clearly place this account in its historical context?
A. Boats, beaded jewelry, skirts B. River, mountains, sea, land C. Poultry, ducks, lizards, fish D. Barriers, stockades, canoes, gold
____ 3. The phrase “it pleased God” in paragraph 2 reveals which cultural characteristics of the Spaniards?
A. Rituals of daily sacrifice B. Colonization as a divine obligation C. Victory as a sacred object D. Influence of religion on everyday life
____ 4. Which statement is the best summary of the following lines from paragraph 2?
“When we perceived their intentions we were on the point of firing at them, but it pleased God that we agreed to call out to them, and through Julianillo and Melchorejo, who spoke their language very well, we told them that they need have no fear, that we wished to talk to them, for we had things to tell them which when they understood them they would be glad that we had come to their country and their homes.”
A. The Spaniards approached the Indians in peace, but when they arrived the Indians were ready for battle. B. The Indians began firing at the Spaniards, who were surprised because they expected a peaceful greeting. C. The Spaniards nearly shot at the Indians, but as the Indians approached, the Spaniards called out that they had come in peace. D. The Indians intended to act peacefully; but when the Spaniards arrived, the Indians began firing from their canoes.
____ 5. The tone of the last two sentences in paragraph 2 can best be described as —
A. humorous B. straightforward C. indifferent D. remorseful
____ 6. What does paragraph 3 reveal about the historical context in which the work was written?
A. Spanish explorers spread democracy. B. Indians rarely trusted interpreters. C. Spain was ruled by an Emperor. D. Don Carlos was a great vassal.
____ 7. Paragraph 5 reveals which cultural characteristic of the Spanish colonists?
A. They believed strongly in making the Indians subjects of the Spanish emperor. B. The Spaniards lived by a strict code of conduct that did not permit violence. C. They frequently gave Indians lavish gifts in order to promote peace and cooperation. D. The Spaniards were interested in adopting various elements from other cultures.
____ 8. Based on the following sentence from paragraph 6, what can the reader conclude that the Spaniards wished to do?
“Although the present that they brought us was not worth much, we were satisfied because we thus knew for certain that they possessed gold.”
A. Teach the Indians about Spain B. Exploit Mexico’s resources C. Learn about Indian culture D. Develop a system of currency
____ 9. The phrases northerly gale blow and lee shore near the end of paragraph 6 are examples of which kind of diction?
A. Technical B. Informal C. Abstract D. Common
____ 10. The detail about the shields in paragraph 7 suggests that the Indians —
A. engaged in combat with one another often B. took pride in their materials of war C. traveled to other countries for supplies D. regarded gold as a sacred substance
____ 11. The information in paragraph 8 tells the reader that —
A. Spaniards care little about mapping the Indians’ territory B. Indians do not seem to respect the Spaniards C. Spaniards are jealous of the Indians’ shields D. Indians fear the intrusion of the Spaniards in their town
____ 12. The author’s tone, or attitude, toward the Indians can best be described as —
A. condescending B. humble C. spiteful D. admiring
____ 13. The reader can tell that the “accident” at the end of the last paragraph refers to a —
A. small leak in the ship’s bottom B. dangerous animal in the river C. surprise attack on the ship D. sharp rock or ledge in the water
Use context clues to answer the following questions.
____ 14. What is the meaning of the word disembarked as it is used in paragraph 2 of The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico?
A. went ashore from a ship B. paused to make observations C. sailed quickly and smoothly D. continued moving forward
____ 15. What is the meaning of the word contended as it is used in paragraph 7 of The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico?
A. struggled B. asserted C. doubted D. wished
Use context clues and your knowledge of foreign words to answer the following questions about the excerpt from The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico.
____ 16. What is the meaning of conquistadors in the following sentence?
“The Spaniards acted like conquistadors when they demanded gold from the natives in Mexico.”
A. Vacationers B. Conquerors C. Teachers D. Lenders
____ 17. What is the meaning of canoes in the following sentence?
“The warriors used canoes to travel up the river toward the intruders.”
A. Narrow boats pointed at both ends B. High-speed motor boats C. Paddles used with rowboats D. Boats with high sails
____ 18. What is the meaning of rio in the following sentence?
“The boats traveled up the Rio de Alvarado.”
A. River B. Boat C. Sailor D. Warrior
____ 19. What is the meaning of maize in the following sentence?
“The natives brought food, including bread made from maize, for the Spaniards.”
A. Flour B. Wheat C. Corn D. Paste
Use the etymology clues to help you choose the correct word that is
missing from each sentence.
____ 20. The cruel ruler subjected his country to many _____ laws.
Clue: from Latin odiosus, “hateful” or odium, “hatred.”
