Proposed total maximum daily load (tmdl) For Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen, Nutrients and Unionized Ammonia In the Lake Okeechobee Tributaries Osceola, Polk, Okeechobee, Highlands, Glade, Hendry, Palm Beach, Martin, and St



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PROPOSED

TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)

For



Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen, Nutrients and Unionized Ammonia

In the

Lake Okeechobee Tributaries

Osceola, Polk, Okeechobee, Highlands, Glade, Hendry, Palm Beach, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida

Prepared by:

US EPA Region 4

61 Forsyth Street SW

Atlanta, Georgia 30303

September 2006





TABLE OF CONTENTS





i

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Purpose of Report 6

1.2 Previous Studies in the Lake Okeechobee Watershed 6

1.3 Identification of Impaired Waterbodies 9



1.3.1 Lake Okeechobee Basin 9

1.3.2 Kissimmee River Basin 15

1.3.3 Fisheating Creek Basin 17

1.3.4 Caloosahatchee River Basin 22

1.3.5 L-8 Basin 22

1.3.6 Everglades Agricultural Area 23

2 STATEMENT OF WATER QUALITY PROBLEM 25

3 WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 26

3.1 Nutrient Criterion 26

3.2 Dissolved Oxygen Criterion 26

3.3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand Criterion 27

3.4 Unionized Ammonia Criterion 27

4 TARGET IDENTIFICATION 27

4.1 Basis and Rationale For Nutrient Targets 28

4.2 Nutrient Target Development 32

4.2.1 Approach #1: Reference condition value from reference streams dataset (FDEP) 32

4.2.2 Approach #2: Reference condition value from an all streams dataset (EPA Region 4) 33

4.2.3 Approach #3: A modeling approach removing land disturbance (EPA Region 4) 34

4.3 Nutrient Target Application 35

4.4 DO and BOD Target 36

4.5 Unionized Ammonia Target 37



5 WATER QUALITY RESULTS 39

6 SOURCE ASSESSMENT 48

6.1 Background Loads 48

6.2 Permitted Point Sources 48

6.2.1 Inventory of Point Sources 48

6.2.2 Estimating Point Source Loads 49

6.2.3 Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Permittees 50

6.3 Nonpoint Sources 52



6.3.1 Agriculture 52

6.3.2 Sediment 53

6.3.3 Septic Systems 54

6.3.4 Stormwater Runoff 54

7 DEVELOPMENT OF THE TMDL 54

7.1 Nutrient TMDL 55

7.2 Unionized Ammonia TMDL 61

7.3 BOD TMDL 61



8 TMDL ALLOCATION 61

8.1 Allocation 61

8.2 Load Allocation 68

8.3 Wasteload Allocations 68

8.4 Margin of Safety 69

8.5 Seasonal Variability 69



9 TMDL IMPLEMENTATION 69

REFERENCES 71

APPENDIX A: Water Quality Plots 74

Appendix B: Flow Records from DBHYDRO for WBIDs 3238 and 3238E 78

Appendix C: Derivation of WLA for Clewiston STP (FL0040665) 79

Appendix D: Calculation of Limiting Nutrient 83

Appendix F: Modeling Results of Natural Landuse Conditions 93

Appendix G. Rationale for Controlling Nitrogen in Impaired WBIDs 95



LIST OF TABLES





Table 1. Planning Unit and Basin Group of Impaired WBIDs 2

Table 2. Comparison of SWIM Basins and Impaired WBIDs 7

Table 3. Summary of Total Phosphorus Loads Discharging into Lake Okeechobee 10

Table 4. Summary of Land Cover in Impaired WBIDs 18

Table 5. Existing Limiting Condition in Impaired WBIDs (based on TP and TN data) 31

