Punic wars first Punic War (264-241 bc)



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PUNIC WARS

First Punic War (264-241 BC): The Romans _________ three wars against Carthage, a city on the north coast of Africa. The wars are known as the Punic Wars because Punicus was the Roman name for Carthage. The first Punic War was fought over Sicily, an island in the _______________ Sea off the southwest coast of the Italian peninsula. Carthage controlled Sicily, and in 265BC, Sicily was richer than any other land in the area. The Romans won the First Punic War and took control of Sicily. Some _________ later Romans took control of Sardinia and Corsica. That infuriated Carthage.

Then, Carthage decided to fight Spain. Under the leadership of a _________ general called Hamilcar Barca Carthage took control of south and southeast Spain, which were very rich in mines. The year Hamilcar came to Spain to fight the iberian tribes, his son Hannibal was nine years old. ___________ says that before leaving Carthage Hamilcar made his son swear that as soon as he was old enough, Hannibal would fight the Romans and make them pay for all the lives they had cost. Hannibal promised.

When his father Hamilcar ________, the soldiers chose him as a general. Hannibal was 26 years old. He inmediately married an iberian princess and started wars to expand carthaginian _________ in Spain. One of the cities he attacked, Sagunto, had a friendship agreement with Rome. Rome didn't send help to Sagunto but declared war on Carthage.

Second Punic War: after first punic war Rome had a navy capable of defending from a Punic attack. But Hannibal had another idea: attack the Romans crossing Spain, south France, the Alps and north Italy. Hannibal ______ his army of 90.000 soldiers, 12000 horses and 37 war elephants. Carthaginian army destroyed Roman cities on its route to Italy. Instead of marching on Rome, Hannibal began to attack _________ on southern Italy, stealing food to supply his army. In 216 BC in the battle of Cannae Hannibal defeated a Roman army led by two consuls and killed them. More than 40.000 Romans died that day. But Hannibal didn't march on Rome.

Then, Roman Senate decided to send an army to Spain, the same tactic of Hannibal: attack where your opponent would never expect. Carthaginian _________ in Spain were led by Asdrubal, a Hannibal's brother. Roman forces where led by Publio Cornelio EscipiĆ³n. Publio had fought Hannibal in Italy and was eager to fight carthaginian forces elsewhere. His father, his ________ and his father-in-law had died fighting Hannibal.

By the year 203 BC Roman forces led by Escipion had won over the carthaginians in Spain. Then, Romans instead of fighting Hannibal, stationed in southern Italy, he decided to __________ in northern Africa. Carthage called Hannibal's army home.

In 202 BC Romans and Carthaginian confronted in the battle of Zama. 40 thousand Romans against more than 60 thousand carthaginian. Finally, Escipion won the ________. Roman Senate expected to raze the city but Escipion signed a peace agreement with very moderate terms. Carthage had to surrender the navy, pay an annual tribute to Rome for 50 years and leave Spain. With Escipion consent Hannibal became the ________ of Carthage. That infuriated Roman Senate.

Seven years after the defeat of Zama Carthage was a prosperous city again. Roman Senate demanded Hannibal's surrender but he moved into ______. He traveled to Asia and served as general to king Antiochus of Sirya. There, Hannibal proposed king Antiochus to disembark in Italy to defeat the Romans. Romans, who began to be involved in Greece at that time, fought Antiochus and Hannibal had to move into exile again.

In 190 BC Hannibal was commanding the navy of the Seleucid King (remember one of the kingdoms formed after the death of Alexander the Great). After a year he moved to the court of the Armenian ________. When Armenian King try to surrender Hannibal to the Romans, Hannibal fled to Crete. After Crete he moved to Asia Minor to serve in the army of the king Prusias. There he won some battles but the Romans pressed king Prusias to surrender Hannibal. Finally, Hannibal took _______.



