|This report began as a Mass Communications Theory presentation, since then, it has turned into a timeline, to remember all that we have forgot, or did not know. In an attempt to reveal the past, through the cycles of war and oppression, we wish to break those cycles. In showing the past, maybe we can avoid the repeat of a fallen nation. A lot of history has just disappeared with the 20th century. Before we move on, we need to reflect on the past, and examine our future potential.
1620-1640 Puritans and Pilgrims come to America.
1692 Salem Witch Trials.
1730’s Ben Franklin
1770-1775 REVOLUTIONARY WAR/NAVY BORN/ILLUMINATTI CREATED
178 ARMY CREATED
1789-1797 PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON
USED HEMP FOR ALL PRODUCTS
1790 COPYRIGHT ACT
1797-1801 PRESIDENT JOHN ADAMS
1801-1809 THOMAS JEFFERSON
180 DUPONT BORN
1809-1817 PRESIDENT JAMES MADISON
1812-1814 WAR OF
1817-1825 PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE
182 SATURDAY EVENING POST
1825-1829 PRESIDENT JOHN QUINCY ADAMS
1829-1837 PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON
1830 INDIAN REMOVAL ACT ,TRAIL OF TEARS
1837-1841 PRESIDENT MARTIN VAN BUREN
1841 PRESIDENT WILLIAM H HARRISON DIED
1841-1845 JOHN TYLER
1845-1849 JAMES K POLK
1949-1950 PRESIDENT ZACHORY TAYLOR DIED
1850-1853 PRESIDENT WILLARD FILLMORE
UNCLE TOMS CABIN
1853-1857 PRESIDENT FRANKLIN PIERCE
1857-1861 PRESIDENT JAMES BUCHANAN
1861-1865 PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN
1865-1869 PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON
1869-1877 PRESIDENT ULLYSES S. GRANT
1877-1881 PRESIDENT RUTHERFORD B HAYES
1881 PRESIDENT JAMES A. GARFIELD ASSASINATED
1881-1885 PRESIDENT CHESTER A. ARTHUR
SEARS ROEBUCK &CO
DR PEPPER/COLLIERS/COCA COLA/THE WALL STREET JOURNAL/IDA B WELLS/HERSHEYS
1885-1889 PRESIDENT GROVER CLEAVELAND
1889-1893 PRESIDENT BENJAMIN HARRISON
1893-1897 PRESIDENT GROVER CLEAVELAND
JACOB A. RIIS/COSMOPOLITAN/MCCLURES
1897-1901 PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY ASSASINATED
1901 DOW CHEMICAL/MONSANTO/RSA/WALGREENS/MARCONI
1901-1909 PRESIDENT THEODORE ROSEVELT
1902 IDA TARBELL/LINCOLN STEFFENS/TARGET/POPULAR MECHANICS
1903 FORD/PEPSI CO.
1906 THE JUNGLE/CATTILLAC/DAVID GRAHAM PHILLIPS/MUCKRAKERS FDA FORMED
1908 FBI FORMED
1909 – 1913 PRESIDENT WILLIAM H TAFT
1911 ANTI-SHERMAN ACT/CHEVORLET/THE MASSES
1912 RADIO ACT/TITANIC SINKS
1913-1921 PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON
1913 FEDERAL RESERVE CREATED
1914 WWI THE WOMEN REBEL/TRILATERAL COMMISSION
1916 PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN USA
1917 THE ESPIONAGE ACT
1918 WARNER BROTHERS/LIBERATOR
1919 HALLIBURTON/CON AGRA FOODS
1920 RADIO IS BORN/PROHIBITION/WOMEN GET THE RIGHT TO VOTE
MONSANTO CREATES ASPERTAME
1921-1923 PRESIDENT WARREN G HARDING DIED
1921 ALBERT EINSTIEN/KKK/BIRTH CONTROL REVIEW
1922 KKK/THE READERS DIGEST
1923-1929 PRESIDENT CALVIN COOTLIDGE
1923 TIME/AT&T/WALT DISNEY