Table 6. Summary of Nutrient and Unionized Ammonia Data for Impaired WBIDs 40

Table 7. Summary of DO and BOD Data in WBIDs Impaired For DO 43

Table 8. Permitted Wastewater Facilities Discharging in Impaired WBIDs 49

Table 9. Proposed Permit Limits for Clewiston WWTP (FL0040665) 50

Table 10. MS4 Permittees in the Drainage Basins of Impaired WBIDs 51

Table 11. Area and Inflows for Impaired WBIDs and LOPP Basins (Baseline Conditions) 56

Table 12. Summary of Existing Conditions for Total Nitrogen 59

Table 13. TMDL Components for Total Phosphorus 62

Table 14. TMDL Components for Total Nitrogen 65

Table 15. TMDL Components for Unionized Ammonia 67

Table 16. TMDL Components for BOD 67

Table 17. TP Allocations for LOPP Basins Expressed as Daily Loads 67

LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure 1. Location of Horseshoe Creek (WBID 1436) in the Upper Kissimmee River Basin 4

Figure 2. Location of Impaired WBIDs Below Lake Kissimmee 5

Figure 3. Control Structures and Sampling Stations in Lake Okeechobee 13

Figure 4. Taylor Creek and Nubbin Slough Basins 15

Figure 5. Location of WBIDs and Monitoring Stations Used to Calculate a Nutrient Target per Section 4.2.2 38

Figure 6. Distribution of Average TP Concentrations 45

Figure 7. Distribution of Average TN Concentrations 46

Figure 8. DO Distribution in the Area Surrounding Lake Okeechobee 47

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

BMP

Best Management Practices

BOD

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

CFS

Cubic Feet per Second

DMR

Discharge Monitoring Report

DO

Dissolved Oxygen

F.A.C.