PUNIC WARS

First Punic War (264-241 BC): The Romans fought three wars against Carthage, a city on the north coast of Africa. The wars are known as the Punic Wars because Punicus was the Roman name for Carthage. The first Punic War was fought over Sicily, an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the southwest coast of the Italian peninsula. Carthage controlled Sicily, and in 265BC, Sicily was richer than any other land in the area. The Romans won the First Punic War and took control of Sicily. Some years later Romans took control of Sardinia and Corsica. That infuriated Cathage.

Then, Carthage decided to fight Spain. Under the leadership of a powerful general called Hamilcar Barca Carthage took control of south and southeast Spain, which were very rich in mines. The year Hamilcar came to Spain to fight the iberian tribes, his son Hannibal was nine years old. Legends says that before leaving Carthage Hamilcar made his son swear that as soon as he was old enough, Hannibal would fight the Romans and make them pay for all the lives they had cost. Hannibal promised.

When his father Hamilcar died, the soldiers chose him as a general. Hannibal was 26 years old. He inmediately married a iberian princess and started wars to expand carthaginian empire in Spain. One of the cities he attacked, Sagunto, had a friendshig agreement with Rome. Rome didn't send help to Sagunto but declared war on Carthage.

Second Punic War: after first punic war Rome had a navy capable of defending from a Punic attack. But Hannibal had another idea: attack the Romans crossing Spain, south France, the Alps and north Italy. Hannibal led his army of 90.000 soldiers, 12000 horses and 37 war elephants. Carthaginian army destroyed Roman cities on its route to Italy. Instead of marching on Rome, Hannibal began to attack cities on southern Italy, stealing food to supply his army. In 216 BC in the battle of Cannae Hannibal defeated a Roman army led by two consuls and killed them. More than 40.000 Romans died that day. But Hannibal didn't march on Rome.

Then, Roman Senate decided to send an army to Spai, the same tactic of Hannibal: attack where your opponent would never expect. Carthaginian forces in Spain were led by Asdrubal, a Hannibal's brother. Roman forces where led by Publio Cornelio EscipiĆ³n. Public had fought Hannibal in Italy and was eager to fight carthaginian forces elsewhere. His father, his uncle and his father-in-law had died fighting Hannibal.

By the year 203 BC Roman forces led by Escipion had won over the carthaginians in Spain. Then, Romans instead of fighting Hannibal, stationed in southern Italy, he decided to disembark in northern Africa. Carthage called Hannibal's army home.

In 202 BC Romans and Carthaginian confronted in the battle of Zama. 40 thousand Romans against more than 60 thousand carthaginian. Finally, Escipion won the battle. Roman Senate expected to raze the city but Escipion signed a peace agreement with very moderate terms. Carthage had to surrender the navy, pay an annual tribute to Rome for 50 years and leave Spain. With Escipion consent Hannibal became the leader of Carthage. That infuriated Roman Senate.

Seven years after the defeat of Zama Carthage was a prosperous city again. Roman Senate demanded Hannibal's surrender but he moved into exile. He traveled to Asia and served as general to king Antiochus of Sirya. There, Hannibal proposed king Antiochus to disembark in Italy to defeat the Romans. Romans, who began to be involved in Greece at that time, fought Antiochus and Hannibal had to move into exile again.

In 190 BC Hannibal was commanding the navy of the Seleucid King (remember one of the kingdoms formed after the death of Alexander the Great). After a year he moved to the court of the Armenian King. When Armenian King try to surrender Hannibal to the Romans, Hannibal fled to Crete. After Crete he moved to Asia Minor to serve in the army of the king Prusias. There he won some battles but the Romans pressed king Prusias to surrender Hannibal. Finally, Hannibal took poison.



1. fought

2. mediterranean

3. years

4. powerful

5. legend

6. died

7. empire

8. led

9. cities

10. forces

11. uncle

12. disembark

13. battle

14. leader

15. exile

16. king

17. poison










MARKS.

17

10

16

9

15

8

13--14

7

11--12

6

9--10

5

7--8

4

5--6

3

3--4

2


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