1925 SIBERIA HERO DOGS SAVE TOWN BRING MEDICINE IN WORST SNOW STORM
1927 FEDERAL RADIO COMMISSION/KOCH INDUSTRIES/
1929 -1933 PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER
1929 BLACK TUESDAY/7UP/ST VALENTINES MASSACRE
1931 HITLER RISE TO POWER
1932 BONNIE & CLYDE
1933-1945 PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT
1934 FCC CREATED/SUPERMAN/DC COMICS
1935 SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION
1936 REEFER MADDNESS/NUCLEAR TESTING IN USA
1937 MARIJUANA TAX ACT ISSUED LICENCES
MONSANTO INFECTS LIVESTOCK WITH BHT & ANTIBIOTICS/FEEDING THEM GMO CORN AND GRAIN/NUCLEAR TESTING
1938 WAR OF THE WORLDS/NUCLEAR TESTING
1939 WWII/MARVEL COMICS/NUCLEAR TESTING
1940 THE SMITH ACT/MONSANTO/ELENOR ROOSEVELT
1941 BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR/JAPENESE INTERNMENTS/US DISCOVERS PLUTONIUM
1943 ALBERT HOFFMAN CREATES L.S.D.
1944 MONSANTO CREATES DDT/IMF CREATED/ERNIE PYLE
1945-1953 PRESIDENT HARRY S, TRUMAN
1945 FDR DIES/HITLER DIES/UNITED NATIONS/MANHATTAN PROJECT/PROJECT PAPERCLIP/BOMBING OF HEROSHIMA & NAGASAKI
1946 NUCLEAR TESTING/ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION/SONY
1947 ROSWELL/AREA 51/COVERUP/NSA/CIA
1948 ABC/PROJECT BLUE BOOK/MOUNTAIN DEW/PROJECT GRUDGE
1949 NATO/PACIFICA/1984 RELEASED/OPERATION MOCKINGBIRD/CIA TAKES OVER THE MEDIA
1950 KOREAN WAR/RED CHANNELS/PROJECT BLUBIRD/PROJECT RAINBOW/MONTAUK PROJECT/PHOENIX PROJECT
1951 NUCLEAR PLANT BUILT IN IDAHO/PROJECT ARTICHOKE
1953-1961 PRESIDENT DEWHITE D EISENHOWER
1953 PLAYBOY/ATOMIC ENERGY ACT/CIA/MKULTRA
1954 MOBAY[MONSANTO&BAYER]/CERN/MURROW VS MCCARTHY
1955 NUCLEAR/VILLAGE VOICE
1957 NUCLEAR TESTING/REACTORS BUILT
1959 VIETNAM WAR/TWILIGHT ZONE/FM RADIO
1960 SDS/YIPPIES/CASSETTES/BERLIN WALL/OPERATION ALERT
1961- 1963 PRESIDENT JOHN F KENNEDY ASSASINATED
1961 PEACE CORPS/WALT DISNEY WORLD/NUCLEAR ACCIDENT
Throughout the founding of the United States, the quest for the truth has been revealed through the investigative journalists. The investigative journalist’s stories have provided a history for us to reflect upon, and reveal the spirals of silence promoted by propaganda and cycles of truth by those who were compelled to defend it. Through critical theory, the authors will show the rise and fall of these cycles, and the people’s courage in defending the truth by getting the information to the people. If there is suppression of the truth, veiled by corruption and/or lies (disinformation), told to the people; eventually this causes an uprising of truth, told by the people.
Since the founding of America, the rights of the citizens have been taken from them through laws enacted, imprisonment, and sometimes death. Using fear as a tactic, and controlling the media as a tool, the change agents have successfully cycled the American people through many wars and imprisonment. We will go on a historical journey through America’s timeline, to search for the cycles of truth and justice, along with the corruption in America.
