|Questions for: "I Caesar"
Augustus, First of the Emperors
1) What did Mark Antony read to the public in the Forum after Julius Caesar's assassination and what did it say?
2) What happened when the 19-year-old Octavius received news of his inheritance?
3) What did the senators fear? What did they do?
"Praise him. Honor him. Then get rid of him." Cicero
"Two men divided the whole Roman empire between them." Appian
Gaius Julius Caesar Octaianus
4) What did Octavian promise the Senate and what did they do?
5) Who did the Senate send north at the head of Caesar's army to attack Antony? What situation was he in that was almost identical to Julius Caesar's?
"At the age of 19 he marched on Rome as if it were an enemy city and sent messengers ahead in the name of his army to demand that he be made consul. When the Senate hesitated to obey one Cornelius, a centurion leading the deputation opened his military cloak, displayed the hilt of his sword and boldly said, 'If you do not make him consul, this will.'" Suetonius
6) Now that Octavian had outmaneuvered the Senate before they got rid of him, who did he turn to as an ally? Why?
7) What did Octavian and Antony do in Rome to eliminate opposition?
8) What did Antony and Octavian do in Greece in the battle of Philippi?
9) Who got what and what "did they both know?"
10) What did Octavian due in 39 BC? What happened the following year?
"I divorced her because she nagged me."
11) Who had Antony already fallen in love with and what did she want?
12) What did Antony want to do with Cleopatra's wealth and what did he say about Caesarian? How did Octavian respond in Rome?
13) What did Octavian do for four years? Describe what happened at Actium in 31 BC? What did Antony and Cleopatra do then?
14) What dilemma did Octavian face and why?
15) How did Octavian counter this threat?
"He seduced the army by gifts, the common people by the provision of cheap food, and everyone by the blandishments of peace. Men of spirit had died on the battlefield; the remainder were rewarded by wealth, position in proportion to their readiness to accept servitude." Tacitus
16) What was Octavian's "spectacular maneuver?" How did the Senate respond and why?
"The fact that it is in my power to rule over you for life is evident. But I am mild by nature and have no desire to dominate. The power I hold now I lay down. Allow me to live out my life in peace."
"The rule of a single an was the only possible remedy for a country in turmoil." Tacitus
17) What title did Octavian take?
18) How did Octavian consolidate power behind the facade of equality?
"I found Rome brick and left it marble." Octavian
19) What did the Senate decree as Octavian's new name?
Octavian had become the Emperor Caesar Augustus. His position was without rival. He was master of the Roman empire and founder of the Pox Romana: "The Roman Peace."
"I restored. I completed. I built. I gave." Augustus
20) What did Augustus promise in return for unquestioned loyalty?
"Rome under the emperors and under Augustus in particular benefitted from unprecedented prosperity. Basically there was more money available, taxes were flowing through Rome, Rome was being built up, and the grandeur of Rome began to expand during the reign of Augustus. It was the first straw in the wind of two centuries of unprecedented prosperity." Prof. Keith
21) What was happening in Rome's provinces?
22) What image did Augustus cultivate of himself? What was he really like?
23) What did Augustus do in 18 BC? Did Augustus live up to his own rules behind the scene?
24) What did Augustus need as he grew old? What happened?
"Immortality is a state which is not in our power to possess, but by living nobly and dying nobly we do in a certain measure achieve this condition." Augustus
25) What happened in AD 14?
"Since well I have played my part, all clap your hands and from the stage dismiss me with applause." Augustus