R. Gerald Hughes Unfinished Business from Potsdam: Britain, West Germany, and the Oder-Neisse Line, 1945-1962



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The secret assurance to Poland finally managed to address the problems inherent in the dual nature of British policy, a policy hitherto caught between disenchantment with the provisional nature of the territorial settlement and the desire not to alienate the FRG. Britain had changed its approach from one of attempting to use détente to raise the status of Britain internationally to lower-profile initiatives actually designed to reduce tension in Europe. Therefore, Britain’s secret 1962 assurance to Warsaw regarding the frontier was designed to calm Polish fears and instil a greater measure of stability in Europe. In addition, it had long been recognised that the existence of a German threat, however illusory, was the Soviet Union’s most potent propaganda weapon with which to dominate Eastern Europe. In terms of British relations with Poland, the secret pledge was a positive step. But its greatest significance lay in the manner in which Britain had made a step (albeit a lone limited one) towards détente.

University of Wales, Aberystwyth





1 For the German Question in the Cold War, see Marc Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace: the Making of a European Settlement 1945-1963, (Princeton, 1999); W. R. Smyser, From Yalta to Berlin: the Cold War Struggle Over Germany, (London, 1999).

2 See Elizabeth Wiskemann, Germany’s Eastern Neighbours: Problems Relating to the Oder-Neisse Line and the Czech Frontier Regions, (Oxford, 1956); Z. M. Szaz, Germany’s Eastern Frontiers: the Problem of the Oder-Neisse Line, (Chicago, 1960).

3Europe Unite: Speeches by W.S. Churchill, (London, 1950), p. 225.

4 Clutton to Wilson, 14 Feb. 1962 [Kew, United Kingdom National Archives, Public Record Office], F[oreign] O[ffice records] 371/163594, 1081/14/2G, CG 1081/ 2.

5 For Britain, West Germany and the German question, see Klaus Larres, Politik der Illusionen: Churchill, Eisenhower und die deutsche Frage, 1945-1955, (Göttingen, 1995); Sabine Lee, An Uneasy Relationship: British German Relations between 1955 and 1961, (Bochum, 1996 and Daniel Gossel, Briten, Deutsche und Europa: die Deutsche Frage in der britischen Außenpolitik, 1945-1962, (Stuttgart, 1999). For Anglo-German friction, see Klaus Larres with Elizabeth Meehan (eds.), Uneasy Allies: British-German Relations and European Integration Since 1945, (Oxford, 2000); Jeremy Noakes, Peter Wende & Jonathan Wright (eds.), Britain and Germany in Europe, (London, 2002).

6 Hans Ǻke Persson, Rhetorik und Realpolitik: Grossbritannien, die Oder-Neisse-Grenze und die Vertreibung der Deutschen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, 2nd edn., (Potsdam, 2000).

7 Quoted in Paul Weymar, Konrad Adenauer: the Authorised Biography, trans. Peter de Mendelssohn, (London, 1957), p. 240.

8 H. Bodensieck (ed.), Die Deutsche Frage seit dem Zweiten Welt krieg, (Stuttgart, 1985), p. 51.

9 BBC Monitoring report, interview with Adenauer, 11 June 1953, FO 371/103665, C1073/43.

10 Quoted in A. Hillgruber, Europa in der Weltpolitik der Nachkrieszeit 1945-1963, (Franfkurt a.M., 1987), p. 70.

11 J. Joffe, ‘The View from Bonn’ in Lincoln Gordon with J.F. Brown, Pierre Hassner, Josef Joffe, Edwina Moreton, Eroding Empire: Western Relations with Eastern Europe, (Washington, 1987), pp. 140-1.

12 P. Abrasimov, West Berlin: Yesterday and Today, (Dresden, 1981), p. 36.

13 The Times, 21 September 1949, p. 14.

14 Strath to Petch, 13 June 1955, [Kew, Public Record Office], T[reasury Records] 234/19, 234/87/01.

15 Hansard, TJO use Parl. Paps. HC Deb, Series 5c, Volume 598, Cols. 33-4, 4 December 1958.

16 R. W. Leonhardt, This Germany: the Story Since the Third Reich, trans. C. Hutter, (London, 1966), p. 36.

17 P. Ahonen, ‘Domestic Constraints on West German Ostpolitik: the Role of Expellee Organisations in the Adenauer Era’, Central European History, xxxi, 1998, pp. 31-63.

