Quilt Codes Student/Class Goal



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Quilt Codes

Student/Class Goal

Students often have questions when reading text or online sites about the reliability of the writing and how they judge whether the author has written facts or not.




Outcome (lesson objective)

Students will be able to list criteria that are useful in evaluating the credibility of historical sources and claims and write a paper defending their views.




Time Frame

3-5 hours



Standard Read With Understanding


NRS EFL 3-6

Components Of Performance (COPs)

Determine the reading purpose.



Activity Addresses COPs (process)

Students are becoming aware of the need for information literacy as they evaluate sources for reliability and objectivity.




Select reading strategies appropriate to the purpose.

Students construct a list of criteria that can be used to evaluate credibility of information found in various sources.


Monitor comprehension and adjust reading strategies.

During this activity, they will evaluate multiple sets of text against the criteria.


Analyze the information and reflect on its underlying meaning.

Students will make judgments about authenticity of information.


Integrate it (i.e. new information) with prior knowledge to address the reading purpose.

Each person will write a paper defending their viewpoint based on evidence found during their study.


Activity Addresses Benchmarks (content)

R.3.1, R.4.1, R.5.1, R.6.1

R.3.2, R.4.2, R.5.2, R.6.2

R.3.5, R.4.5, R.5.5, R.6.5

R.3.8, R.4.8, R.5.8, R.6.8

R.3.11, R.4.11, R.5.11, R.6.11

R.3.12, R.4.12, R.5.12, R.6.12

R.3.14, R.4.14, R.5.14, R.6.14

R.3.15, R.4.15, R.5.15, R.6.15

R.3.16, R.4.16, R.5.16, R.6.16




Materials

A copy or classroom set of the book Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad



Information Literacy: Evaluating What You Find Teacher Resource

Criteria for Evaluating Information Handout

Underground Railroad (UGRR) Quilt Code articles




Learner Prior Knowledge

If this is the first time students have examined historical documents and analyzed them in terms of credibility, the teacher will need to teach this concept using the Information Literacy: Evaluating What You Find Teacher Resource. Students should be comfortable finding Internet websites by using a search engine.




Activities

Step 1 - Explain to students that in 1994, historian Jacqueline Tobin met Ozella McDaniel Williams, an African-American quilter, in the Old Market Building of Charleston, South Carolina. Williams told Tobin a story that had been passed along from generation to generation in her family. In general terms, Williams described a secret communication system that employed quilt-making terminology as a message map for slaves escaping on the Underground Railroad (UGRR).


Williams’ story prompted Jacqueline Tobin to enlist the help of Raymond Dobard, an art history professor and well-known African-American quilter, in an attempt to unravel the mystery of Williams’ claim to an UGRR Quilt Code. Their efforts led to the publication of Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad (1999). Their ideas have unraveled an intriguing topic for ongoing research but have also generated important questions surrounding the credibility of historical sources.
Read aloud or distribute copies of the Cuesta Benberry’s Foreword to Hidden in Plain View entitled “The Heritage of an Oral Tradition: The Transmission of Secrets in African American Culture” (1999, p. 1-3). Have the students summarize Benberry’s main points and discuss their findings using discussion webs http://literacy.kent.edu/eureka/strategies/discussion_webs.pdf
Step 2 – Ask students to find the best possible information they can about Quilt Codes. With electronic technology providing an overwhelming amount of information, students will need to evaluate all sources they encounter in their study for credibility.
Working in triads, have students construct a list of criteria that can be used to evaluate the credibility of claims. Some general guidelines to use in evaluating information sources would include: credibility, accuracy, objectivity and support, as shown in the following chart from Evaluating Internet Research Sources http://www.virtualsalt.com/evalu8it.htm


Credibility

trustworthy source, author’s credentials, evidence of quality control, known or respected authority, organizational support. Goal: an authoritative source, a source that supplies some good evidence that allows you to trust it.

Accuracy

up to date, factual, detailed, exact, comprehensive, audience and purpose reflect intentions of completeness and accuracy. Goal: a source that is correct today (not yesterday), a source that gives the whole truth.

Objectivity

fair, balanced, objective, reasoned, no conflict of interest, absence of fallacies or slanted tone. Goal: a source that engages the subject thoughtfully and reasonably, concerned with the truth.

Support

listed sources, contact information, available corroboration, claims supported, documentation supplied. Goal: a source that provides convincing evidence for the claims made, a source you can triangulate (find at least two other sources that support it).


Teacher Note More in-depth descriptions of these criteria can be found in the Information Literacy: Evaluating What You Find Teacher Resource. You can choose to use a student-developed handout from their list of criteria or use the provided handout to guide students in their research.
Step 3 - Share a copy of the UGRR Quilt Code article [Flesch-Kincaid readability estimate 7.2] using an overhead or distribute the handout and review the code with students. Also show students the quilt pattern illustrations from the book. Model the evaluation process using the handout Criteria for Evaluating Information or a similar student-developed list of questions with students. Students can work in pairs to supply the necessary information about the UGRR Quilt Code article. Discuss results as a large group.

Once the teacher has modeled the evaluation process, have students choose one of the selected articles listed below, find other articles from the websites provided or use Benberry’s original article. Students can choose to work in pairs or individually. Distribute copies and a criteria handout for each article. Then, ask the students to apply their criteria for evaluating credibility to the UGRR Quilt Code theory.


Putting it in Perspective: The Symbolism of Underground Railroad Quilts http://www.quilthistory.com/ugrrquilts.htm [Flesch-Kincaid 12.0]

The Underground Railroad Quilt Code http://www.ugrrquilt.hartcottagequilts.com/ [Flesch-Kincaid 12.0]

Unraveling the Myth of Quilts and the Underground Railroad http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1606271,00.html [Flesch-Kincaid 11.9]

Did Quilts Hold Codes http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/70630403.html [Flesch-Kincaid 8.8]

UGRR Quilt Code (chapter) http:www2.oakland.edu/oujournal/files/SP2005_70-79.pdf [Flesch-Kincaid 6.5]
Step 4 - Each student should write a paper to defend or refute the UGRR Quilt Code idea, using the research they have completed that met the criteria for credibility.
Teacher Note The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ “Creating a Thesis Statement” will provide you with suggestions for scaffolding your student’s writing if they are unfamiliar with this particular approach.


Assessment/Evidence (based on outcome)

Completed list of criteria

Defense paper

Discussion and Teacher Observation




Teacher Reflection/Lesson Evaluation

not yet completed
Next Steps

To continue on the topic of the Civil War & Slavery, the lesson Quilting Geometry would be next in the series.




Technology Integration

Putting it in Perspective: The Symbolism of Underground Railroad Quilts http://www.quilthistory.com/ugrrquilts.htm

The Underground Railroad Quilt Code http://www.ugrrquilt.hartcottagequilts.com/

Did Quilts Hold Codes http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/70630403.html

UGRR Quilt Code (chapter) http:www2.oakland.edu/oujournal/files/SP2005_70-79.pdf

UGRR Quilt Code http://www.osblackhistory.com/quilts.php

Quilt Code FAQs http://ugrrquilt.hartcottagequilts.com/QuiltCodeFAQs.pdf

Quilt Code Talk http://www.tedpack.org/quilt1.html

The Credibility Challenge: In Search of Authority on the Internet http://factchecked.org/LessonPlanDetails.aspx?myId=23

Discussion Webs http://literacy.kent.edu/eureka/strategies/discussion_webs.pdf


Print Resource

Tobin, J. L. and Dobard, R. G. (1999). Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad. New York: Anchor Books.






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