In the founding of America certain books taught of the morals, the country was to adopt. One of these books was
John Bunyan’s, “The Pilgrim's Progress: From This World to That Which Is to Come” in 1678. It is regarded as one of the most significant works of religious English literature of its time. This book was about a man’s journey and the choices we make in life along our roads we walk. It was used as a guide in ethics and morals for society, required reading in childhood. Later in our story, Theodore Roosevelt will refer back to it in 1906, in a passage in the book referring to the Muckrakers. Referring to “The man with a muckrake is fixed on carnal instead of spiritual things.” Implying that the reform journalists were too busy digging up the Muck and they didn’t see the good things around them. From this point on, they were known as “Muckrakers”, thus, turning the tables on the journalists in hopes to get them to stop exposing the big businesses corruption. We are here to tell their stories, so let us begin.
We first give credit to Thomas Paine for having Common Sense available to the people so we could all join together to fight the British. Thomas wrote “Common Sense” to bridge between the rich and the poor, realizing United we stand stronger against the British to gain our Independence. In giving the people the knowledge to fight back and being on the same page they were able to join together to defeat the British.
The fourth President of the United States was James Madison and was also the drafter of the U.S. Constitution and The Bill of Rights. Madison believed that without knowledge about the world and what is going on around them, the people are ignorant and the ruling class would always have the power over the ignorant - unless the press was available to all people. He believed in the people’s “Right to Know.“ James Madison and Thomas Payne were among the 1st writers of freedom in America.
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (1776)
We start the journey with the Daniel Shays, who fought for the country as a soldier and believed in the American way, truth, justice and the pursuit of happiness. When he returned from the war, he had a war brewing at home as well.
Between the times the Constitution was written and the Bill of Rights came about there was Shay’s Rebellion in 1786. The vets returning from the American Revolution War turned to farming with the land sold to them by the Eastern Bankers. The excess taxes imposed on the farmers were more than they could pay after the Revolution. They petitioned, went to town meetings, met with officials and followed the letter of the law. The eastern bankers response was more “New Taxes”. By 1786 Daniel Shays, had seen enough of his farmer friends and fellow soldiers being sent to debtors prison, so he started to take up arms and take over the courthouses so that no more farmers would have to go to prison for the debts they cannot pay. Shay’s army grew from 1000-9000, as they continued to shut courts down around the country.
In response to Shay’s Rebellion, The Republic enacts the Militia/Riot Act of 1786. Being a rebel in Shay’s Army was equal to death. The Riot Act stated that more than 12 people gathered in a negative light of the Union would be jailed, their land taken and tried for treason. The Federal troops were called in to handle the situation. Shay’s Army stormed the Arsenal in Springfield Mass. and were shot and taken over by the Union. Three men were hanged and Shay was released 1788 on his word of allegiance. Daniel Shay’s action caused George Washington to return to leadership and write the Bill of Rights into law in 1791.
THE BILL OF RIGHTS (1791)
Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Right to keep and bear arms
A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
Conditions for quarters of soldiers
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Right of search and seizure regulated
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Provisons concerning prosecution
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Right to a trial by jury
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail, cruel punishment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Rule of construction of Constitution
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Rights of the States under Constitution
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
In eight years time, 1798, The Sedition Act was created in which it made it a crime to criticize the government (Adams) in any way. The Federalist Congress were trying to take control of the election and the Republicans were the ones that were locked up under the act. (Mathew Lyon from Vermont served four months in prison for describing President Adams in a less than flattering manner.) Jefferson won the election over the Federalists in 1801, and pardoned those who were imprisoned under the act.
In 1861, the Civil War began and President Lincoln suspends Habeas Corpus.
(Habeas Corpus, literally in Latin "you have the body" is a term that represents an important right granted to individuals in America. Basically, a writ of habeas corpus is a judicial mandate requiring that a prisoner be brought before the court to determine whether the government has the right to continue detaining them. The individual being held or their representative can petition the court for such a writ. )
Tens of thousand civilians were detained by the military without charges for suspicion of being “Disloyal”. A draft lottery was implemented which turned into class warfare and Draft Riots of 1863. The elite could save their sons from being drafted by paying a $300 fee. There also was a law preventing the black people from serving in the service. The civilians that were detained were released after the Civil War. (What happened to that 1st & 6th Amendment?)