18 W. Benz (ed.), Die Vertreibung der Deutschen aus dem Osten: Ursachen, Erignisse, Folgen, (Frankfurt a. M., 1985), p. 10.

19 S. Lee, ‘Perception and Reality: Anglo-German Relations during the Berlin Crisis, 1958-1959’, German History, xiii, 1995, pp. 47-69.

20 Memo., meeting, de Gaulle and Adenauer, 21 Jan. 1963, [Akten zur] A[uswärtigen] P[olitik der] B[undesrepublik] D[eutschland], 1963, I (Munich, 1994), no. 37.

21 See W. Wagner, The Genesis of the Oder-Neisse Line: A Study in Diplomatic Negotiations During World War II, (Stuttgart, 1957); G. Rhode & W. Wagner (eds.), The Genesis of the Oder-Neisse Line: A Study in Diplomatic Negotiations During World War II: Sources and Documents, (Stuttgart, 1959). For a Polish perspective see E. J. Rozek, Allied War Diplomacy: A Pattern in Poland, (New York, 1958); W. M. Drzewieniecki, The German-Polish Frontier, (Chicago, 1959).

22 Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, Poland’s Place in Europe: General Sikorski and the Origins of the Oder-Neisse Line, (Princeton, 1983), pp. 58-9.

23 [Independence, MO, Harry S. Truman Library, Oral History] Interview [Elbridge] Durbrow, 31 May 1973 [URL:http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/durbrow.htm.]

24 Jacek Tebinka, ‘British Memoranda on Changing the Curzon Line in 1944’, Acta Poloniae Historica, lxxx, 1999, pp. 167-94.

25 J. Ciechanowski, Victory in Defeat, (London, 1947), p. 269.

26 ‘The Meaning of Berlin’, HMSO pamphlet, 19 Jan. 1962, FO 371/163594, CG 1081/1. In July 1945 a fourth, French, zone was created.

27 W. S. Churchill, The Dawn of Liberation: War Speeches by the Rt. Hon. Winston S. Churchill C.H., M.P.: 1944, comp. C. Eade, (London, 1945), p. 295.

28 The Times, 16 December 1944, p. 27.

29 ‘Declaration Regarding the Unconditional Surrender of Germany and the Assumption of Supreme Authority by the Allies’, 11 Feb. 1945, S[elected] D[ocuments on] G[ermany and the Question of Berlin 1944-1961], Cmnd. 1552, no. 7, p. 38. [TJO follow our usual rules for command papers, save for my square brackets]

30 Article IX (b) of Potsdam Declaration (excerpt), 2 August 1945, Documents on Germany Under Occupation 1945-1954, B. R. von Oppen (ed.), (London, 1955), p. 49.

31 I. von Munch, (ed.), Dokumente des geteilten Deutschland, (Stuttgart, 1976), p. 42.

32 R. W. Piotrowicz, ‘The Polish-German Frontier in International Law: the Final Solution’, British Year Book of International Law 1992, pp. 369-70.

33 Interview Durbrow, 31 May 1973.

34 Hansard, [TJO follow our usual Parl Paps rules] HC Deb, Series 5c, Volume 413, column 317, 20 August 1945.

35 Lord Avon, The Memoirs of Sir Anthony Eden: Full Circle, (London, 1960), pp. 4-5.

36 Hansard, Series 5c, Volume 413, column 293, 16 August 1945. See also W. S. Churchill, The Second World War Volume VI: Triumph and Tragedy, (London, 1952), p. 573.

37 R. Rhodes James, Anthony Eden, (London, 1987), p. 281

38 N. Davies, Rising ’44: the Battle for Warsaw, (London, 2003), p. 155.

39 Clark Kerr to Molotov, 7 Sept. 1945, FO 371/46990, C 5694/5333/18; Persson, Rhetorik und Realpolitik, pp. 147-51, 169-74, 185-7.

40 Quoted in Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace, p. 38.

41 ‘Die Stuttgarter Rede des US-Außenministers James F. Byrnes am 6. September 1946’, Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Baden-Württemberg, URL:http://www.lpb.bwue.de/publikat/byrnes3.htm.

42 Memo., British embassy to state department, 31 Jan. 1947,  F[oreign] R[elations of the] U[nited] S[tates],  1947, ii, 149-50.