Florida Administrative Code

GIS

Geographic Information System

HUC

Hydrologic Unit Code

LA

Load Allocation

LOPP

Lake Okeechobee Protection Plan

MGD

Million Gallons per Day

MOS

Margin of Safety


MS4

Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems

Mton

Metric Ton

NLCD

National Land Cover Data

NPDES

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

SOD

Sediment Oxygen Demand

TN

Total Nitrogen

TP

Total Phosphorus

WBID

Water Body Identification

WLA

Waste Load Allocation

WWTP

Wastewater Treatment Plant

SUMMARY SHEET

  1. Florida 1998 303(d) Listed Waterbody Information

WBID

Segment Name

Classification

Constituent

County

HUC

3186B

Kissimmee River

3F

DO, BOD

Osceola

03090101

3186C

Blanket Bay Slough

3F

Nutrients, DO

Osceola

03090101

3186D

Eight Mile Slough

3F

DO

Polk

03090101

3188

Farm Area

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090101

3188A

Chandler Slough

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090101

3192C

Oak Creek

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090101

3199B

Chandler Hammock Slough

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090102

3203A

Nubbin Slough

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090102

3203B

Mosquito Creek

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090102

3204

Harney Pond Canal

3F

Nutrients, DO

Highlands/Glade

03090103

3205

Taylor Creek

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090101

3205D

Otter Creek

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090101

3206

Indian Prairie Canal

3F

Nutrients, DO

Highlands/Glade

03090103

3209

Kissimmee River

3F

Nutrients, DO

Glades

03090101

3213A

Lettuce Creek

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee/Martin

03090102

3213B

Henry Creek

3F

Nutrients, DO

Okeechobee

03090102

3213C

S-135

3F

Nutrients, DO

Martin

03090102

3213D

Myrtle Slough

3F

Nutrients, DO

Martin

03090102

3233

L-8

3F

Nutrients, DO

Palm Beach

03090202

3238

W. Palm Beach Canal

3F

Nutrients, DO

Palm Beach

03090202

3238E

M Canal

3F

Nutrients, DO

Palm Beach

03090202

3244

East Beach

3F

Nutrients, DO, Unionized Ammonia

Palm Beach

03090202

3246

East Caloosahatchee

3F

Nutrients, DO

Hendry

03090202

3247

715 Farms

3F

Nutrients, DO, Unionized Ammonia

Palm Beach

03090202

3248

N. New River Canal

3F

Nutrients, DO

Palm Beach

03090202

3248A

Hillsboro Canal

3F

Nutrients, DO

Palm Beach

03090202

3250

S-236

3F

Nutrients

Palm Beach/Hendry

03090202

3251

S-3

3F

Nutrients, DO

Palm Beach

03090202

3253

South Bay

3F

Nutrients, DO

Palm Beach

03090202

1436

Horseshoe Creek

3F

Nutrients, DO

Polk

03090101

  1. Water Quality Standards:

BOD (62-302.530(12)): Levels shall not be increased to exceed values which would cause dissolved oxygen to be depressed below the limit established for each class and, in no case shall it be great enough to produce nuisance conditions.

DO (62-302.530(31)): Dissolved oxygen shall not be less than 5.0 mg/l. Normal daily and seasonal fluctuations above these levels shall be maintained. The water quality standard for DO also considers the definition of natural background and the directive not to abate natural conditions (62-302.200(15) FAC and 62-302.300(15) FAC).

Nutrients (62-302.530(48)(a)): The discharge of nutrients shall continue to be limited as needed to prevent violations of other standards contained in this chapter. Man induced nutrient enrichment (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) shall be considered degradation in relation to the provisions of Section 62-302.300, 62-302.700, and 62-4.242, FAC.

62-302.530(48)(b) In no case shall nutrient concentrations of a body of water be altered so as to cause an imbalance in natural populations of aquatic flora or fauna.



Unionized Ammonia (62-302.530(3)): Ammonia (unionized) levels shall be less than or equal to 0.02mg/l.

  1. TMDL Approach

Nutrients: The TMDLs target both Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN) based on three approaches as described in Section 4 of this report. Results of the three approaches indicate an appropriate TP target range between 70 and 90 ppb and a TN target between 1.04 and 1.3 mg/l. The averages of these values were selected as the target TP and TN concentrations and are equal to 77 ppb and 1.2 mg/l, respectively. The TMDL targets were developed to support the State of Florida’s narrative water quality standard for nutrients by not causing an imbalance in natural populations of aquatic flora and fauna and also to not produce or contribute to conditions that violate the State’s standard for dissolved oxygen. Control of both nutrients, N and P, in upstream waters provides additional assurance that excess productivity will remain in control, and avoids pollutant caused depressions of dissolved oxygen. The TMDL will ensure protection for aquatic life both in the tributary WBIDs, as well as not contribute to water quality impairments in the downstream waters of Lake Okeechobee and its subsequent drainage to the coastal estuaries of the St. Lucie and the Caloosahatchee.

Dissolved Oxygen: TMDLs for dissolved oxygen are addressed through controlling nutrients. When BOD data are available and a correlation can be determined between DO and BOD, the TMDL targets BOD. Many of the impaired waterbodies have been channelized or are canals and it may be difficult to consistently meet the statewide DO standards even after controlling pollutant concentrations. In such circumstances calculating allocations would be targeted to achieve the natural background loading and natural instream pollutant concentrations in the waterbody. Any allowance of increased loadings beyond natural background would likely cause other than natural dissolved oxygen levels, which would not be a proper application of the Florida definition. Because the standard prevents abatement of natural conditions, the TMDL can provide an allocation, where necessary, that results in natural conditions. A site specific criterion needs to be established to target a condition other than natural concentrations of pollutants.

BOD: A regression analysis correlating BOD to DO was developed to determine the BOD concentration necessary to maintain DO levels above the water quality standard (see the DO discussion above).

Unionized Ammonia: The TMDL for unionized ammonia is based on the numerical criteria (0.02 mg/l) and an estimate of flow. Existing conditions are based on the 95th percentile concentration measured in the WBID.