A. Odious B. Contrary C. Offensive D. Arguable
____ 21. The Spaniards feasted on the Indians’ gifts of fish, fowl, and _____.
Clue: from Spanish maíz, “corn.”
A. Manna B. Muffins C. Maize D. Mushrooms
____ 22. Everyone called him a “dreamer” because of his _____ exaggerations.
Clue: from Greek chimaira, “fabulous monster” or cheima, “winter season.”
A. Chronic B. Chimerical C. Shimmering D. Showy
____ 23. She stayed in the _____, where she watched the street in front of the house.
Clue: from Old French garite, “watchtower”or “place of refuge.”
A. Gable B. Garden C. Garage D. Garret
Use context clues and your knowledge of multiple-meaning words to answer the following questions
____ 24. What is the meaning of the word breaking as it is used in paragraph 1 of The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico?
A. Separating into many pieces B. Destroying completely C. Emerging above the surface D. Rendering useless
Revising and Editing
Read the persuasive essay and answer the questions that follow.
(1) Did you ever wonder how far your dinner traveled to get to your plate? (2) The question is worth considering because it has consequences for your health and the health of the planet. (3) According to the National Resources Defense Council, most produce grown in the United States travels an average of 1,500 miles before it gets sold.
(4) Food safety is an ongoing public health concern. (5) The faster your food gets to your plate, the less chance there is of contamination. (6) Locally grown produce doesn’t have to be treated with chemicals to extend its shelf life. (7) It is healthier than non-local produce. (8) Knowing where your food came if there is an outbreak of E. coli from can save your life. (9) If a problem arises, it is easier to pinpoint a food source that is close to home?
(10) The most basic reason to eat locally grown foods is nutrition. (11) Local foods taste better and have more nutritional value than non-local foods. (12) Foods grown far away from where they are consumed have to be picked before they are fully ripe so that they can survive the journey. (13) Then they sit in a warehouse or cold storage facility. (14) A lot of nutrients are lost. (15) Foods grown on the vine are better close to home are allowed to ripen. (16) Eating healthy means not only to buy locally but also eating foods that are in season. (17) You can get blueberries shipped from South America in the middle of January, but the taste won’t compare to the ones you get at a local farmers market in June.
(18) From the standpoint of cost, the further your food is shipped, the more you pay for it. (19) A head of lettuce will cost less growing in a nearby state than one that is flown in. (20) Fuel costs are high. (21) There are packers, dockworkers, and truckers along the way. (22) This adds even more to the overall cost.
(23) Money spent with local farmers stays close to home. (24) It is used to build your local economy instead of being handed over to a corporation in another state or country. (25) Since the food moves through fewer hands, more of the money you spend goes to the people growing it.
(26) The most important reason to eat local foods is environmental impact. (27) The process of trucking, shipping, and flying food tens of thousands of miles leaves a huge carbon footprint. (28) The pollutants that are released into the atmosphere contribute to global warming. (29) They also cause respiratory ailments.
(30) We may not meet the goal of eating one hundred percent locally, but there are compelling economic, health and environmental reasons to try.
____ 25. What is the BEST statement of claim to add after sentence 3?
A. After studying the issue, I’m convinced that we should eat foods that are grown locally. B. It’s a good idea to question what we do so that we can change our behavior over time. C. We all have a responsibility to protect the environment in whatever ways we can. D. There are obstacles to eating locally, but we can overcome them.
____ 26. Which statement provides the most credible evidence to support sentence 4?
A. I know a few people who were sickened with food poisoning last year. B. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that 40,000 people are reported ill with salmonella in the United States each year. C. A doctor in one small town in Texas treated more than 75 cases of salmonella in one year. D. Peanuts, tomatoes, and other foods have been contaminated.
____ 27. What is the BEST way to combine sentences 6 and 7?
A. Locally grown produce doesn’t have to be treated with chemicals to extend its shelf life, it is healthier than non-local produce. B. Locally grown produce is healthier than non-local produce because it doesn’t have to be treated with chemicals to extend its shelf life. C. Locally grown produce doesn’t have to be treated with chemicals to extend its shelf life and it is healthier than non-local produce. D. Locally grown produce, doesn’t have to be treated with chemicals to extend its shelf life when it is healthier than non-local produce.
____ 28. What is the BEST way to revise sentence 8?
A. Knowing, if there is an outbreak of E. coli, where your food came from, can save your life. B. Knowing where your food, if there is an outbreak of E. coli, came from can save your life. C. Knowing that there is an outbreak of E. coli can save your life if you know where your food came. D. Knowing where your food came from can save your life if there is an outbreak of E. coli.