43 Memo., British embassy to state department, 31 Jan. 1947,  FRUS, 1947, ii, 176.

44 BISME, Cairo to MEID, no. 288, 10 Feb. 1948, report of meeting of UNESCO, FO 953/380, 30/30/965.

45 Gaddis, We Now Know, pp. 150-1.

46 [Kew, Public Record Office], CAB[inet Records] 129/9, CP(46)156, Gen. 121/1, memo., Bevin, ‘The Future of Germany and the Ruhr’, 11 March 1946.

47 Debra J. Allen, The Oder-Neisse Line: the United States, Poland and Germany in the Cold War, (London, 2003), pp. 77-8.

48 Interview Durbrow, 31 May 1973, pp. 68-9.

49 C. Arndt, ‘Legal Problems of the German Eastern Territories’, American Journal of International Law, 74/ 1, 1980, pp. 126-8.

50 Quoted in K. Skubiszewski, ‘Poland’s Western Frontiers and the 1970 Treaties’, American Journal of International Law, lxvii (1973), 25.

51 The Bulletin: A Weekly Survey of German Affairs, 4 May 1956, p. 2.

52 Piotrowicz, ‘Polish-German Frontier’, p. 370.

53 H. Macmillan, Tides of Fortune, (London, 1969), p. 101.

54 Frage und Antwort, Nr. 6: Warum ist die Oder-Neisse-Linie eine Freidensgrenze? (East Berlin, 1950), p. 1; also see Wiskemann, Germany’s Eastern Neighbours, p. 249.

55 L. Gelberg, ‘The Warsaw Treaty of 1970 and the Western Boundary of Poland’ in American Journal of International Law, lxxvi (1982), 123; Piotrowicz, ‘Polish-German Frontier’, p. 371.

56 Adenauer to McCloy, 24 Aug. 1950, APBD 1949/50 (Munich, 1997), no. 112.

57 C[ontrol] C[omission] for G[ermany] (British Element), Background Letter: January-December 1950, Vol. III (abridged), (Wahnerheide, 1950), p. 67.

st Control Commission for Germany (British Element), tel. 29, 12 Jan. 1951, FO 1008/2.

58 R. von Weizsäker ‘Introduction’ in Frank Giles (ed.), Forty Years On: Four Decades of Koenigswinter Conferences, (Blackpool, 1989), p. 1.

59 Memo for Churchill (n.d.); Churchill, minute, M 58c/51, 16 Nov.1951 [Kew, Public Record Office], PREM[Prime Minister’s Office] 11/72.

60 T. Garton Ash, In Europe's Name: Germany and the Divided Continent, (London, 1994), p. 225. Brandt quotes Adenauer as stating ‘They’re gone’ in reference to the eastern territories as early as August 1953. W. Brandt, My Life in Politics, (London, 1992), p. 35.

61 T. Prittie, Adenauer: A Study in Fortitude, (London, 1972), p. 258. Prittie derived his information from Hans Maria Globke, state secretary to the federal chancellery and Adenauer’s most trusted adviser, who had it from Stanislav Stomma, a member of the Polish parliament, in April 1958.

62 See S. Lee, ‘CDU Refugee Policies and the Landesverband Oder/ Neiße: Electoral Tool or Instrument of Integration?’, German Politics, viii (1999), 131-149.

63 Ahonen, West German Ostpolitik, p. 40.

64 GDR Information Office, The Wall and Humanity, (East Berlin, 1962), p. 9.

65 Quoted in Ahonen, West German Ostpolitik, p. 41.

66 N[ational] E[xecutive] C[ommittee] International Sub-Committee, report, Rose, on SPD Congress, Dortmund, 24-28 Sept. 1952 [Manchester] L[abour] P[arty] A[rchive].

67 For a collection of Jacksch’s writings, tributes and biographical pieces on him see K. Kern (ed.), Wenzel Jacksch: Sucher and Künder, (Munich, 1967) and K.Kern (ed.), Wenzel Jacksch: Patriot und Europäer, (München, 1967). The Sudeten German Council (ed.), Menschen vor dem Volkstod, n.d., preface dated 1 October 1963, (München). TJO delete after checking whether details need later

68 Gunter Buchstab (ed.), Protokolle des CDU-Bundesvorstandes 1953-1957, (Düsseldorf, 1990), pp. 392-3.

69 Chancery, Bonn, to FO, 22 Sept. 1960, FO 371/154090, WG 1075/11.

70 See, e.g., Chancery, Bonn, to FO, 16 Feb. 1960, FO 371/154090, WG 1075/2.

71 M. Burleigh, Germany turns Eastwards: A study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich, (Cambridge, 1988), p. 314.