In 1887 Elizabeth Jane Cochran
Pen name: Nellie Bly
wrote from her experiences a book called “10 Days in a Madhouse”. Nellie uncovered stories about prison life, child labor and the selling of babies. She submersed herself in the environment in which she wanted her reports. She went on to be the first woman reporter to give reports directly from the battlefield in World War I. She went undercover to report the treatment of the women in the mental institutions in, Ten Days in a Madhouse.
The Century turns with new ideas on the way as well as new inventions in the media world. The suppression of the truth had waited long enough and the rise of Investigative Journalism begins. Beginning in 1890, stories of the culture of the people started to surface.
Jacob Riis, author and photographer, tells the stories along with a visual tour of emotional gripping photos of the ghetto in New York City, in his book “How the other Half Lives” (1890).
Ida B. Wells Barnett was a slave’s child and wrote articles in the local papers and the New York Age Magazine (1892) about the lynching and killing of her people for sport. Ida helped inspire the anti-lynching movement and encouraged the black people to stand up to the abuse of her people.
McClure’s Magazine is founded in 1893 by and begins the periodical for the new investigative journalists.
Ida Tarbell captures the nation with her report revealing “The History of Standard Oil”(1902), and how the Great John D. Rockefeller got his fortune and control of the countries oil supply. Although, articles and books were written before her on the Rockefeller oil fortune, Ida grabbed the nation’s attention. In 1906, The Hepburn Act was established, which put an end to oil rebates. Also she prompted the formation of the Bureau of Corporations (FBI), which conducted an investigation in the petroleum industry and found that Rockefeller had been getting preferential treatment from the railroads and fined twenty-nine million dollars. As the work of Ida Tarbell still rocks the nation with what started as a two story series on Standard Oil turned into 19 part series. Rockefeller ran a campaign to control the damage his reputation suffered after Ida’s story, The campaign failed miserably and was followed up with the Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1911. This act makes it illegal to hold a monopoly on industry and Rockefeller had to break up his company, Standard Oil into 38 pieces.
Lincoln Steffens reveals the corruption and poverty in the cities with “Shame of the Cities” (1902). It was the disgust of the elite and corporations buying senators and votes in the government. In Lincoln’s career he had seen corruption at every level from the police department to the state and federal government. The articles made the country take a hard look at the kind of government the people will allow. There were some regulations put in place but it ended up being accepted anyways, corruption as a platitude of the U.S. government.
Samuel Hopkins Adams talks about patent medicine in “The Great American Fraud” in Colliers (1905). Samuel was joined by Edward Bok & Mark Sullivan in warning the people by exposing the ingredients and fraud within the patent medicines. Revelations of the contents in the traveling road shows peddling concentrated bottles of alcohol, morphine and cocaine. The patent medicine companies took over the advertising in the newspapers and publications causing much concern in the medical and social community. This leading to the Drug Act created in 1906.
Charles Edward Russell wrote about the meat packing industry in “The Greatest Trust in the World”(1905), and exposes the prison labor camps and corruption on the railroads. In 1909, Russell was one of five founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP).
Upton Sinclair publishes in Appeal to Reason, “The Jungle”(1905), which exposed the Meat packing industry, and its grossly unsanitary conditions of the slaughter - houses. The rats infesting the plants were getting grinded into the sausages, and the rotten meat that would sit on the floor for days would get injected with pickle juice. The kind of treatment of the livestock was also horrifying, the torturing of the animals and inhumane killing techniques. The meat packing companies tried to block the publishing of the Jungle. The overwhelming response of the demand of the people for some answers prompted Theodore Roosevelt to personally inspect the packing houses himself to see if Sinclair’s claims were true. After the tours Roosevelt established The Food and Drug Act in 1906.
David Graham Phillips begins the war with the President. Theodore Roosevelt was against the Muckrakers after the article, “The Treason of the Senate” is printed in the Cosmopolitan in 1906. The series reveals the senate and congress being bought and bribed by the lobbyists and big business. The president reacts by calling them Muckrakers for exposing the corruption of all the crooks. The demonization began but it did not stop them. The ratification of the constitution in 1913 placed the senator elections in the hands of the people instead of in the hands of the legislators.