  1. TMDL Allocation for Total Phosphorus in WBIDs:

Lake Basin/WBIDs

WLA

LA (ppb)

MOS

TMDL

% Reduction

Lake Load (Mton/yr)

WBID Conc. (ppb)

Lake

WBID

S-65A ,B, C, D, E

19.25




76%




3188

0

77

Implicit




77




84%

3188A

0

77

Implicit




77




58%

3186B

0

77

Implicit




77




4%

3186C

0

77

Implicit




77




80%

3186D

0

77

Implicit




77




6%

3192C

0

77

Implicit




77




72%

Taylor Creek / Nubbin Slough (S-191)

19.01




76%




3205

0

77

Implicit




77




84%

3205D

0

77

Implicit




77




88%

3203A

0

77

Implicit




77




84%

3203B

0

77

Implicit




77




92%

3213A

0

77

Implicit




77




82%

3213B

0

77

Implicit




77




83%

3213D

0

77

Implicit




77




93%

715 Farms

0.41




75%




3247

0

77

Implicit




77




24%

C-40 Basin (S-72)

2.32




76%




3206

0

77

Implicit




77




58%

C-41 Basin (S-71)

6.17




76%




3204

0

77

Implicit




77




49%

East Beach DD (Culv 10)

2.12




76%




3244

72% Reduction

77

Implicit




77




72%

L59-E

0.36




76%




3209

0

77

Implicit




77




28%

S-135 Basin

0.82




76%




3213C

0

77

Implicit




77




29%

S-154 Basin

5.72




76%




3199B

0

77

Implicit




77




95%

S-2 Basin

1.98




76%




3248

43% Reduction

77

Implicit




77




43%

3248A

31% Reduction

77

Implicit




77




31%

S-3 Basin

0.56




76%




3251

0

77

Implicit




77




8%

S-4 Basin

1.67




76%




3246

0.15 (Mton/yr)

77

Implicit




77




33%

South FL Conservancy DD (S-236) & Industrial Canal

1.07




76%




3250

0

77

Implicit




77




21%

South Shore / South Bay DD (Culv 4A)

0.26




76%




3253

10% Reduction

77

Implicit










10%

L-8 (Culv 10A)

1.89




76%




3233

0

77

Implicit




77




43%

S-5A Basin

0




N/A




3238

59% Reduction

77

Implicit




77




59%

3238E

0

77

Implicit




77




25%

S-65 (Lake Kissimmee)

16.96




76%




1436

0% Reduction

77

Implicit




77




0%

Note: A daily TP concentration of 77 ppb should be achieved based on an annual average of the measured days recognizing natural variability; the WLA for WBID 3246 is equivalent to 0.96 lb/day.

  1. TP Allocations for Lake Okeechobee Basins Expressed as Daily Loads:

Basin

WLA (lb/day)

LA (lb/day)

TMDL (lb/day)

S-65A, B, C, D, E

0

116.19

116.19

Taylor Creek / Nubbin Slough (S-191)

0

114.74

114.74

715 Farms

0

2.47

2.47

C-40 Basin (S-72)

0

14

14

C-41 Basin (S-71)

0

37.24

37.24

East Beach DD (Culv 10)

77% Reduction

12.8

12.8

L59-E

0

2.17

2.17

S-135 Basin

0

4.95

4.95

S-154 Basin

0

34.50

34.50

S-2 Basin

76% Reduction

11.95

11.95

S-3 Basin

0

3.38

3.38

S-4 Basin

0.96

9.11

10.07

South FL Conservancy DD (S-236) & Industrial Canal

0

2.05

2359

South Shore/ South Bay DD (Culv 4A)

76% Reduction

1.57

1.57

L-8 (Culv 10A)

0

11.41

11.41

S-5A Basin

0

0

0

S-65

0

102.37

102.37

lb/day = Mton/yr * yr/365.25 day * 2204.623 lb/Mton.

Note: Achievement of the annual load would imply achievement of the daily load averaged through the year; therefore, implementation should target the annual load.