72 W. Hubatsch, with J. Schomerus & W. John, Die Deutsche Frage, (Würzburg, 1961), pp. 164-174.

73 A. Höft, foreword in Das Reich und der Osten: Die Barsinghauser Gespräche (1-4); Schriften zur deutschen Frage (3), (Hannover, 1963/ 4), p. 5.

74 T. Schieder (ed.), Dokumentation der Verteibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleurpa, Volumes I-V, (Bonn, 1953-1960). The first four volumes of this collection were translated as Documents on the Expulsions of the Germans from Eastern Central Europe, (Bonn, 1960-1).

75 T. Etzemüller, Sozialgeschichte als politische Geschichte: Werner Conze und die Neuorientierung der westdeutschen Geschichtwissenschaft nach 1945, (Munich, 2001), pp. 319-320.

76 Chancery, Warsaw, to FO, 13 Jan. 1960, FO 371/154047, WG 10355/1.

77 CCG, Background Letter, p. 85.

78 K. P. Tauber, Beyond Eagle and Swastika: German Nationalism Since 1945, Volume I, (New Haven, 1967), pp. 917-8.

79 See B. Marshall, The New Germany and Migration in Europe, (Manchester, 2000), and H. Heidemeyer, Flucht und Zuwanderung aus der SBZ/DDR 1945/1949-1961: die Fluechtlingspolitik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland bis zum Bau der Berliner Mauer, (Düsseldorf, 1994).

80 Der Stern, 21 December 1969, pp. 36-7.

81 C. C. Schweitzer, D. Kausten et al (eds.), Politics and Government in Germany 1944-1994: Basic Documents, (Oxford, 1995), p. 442.

82 See, e.g., Aide-mémoire presented by Polish Ambassador, Dr. Rodzinski, 30 Sept. 1960, FO 371/154047, WG 10335/6.

83 Quoted in Burleigh, Germany turns Eastwards, p. 317.

84 Quoted in Szaz, Germany’s Eastern Frontiers, p. ix.

85 Prittie, Adenauer, p. 225.

86 Chancery, Bonn, 13 May 1960, report of meetings between Welbourne-Ker (first secretary (information) and Eastern bloc journalists/ diplomats, FO 371/154090, WG 1075/6.

87 Documents on Germany under Occupation 1945-1954, von Oppen (ed.), pp. 49-50

88 Von Brentano interview, Südwestfunk Baden-Baden, 2 May 1956, Federal Republic of Germany, Press and Information Office, The Bulletin: A Weekly Survey of German Affairs, 4 May 1956, p. 4.

89 Quoted in H. von Brentano, Germany and Europe: Reflections on German Foreign Policy, trans. Edward Fitzgerald, (New York, 1964), p. 104.

90 Johnstone to FO, 11 June 1953, FO 371/103714, C1083/7.

91 Wiskemann, Germany’s Eastern Neighbours, p. 112.

92 Quoted in T. H. Tetens, The New Germany and the Old Nazis, (London, 1961), p. 125.

93 See Memo, Adenauer, 29 August 1950, APBD, 1949/50 (Munich, 1997), no. 113.

94 Kirkpatrick report to the FO, meeting with McCloy, François-Poncet and Adenauer, 15 Nov. 1951, PREM 11/172.

95 Hansard, HC Deb, Series 5s, Volume 515, Col. 897.

96 Hansard, HC Deb, Series 5s, Volume 515, Col. 896. See also M. Gilbert, Never Despair: Winston S. Churchill 1945-1965, (London, 1988), pp. 831-2.

97 FO 371/103705, C 1074/7, Adenauer Press Conference, London, 16 May 1953.

98 Eisenhower to Nixon and Martin, 20 Feb. 1953, Z. C. Szkopiak (ed.), The Yalta Agreements: the White Book: Documents prior to, during and after the Crimea Conference 1945, (London, 1986), p. 152.

99 Konrad Adenauer, Erinnerungen 1953-1955, (Stuttgart, 1966), p. 243.

100 The Bulletin, 31 July 1953, p. 2.

101 Larres, Politik der Illusionen, pp. 133-54.

102 Churchill note to Sir William Strang, 6 July 1953, PREM 11/ 449.

103 ‘Germany’s position under international law’, German Embassy Paper, 4 July 1960, FO 371/154093, WG 1076/21.