McClure’s expose’ on the white slave trade of immigrants caught up in prostitution in, “The Daughters of the Poor” (1909), by George Kibbe Turner, shined the light on the white slavery issue in America. This led to the anti-prostitution campaign in the 1910’s in the United States.
Edwin Markham, a teacher and poet, put the spotlight on child labor and awful working conditions in, “Children in Bondage”(1914). Following in the same year, child labor laws were passed for the first time in America.
Margaret Sanger, arrested at least eight times, sacrificed it all to get the information and contraception to the women about birth control. At that time in history, Margaret saw the huge problems arising from unwanted pregnancies, large families, and enslavement to motherhood for the women. She started the publication, The Women Rebel in 1914. At this time, it was seen as Taboo, obscene, and worth imprisonment to talk of birth control. Many came against her, and she fought and won, eventually establishing Planned Parenthood in 1916.
World War One began 1914-1918 in which created a new law, The Espionage Act of 1917. This law made it a crime to “willfully utter, print, write any disloyal, profane, scurrilous or abusive language about the United States“ OR “attempt to cause, or incite, or attempt to incite, insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny or refusal of duty” in the military or naval forces of the U.S.
1919, “The Palmer Raids” began, when there were two attempts to assassinate Attorney General A. Mitchel Palmer, by followers of anarchist, Luigi Galleani, failed to do anything but blow up his porch. The administration of Woodrow Wilson responded by rounding up and interrogating over 10,000 suspected resident aliens who had been targeted based on their political ideology. These detainees were beaten and forced to sign confessions, and over 500 were eventually deported. In August, he organized the General Intelligence Unit within the Department of Justice, and recruited J. Edgar Hoover, a 24-year-old law school graduate, who spent the war working in, and then leading the Justice Department's Enemy Alien Bureau. The American public was supportive of the raids at first, but later realized the absurdity of it all, due to the fact that none of the detainees were ever linked to any wrongdoing…Neither did they pose any kind of threat.
Many newspapers and magazines went out of circulation at this time. (A new law created every war that takes more of the American rights away.)The Espionage Act was repealed in 1920. (Re-instated as the Alien Registration Act of 1940, coined as the peacetime sedition act)
The Women’s Movement gains strength and by 1920 they get the upper hand with Prohibition and the right to vote. A decade of protests won their rights. In 1926 television network NBC is founded, followed by CBS in 1928. Speak Easies took over and breaking the law became common - place, the country went underground. Bank robberies and bootlegging created heroes amongst the people.
In 1929, the stock market crashed, The Valentine’s Day Massacre brought down Al Capone, and the depression followed. In 1932, the country is taken by the bank robberies of Bonnie & Clyde, and John Dillinger in 1933, being hunted by the G-Men of the Central Bureau of Investigation, headed by J. Edgar Hoover. Later, called the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), in which Hoover ran from its inception in 1924-1972.
By 1933, Prohibition was repealed.
Superman was created in 1933. A coincidence he was an investigative reporter as Clark Kent?
The land of opportunity turned to the land of despair. When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president, he started the Social Security Act in 1935 for the elderly and the Wagoner Act for the workers to unionize. Franklin D. Roosevelt seemed to care about the country to put safety nets into place for the benefit of the people but not everyone felt this way. The money of the government went to public works, building roads, hospitals, play grounds and did not fix the high unemployment rates. The NEW Deal came about in the election of 1936. The New Deal consisted of massive building programs. Social Security, The deal built the hydro-dam, food stamps and medi-care and paid for it by raising taxes. The elite did not like this but he was re-elected. The New deal failed miserably.