  1. TMDL Allocation for Total Nitrogen:

WBID

WLA (lb/day)

LA (lb/day)

MOS

TMDL (lb/day)

% Reduction

3188

0

600.09

Implicit

600.09

32%

3188A

0

65.08

Implicit

65.08

15%

3186B

0

412.44

Implicit

412.44

8%

3186C

0

98.73

Implicit

98.73

35%

3186D

0

149.39

Implicit

149.39

0%

3192C

0

62.98

Implicit

62.98

39%

3205

0

400.12

Implicit

400.12

34%

3205D

0

74.48

Implicit

74.48

43%

3203A

0

115.64

Implicit

115.64

25%

3203B

0

50.72

Implicit

50.72

54%

3213A

0

23.65

Implicit

23.65

35%

3213B

0

120.90

Implicit

120.90

42%

3213D

0

123.41

Implicit

123.41

54%

3247

0

107.61

Implicit

107.61

66%

3206

0

145.32

Implicit

145.32

31%

3204

0

444.90

Implicit

444.90

39%

3244

70% Reduction

105.56

Implicit

105.56

70%

3209

0

57.13

Implicit

57.13

27%

3213C

0

170.44

Implicit

170.44

29%

3199B

0

115.19

Implicit

115.19

60%

3248

69% Reduction

172.84

Implicit

172.84

69%

3248A

44% Reduction

106.52

Implicit

106.52

44%

3251

0

87.50

Implicit

87.50

43%

3246

15.02 lb/day

251.89

Implicit

266.91

48%

3250

0

92.42

Implicit

92.42

67%

3253

62% Reduction

72.82

Implicit

72.82

62%

3233

0

467.39

Implicit

467.39

44%

3238

53% Reduction

1397.25

Implicit

1397.25

49%

3238E

0

3074.29

Implicit

3074.29

60%

1436

30% Reduction

240.37

Implicit

240.37

30%

Note: The expressed daily TN load should be achieved based on an annual average of the measured days recognizing natural variability.

  1. TMDL Allocation for Unionized Ammonia:

WBID

TMDL

(lb/day)

WLA

(lb/day)

LA

(lb/day)

Percent Reduction

3244

1.76

0

1.76

60%

3247

1.79

0

1.79

29%



  1. TMDL Allocation for BOD:

    WBID

    TMDL

    (lb/day)

    WLA

    (lb/day)

    LA

    (lb/day)

    Percent Reduction

    3186B

    811.13

    0

    811.13

    38%

    3246

    433.90

    25.03

    408.87

    48%

  2. Endangered Species (yes or blank): Yes

  3. EPA Lead on TMDL (EPA or blank): EPA

  4. TMDL Considers Point Source, Nonpoint Source, or both: Both

  5. Major NPDES Discharges to surface waters:



Name of Facility

Impacted WBID


Permitted Flow

(MGD)

Annual Average Permit Limits based on WLA


BOD (mg/l)

TN (mg/l)

TP (mg/l)

City of Clewiston WWTP (FL0040665)

3246

1.5

2

1.2

0.077
Note: A Site Specific Alternative Criterion for DO may be necessary to adjust the permit limits. WLA is designed to meet the natural background concentrations. Annual Average Loads corresponding to permit limits shown above are: BOD: 25.05 lb/day; TN: 15.03 lb/day; and TP: 0.964 lb/day.

MS4 Allocations:





MS4

Impacted WBID


NPDES ID

% Reduction in Nutrient Load

City of Pahokee/ Palm Beach County

3244, 3238

FLS000018

TP: 74%

TN: 72%

City of Belle Glades/Palm Beach County

3248A

FLS000018

TP: 30%

TN: 44%

City of South Beach/ Palm Beach County

3248, 3253

FLS000018

TP: 41%

TN: 69%

City of Davenport/Polk County

1436

FLS000015

TP: 0%

TN: 29%

Note: When an MS4 covers more than one WBID, the largest percent reduction calculated for an impaired WBID is assigned to the MS4. The MS4 is responsible for controlling pollutant loads from the urban areas within its jurisdiction.


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