104 CAB 128/29, CC(55)23(5), 14 July 1955.

105 CAB 129/ 74, C(55)83, 25 March 1955. This was reiterated constantly, e.g. PREM 11/ 1365, Hoyer Miller, ambassador in Bonn, to FO, 16 March 1956.

106 Macmillan to Lloyd, 17 December 1957, FO 371/137398, WG 1052/11.

107 K. Adenauer, World Indivisible, (London, 1956), p. 19.

108 Quoted in Brentano, Germany and Europe, p. 104.

109 [TJO delete after checking whether details needed later] A. Varsori, ‘British Policy Aims at Geneva’ in G. Bischof & S.Dockrill (eds.), Cold War Respite: the Geneva Summit of 1955, (Louisiana, 2000), pp. 75-96.

110 H. Proebst ‘German-British Relations since the War: A German View’ in R. Morgan & K. Kaiser (eds.), Britain and West Germany: Changing Societies and the Future of Foreign Policy, (London), 1971, pp. 198-9; L. Kettenacker, ‘Britain as One of the Four Powers in Berlin’ in Noakes, Wende & Wright (eds.), Britain and Germany in Europe, pp. 177-8.

111 See F-J. Strauss, ‘Soviet Aims and German Unity’, Foreign Affairs, 37/ 3, April 1959, pp.366-377 and K-U. von Hassell, ‘Détente Through Firmness’, Foreign Affairs, 42/ 2, January 1964, pp. 184-194. See also S. Lee, 'Anglo-German Relations 1958-59: The Postwar Turning Point?', Diplomacy and Statecraft, 6/ 3, 1995, 787-808; S. Lee, ‘Pragmatism Versus Principle? Macmillan and Germany’ in R. Aldous & S. Lee (eds.), Harold Macmillan: Aspects of a Political Life, (London, 1999).

112 R. Morgan, 'The British View' in Edwina Moreton (ed.), Germany between East and West, (Cambridge, 1987), p. 87.

113 Dokumente zur Deutschlandpolitik III/ 3:1 Januar bis 31 Dezember 1957, (Munich, 1997), p. 1597.

114 Economist, 14 September 1957, p. 36.

115 FO minute, Sykes, 3 Jan. 1958, FO 371/130746, WG 1082/18.

116 D. R. Thorpe, Selwyn Lloyd, (London, 1989), p. 287. R. A. Butler (foreign secretary 1963-4) came to the same conclusion. R.A. Butler, The Art of the Possible, (London, 1971), pp. 257-8.

117 O. Harries, ‘Faith in the Summit’, Foreign Affairs, xl, 1961, 58-70.

118 Diary entry for 8 May 1855, The Macmillan Diaries: the Cabinet Years, 1950-1957, Peter Catterall (ed.), (London, 2003), pp. 421-2.

119 Steel to FO, tel. 2 saving, 2 Jan. 1958, FO 371/137357, WG 1022/1; Scott to Rusk, 8-9 July 1961, [Boston, MA] J[ohn] F. K[ennedy] L[ibrary], N[ational] S[ecurity] F[iles] Box 74.

120 Memo ‘Germany’, de Zuleta to Macmillan, 12 January 1959, PREM 11/ 2715; Gossel, Briten, Deutsche und Europa, pp. 190-1.

121 Paul-Henri Spaak, The Continuing Battle: Memoirs of a European, 1936-1966, (London, 1971), p. 271.

122 Meeting between Macmillan, de Gaulle and Eisenhower, Paris, 15 May 1960, PRO: PREM 11/2992.

123 John P.S. Gearson, 'British Policy and the Berlin Wall Crisis 1958-61', Contemporary Record, 6/ 1, 1992, p. 110.

124 K. Adenauer, Erinnerungen 1955-1959, (Stuttgart, 1967), p. 469.

125 Sir Gladwyn Jebb, ‘Berlin and Germany: A Memorandum’, FO 371/145818, WG 1073/ 67G, 21 January 1959. Lloyd to Jebb, comment on draft memo., 18 January 1959.

126 Top Secret Annex of the trip to Moscow, 21 February 1959-3 March 1959, PRO: CAB 133/293.

127 Meeting between von Brentano and Lloyd, 13 March 1959, PREM 11/2676.

128 Lee in Aldous & Lee (eds.), Macmillan, (1999), p. 123.

129 Steel to FO, 31 Mar. 1959, FO 371/145693, WG 1051/1.

130 ‘Anglo-German Relations 1945-64’, n.d. [1964], FO 370/2756/56082.