In 1938, George Seldes founds, “In Fact” to publish findings on cigarettes being linked to cancer. Nobody would publish the findings, so he found a way. Many people would not publish his stories, although all of his career, even though he was very ethical, and always went to the source for the facts. In a time when cigarettes were king, it did not make you the most popular fellow to claim they cause cancer. George wrote more than twenty books about historic events, and interviewed 800 prominent figures, and called for an ethics code for journalists. Before Seldes death, he saw a National code adopted, and ethics classes taught in journalism schools.
In 1940, the Smith Act was adopted. This law was designed to go after political organizations. (socialists & communists) Through the years of 1941-1957, hundreds of suspected socialists/communists were prosecuted under the act. This act states that it is a crime to willfully advocate, abet, advise, or teach the duty necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing or destroying any government in the U.S. by force or by violence or to organize any assembly of persons who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or destruction of any government in the U.S. by force or violence. In the late 40’s and 50’s any communist parties or left wing thinkers were subject to sirvelence, blacklisted from employment and reputations destroyed.
Propaganda on World War 2 increased after Pearl Harbor was bombed in 1941. President Roosevelt issued executive order 9066, which mandated the evacuation, relocation, and internment of 110,000 men, women, and children of Japanese ancestry living on the West coast of America. They were kept in preventive detention under harsh conditions for much of the war. They were U.S. citizens.
Eleanor Roosevelt was deeply opposed to this action. The Red Scare was keeping people in fear, and justified Japanese - imprisonment in America. Their prisons are now our Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) camps. They did not get this overturned until 1984, over 40 years! The War ended in 1945. This was good example of the spiral of silence and agenda setting by President Roosevelt, by putting an order into place that imprisoned a certain race of people, and all the propaganda used to scare the population into authorizing free reign to the government. Eleanor wanted to end the lynching of the blacks in the south, and by 1938, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, took up the federalization of anti-lynching, to make it a crime. As F.D.R. stayed reserved on the issue, Eleanor pushed forward only to have it dismissed after a sixteen-month filibuster in the Senate. Her cause was true, and she really wanted to change the situation for the black people. It is an amazing revelation that F.D.R. never showed the people that he had polio. To get someone worth three terms as president, that is a cripple, says something about America. It must have been an almost impossible job, although he prevailed till his death in 1945.
In 1945, Roosevelt dies, Hitler dies, Harry Truman takes over, and the U.S. bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Two years later, we are seeing U.F.O.’s in Roswell, New Mexico, and suddenly the National Security Agency is created, along with the Central Intelligence Agency, and Air Force. The peoples are suppose to just except secrets from the government…no questions asked?
The horrors of nuclear war was graphically described by journalist, John Hersey, in his book, “Hiroshima.”
Roswell, in 1947, was the biggest cover-up of its time, and remains to be so to this very day. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Agency (NSA) were born, the government, has been keeping secrets ever since.
A win happened for the people in 1947, with the establishment of the Commission of the Freedom of the Press. The Commission set forth a code of social responsibility for the press. It stated that the press should report a truthful, comprehensive and intelligent account of the day’s events, that gives them meaning, with a forum for the exchange comments and criticism, as well as the presentation and clarification of goals and society, with full access to the day’s intelligence.
In 1949, The Fairness Doctrine was created. It required the news to have both sides to the issues, in order for the people to be properly informed. Fair and balanced reporting, although exemptions were made for the news.
George Orwell gives us a futuristic look at Big Brother book “1984”. The book describes life in a totalitarian society where everyone is under 24/7 sirvelence; even your thoughts are watched. Word play was a big part of the plot. “Those who control the past, control the future.”in 1949 with the
In the early fifties, as we enter into the Korean War, The Red Channels were distributed through the headquarters of every media company. The Red Channel Guides names 151 actors, writers, musicians, broadcast journalists for being communist supporters, or sympathizers, or accused of manipulating the media, and entertainment industry, for the communist agenda, and destroyed many people’s careers and lives because of their political beliefs… like the witch hunts of the 1600’s, without the bonfires. The 151 people were denied employment, and there were more placed on the industry blacklist.
Senator McCarthy of Wisconsin headed the hunt for communist supporters to detain through this time (McCarthyism). That was until 1954 when Edward R. Murrow (a reporter for CBS) took on Senator McCarthy in his broadcast show “See It Now”. After a year of the show aired Senator McCarthy was being investigated and the Red Channel Scare was over, we thought.