____ 29. What change, if any, should be made in sentence 9?
A. Change the question mark to a period B. Change easier to easiest C. Change a food source to food sources D. Make no change
____ 30. The organizational structure of the essay could be improved by placing paragraph 3 —
A. after paragraph 1 B. after paragraph 4 C. after paragraph 5 D. after paragraph 6
____ 31. What is the BEST way to revise sentence 11?
A. Local foods are fresher; but they taste better and have more nutritional value than non-local foods B. Because they are fresher, local foods taste better and have more nutritional value than non-local foods C. Local foods are fresher than non-local foods and they taste better and they have more nutritional value D. So that they are fresher than non-local foods, local foods taste better and have more nutritional value.
____ 32. What change, if any, should be made in sentence 14?
A. Change the period to a question mark B. Change nutrients to nutrient C. Change are to is D. Make no change
____ 33. What is the BEST way to revise sentence 15?
A. Foods grown better close to home and be allowed to ripen on the vine. B. Foods grown close to home are better because they are allowed to ripen on the vine. C. Allowing foods grown close to home to ripen on the vine is better. D. Foods are grown better on the vine that will ripen close to home.
____ 34. What change, if any, should be made to sentence 16?
A. Change means to meant B. Change eating to to eat C. Change that to which D. Make no change
____ 35. What is the BEST opposing claim to add after sentence 17?
A. Unfortunately, locally grown foods are not always available in supermarkets. B. In fact, much of our produce comes from Central and South America. C. We need to import some foods if we want to eat a balanced diet. D. People nowadays do not have time to seek out organic, local, or healthy foods.
____ 36. What is the BEST way to revise sentence 19?
A. A grown head of lettuce will cost less than one that you fly in from a nearby state. B. Growing a head of lettuce in a nearby state will cost less than one that is flown in. C. A head of lettuce grown in a nearby state will cost less than one grown far away and flown in. D. A head of lettuce grown in a nearby state and costing less than one that is flown in.
____ 37. Which sentence could BEST be added after sentence 19?
A. Do you know that problems might arise? B. When will the shipment arrive? C. Why pay airfare for a head of lettuce? D. Is the food fresh when you buy it?
____ 38. What is the BEST way to combine sentences 20–22?
A. Fuel costs are high; there are packers, dockworkers, and truckers along the way; this adds even more to the overall cost. B. Fuel costs are high, and there are packers, dockworkers, and truckers along the way, and this adds even more to the overall cost. C. When fuel costs are high, packers, dockworkers, and truckers along the way add even more to the overall cost. D. Fuel costs are high, and there are packers, dockworkers, and truckers along the way, which adds even more to the overall cost.
____ 39. In order to leave a strong impression with the audience, the writer should —
A. insist that everyone read the essay twice B. make all the reasons of equal importance C. describe the most important reason near the beginning D. place the most important reason last
____ 40. Which opposing claim would work BEST before sentence 30?
A. Why limit ourselves to local foods when we can ship food anywhere at any time? B. It is much more expensive to eat foods that are grown locally and organically. C. As the nation’s farmland gives way to urban development, the goal of growing foods locally seems unattainable. D. People in the local foods movement are living in the past.
____ 41. Which statement would create an authoritative tone for this essay?
A. My uncle, a farmer, thinks that everyone should buy local produce. B. Dr. Marcia Malloy, an agricultural specialist, notes that local gardens produce crops with more nutrients. C. I like the flavor of locally grown vegetables better than that of mass-produced crops. D. Some people prefer locally grown foods to foods that are shipped over long distances.
English III Pretest
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2. ANS: D PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.KID.1
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4. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.KID.2
5. ANS: B PTS: 1
6. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.IKI.9
7. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.IKI.9
8. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.KID.1
9. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.CAS.4
10. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.KID.1
11. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.KID.1
12. ANS: A PTS: 1
13. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.RI.KID.1
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15. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.a
16. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.d
17. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.d
18. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.d
19. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.d
20. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.c
21. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.c
22. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.c
23. ANS: D PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4.c
24. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.VAU.4
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26. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.W.TTP.1.b
27. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3.a
28. ANS: D PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3.a
29. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3.a
30. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.W.PDW.4
31. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3.a
32. ANS: D PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3.a
33. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3.a
34. ANS: B PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3
35. ANS: A PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.W.PDW.4
36. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.W.TTP.3
37. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.W.TTP.1.c
38. ANS: D PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.L.KL.3
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40. ANS: C PTS: 1 NAT: CCS.ELA.10.11-12.W.TTP.1
41. ANS: B PTS: 1