131 K. Adenauer, Erinnerungen 1959-1963, (Stuttgart, 1968), p. 27.

132 H. Köhler, Adenauer: Eine politische Biographie, (Frankfurt a.M.1994), pp. 1015-6.

133 British High Command (Berlin) to FO, 13 Jan. 1960, FO 371/154008, WG 1072/2.

134 Barrett to Wilberforce, 13 Jan. 1960, FO 371/153791.

135 [Oxford, Bodleian Library, Harold] Macmillan Diaries, 7 February, 29 March 1960.

136 Meeting between Macmillan and de Gaulle, 24 April 1960, PREM 11/2890.

137 J. Van Oudenarden, Détente in Europe: the Soviet Union and the West since 1953, (London, 1991), p. 56.

138 Macmillan Diaries, 21 May 1960.

139 This was obvious to contemporary observers. For instance, ‘Summit Casualty - Macmillan’, New York Times, 22 May 1960, p. 1.

140 A. Horne, Macmillan, 1957-1986, (London, 1988), p. 231.

141 Macmillan Diaries, 6 August 1960; H. Macmillan, Pointing the Way 1959-1961, (London, 1972), pp. 317-8.

142 Macmillan Diaries, 10 August 1960.

143 N. Ashton, Kennedy, Macmillan and the Cold War: the Irony of Interdependence, (Basingstoke, 2002), pp. 130-1.

144 S. Lee, ‘Staying in the Game? Coming into the Game? Macmillan and European Integration’ in R. Aldous & S. Lee (eds.), Harold Macmillan and Britain’s World Role, (London, 1996), p. 137.

145 Macmillan Diaries, 26 April 1961. See R. Steininger, 'Great Britain's first EEC failure in January 1963', Diplomacy and Statecraft, 7/ 2, July 1996, pp. 400-414; R. Griffiths, ‘A Slow One Hundred and Eighty Degree Turn: British Policy Towards the Common Market. 1955-60’ in G. Wilkes, (ed.), Britain’s Failure to Enter the European Community 1961-63: The Enlargement Negotiations and Crises in European, Atlantic and Commonwealth Relations, (London, 1997).

146 Macmillan Diaries, 9 August 1961.

147 Macmillan Diaries, 2 November 1960.

148 Marten to Tomkins, 30 August 1960, FO 371/154090, WG 0175/10.

149 Abrasimov, West Berlin, p. 36.

150 Chancery, Bonn to FO, 10 July 1960, FO 371/154097, WG 1081/29.

151 Steel to O’ Neill, 19 August 1960, FO 371/154097, WG 1081/33.

152 FO minute, Mason, 20 July 1960, FO 371/154095, WG 1081/12.

153 Clutton to FO, 8 October 1960, FO 371/154047, WG 10355/8.

154 Polish communication to Profumo, 20 July 1960, FO 371/154097, WG 1081/29.

155 FO minute, Killick, 6 September 1960, FO 371/154097, WG 1081/33.

156 Steel to O’ Neill, 25 Oct. 1960, FO 371/154098, WG 1081/41.

157 The Times, 29 August 1960, p. 9.

158 Marten to Tomkins, 30 Aug. 1960, FO 371/154090, WG 1075/10.

159 Lee in Aldous & Lee (eds.), Macmillan, (1999), pp. 121-2.

160 Clutton to FO, 8 Sept. 1960, FO 371/154047, WG 10355/3.

161 A. Gromyko Memories, trans. H. Shukman, (London, 1989), p. 157.

162 Macmillan, speech to UN General Assembly, 29 Sept. 1960, FO 331/154047, WG 10355/6.

163 Schuckburgh to Home, 9 Nov. 1960, FO 371/154089, WG 1074/74.

164 Conversation between Heath and Rodzinski, 30 September 1960, FO 371/154097, WG 10355/6.

165 Minute, Wilberforce, 11 Oct. 1960, FO 371/154097, WG 10355/6.

166 Parrott to FO, 8 Oct. 1960, FO 371/154091, WG 1075/13.

167 See N. Perzi, Die Beneš-Dekrete. Eine europäische Tragödia, (St. Pölten, 2003).

168 Parrott to Mason, 7 Oct. 1960, FO 371/154091, WG 1075/14.

169 Parrott to Mason, 13 Oct. 1960, FO 371/154090, WG 1075/12.

170
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