1954, EDWARD R MURROW GOT SICK OF ALL HIS FRIENDS GETTING BLACKLISTED SO WITH CBS BEHIND HIM, HE CONFRONTED MCCARTHY, LIVE ON HIS SHOW SEE IT NOW. THIS THEN LED TO A SENATE INVESTIGATION ON MCCARTHY AND THE END TO THE RED CHANNELS.
In 1956, a new F.B.I. project was created, Counter Intelligence Program. (Co-Intel-Pro)
Beginning in 1956, the secret mind control experiments being conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), using L.S.D.,was coined MK-ULTRA. Also, this was the time that Nazi’s were fleeing to America to avoid persecution. The CIA’s Project Paperclip brought the scientists into NASA, to share and continue their work. From 1945 on, CIA experiments continued beyond Roosevelt’s death, and the legacy was the Manhattan Project, giving us the A Bomb, and the many nuclear plants to follow, with experiments like Project Phoenix/Project Monarch & Project Rainbow. The first nuclear plant built in America, was in 1951.
Ralf Nader writes an article in The Nation “The Safe Car you can’t Buy”(1959) and “Unsafe at Any Speed”(1965) which describe the design flaws and dangers in American vehicles. In 1966 Safety Standards were implemented and in 1989 Nader got GM to put air bags in the cars. Many things have been implemented because of Nader’s dedication. Nader helped establish Occupational Safety & Health Organization (OSHA), The Consumer Product Safety Commission, Environmental Safety Commission (EPA), and helped pass the Clean Air Act, Freedom of Information Act, Radiation Control Act, among many others. In 1989, Nader led a successful campaign to block Congress from giving them-selves a 51% pay raise.
Michael Harrington wrote of his study in, “The Other America-Poverty in the U.S”, in 1962. Michael Harrington’s goal in life was to make it a better place to live in for everyone. This book was read by President John F. Kennedy, he was so impressed, it was required reading in the administration to become a domestic goal, to abolish poverty in America, thus began “The War on Poverty” which Kennedy was to begin but was assassinated. Lyndon B. Johnson carried out the challenge. Harrington was called to the capital to be an advisor on poverty.
In 1962, Rachel Carson (a biologist/muckraker) wrote the “Silent Spring”. Rachel stirred the nation with the facts of the damage of chemicals/pesticides (Monsanto’s DDT & Agent Orange) that were being used everywhere with no caution to the hazardous effects it was having on the environment, earth, humans and the wildlife. The Environmental Movement begins. The printing of the Silent Spring prompted the federal government to act on environmental protection. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970. DDT was banned in 1972. (only to be replaced by round up in 1976.)
Spiderman was created in 1962. The country needed another hero in the media, freelance photographer, Peter Parker.
Jessica Mitford publishes The American Way of Death in 1963. In the book Mitford harshly criticized the industry for using unscrupulous business practices to take advantage of grieving families. The book became a major bestseller and led to Congressional hearings on the funeral industry.
Seymour Hersh writes “My Lai Massacre 4” (1969) in which described the Massacre of My Lai in Vietnam in 1968 when 104 innocent, unarmed women and children civilians were executed by our soldiers at point -blank range. Soldier’s trial followed. In 2004, Hersh reported for The New Yorker on torture inside the Abu Ghraib prison by members of a military police unit of the U.S. Army Reserve during the Iraq War.
Jean Heller broke the story on AP story “Syphilis Patients Die Untreated”(1972). The story was about a forty - year Tuskegee Syphilis Study of untreated syphilis on uninformed African-American participants. This report exposed one of the secret studies The Department of Health Department had conducted over the years that they did not want in the public eye.
in 1975. B.J. Phillips wrote about Karen Silkwood in Ms. Magazine. This expose’ educated the world about the dangers and correlation of cancer and radiation exposure in the nuclear plants. The story went on to create an Emmy award winning movie in the eighties.