Project Wisdom Itinerary



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Summer, 2014

Ghana

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Project Wisdom Itinerary

Below is a rough outline of our itinerary. Details are likely to change.


Day

Activities




Day 1 – June 16th

Monday


  • Meet at RDU at 10:15 AM

  • Flight at 12:15 PM

  • Four hour layover in ATL (bring something to read)




Day 2 – June 17th

Tuesday


  • Arrive at Kotoka Int. Airport (Ghana) at 1:30 PM

  • Airport Pickup by Easy Track; transport to hotel

  • Refresh, relax, contact home; city orientation and shopping as time permits

  • USA vs. Ghana World Cup Match (11 PM) for those who can’t sleep

  • Overnight at mid-range hotel in downtown Accra: Okera Inn

Accra – Introduction to Ghana

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Day 3 – June 18th

Wednesday



  • Meet at 8:30 AM for city tour: Independence Square, International Health Care Clinic, University of Ghana, etc…

  • Early dinner and transport to Kitase by Easy Track

  • Meet Mr. Aboyage (host)

  • Overnight at home stay in Kitase

Day 4 – June 19th

Thursday


  • Orientation to Village Life

  • Optional Activities – Hiking, School Visit, Soccer Match (USA vs. Ghana rematch!)

  • Language + Culture Lesson

  • Overnight at home stay in Kitase

Kitase – Cultural Immersion

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Day 5 – June 20th

Friday


  • Volunteer at Wisdom Academy

  • Developmental Theory Lesson

  • Overnight at home stay in Kitase

Day 6 – June 21st

Saturday


  • Field Trip to Somanya Market (beads capital of West Africa)

  • Overnight at home stay in Kitase

Day 7 – June 22nd

Sunday


  • Living Like a Ghanaian Day – laundry, cooking, shopping, cleaning

  • Church (optional)

  • Overnight at home stay in Kitase

Day 8 – June 23rd

Monday


  • Aburi Day – craft village, ABAN, hiking, internet café (e-mails)

  • Overnight at home stay in Kitase

Day 9 – June 24th

Tuesday


  • Depart Kitase in the morning for the nearby highland village of Akropong

  • Be received by a durbar of chiefs with drumming, dancing, and blessings

  • Tour kente weaving village and cocoa farm

  • Overnight in a budget hotel in downtown Kumasi: Sanbra

Kumasi – On the Road


Day 10 – June 25th

Wednesday



  • Early morning departure for the long drive to Mole National Park

  • Visit the refreshing Kintampo Falls along the way

  • Afternoon safari walk at Mole National Park

  • Overnight at home stay in nearby village/others at Mole Dormitory

Northern Region – Holy Mole

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Day 11 – June 26th

Thursday


  • Morning and afternoon safari walks

  • Visit ancient mosque in Larabanga

  • Relax Poolside

  • Lesson on Ghana’s Road to Development

  • Overnight at home stay in nearby village/others at Mole Dormitory

Day 12 – June 27th

Friday


  • Service Day – Local School

  • Lesson on Service-Learning

  • Overnight at home stay in nearby village/others at Mole Dormitory



Day 13 – June 28th

Saturday


  • Morning safari walk before departure

  • Stop along the way at Boebeng Monkey Sanctuary

  • Operation Hand-in-Hand

  • Overnight at the Operation Hand-in-Hand guesthouse

Nkoranza – Operation Hand-in-Hand

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Day 14 – June 29th

Sunday


  • Morning departure for the coast, stopping at the “Slave River” in Assin Manso

  • Visit Cape Coast Castle

  • Hike Cape Coast/Elmina (internet café day)

  • Overnight at budget beach resort in Cape Coast: Oasis Beach Resort

The Coast – Slavery (Then and Now)

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Day 15 – June 30th

Monday


  • Morning on the beach

  • Challenging Heights

  • Overnight in Kokrobite Beach: Big Millies

Day 16 – July 1st

Tuesday


  • Service Day – Library/Clinic

  • Overnight at budget hotel in Kisseman: Sky Bright Hotel

Accra (Again) – Service Days

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Day 17 – July 2nd

Wednesday



  • Morning at volunteer sight

  • Afternoon blessing for safe journey

  • Back at the Kotako International Airport by 8:00 PM

  • Flight at 10:00 PM

Day 18 – July 3rd

Thursday


  • Three hour layover in NYC

  • Return to RDU at 10:21 AM

  • SLEEP!




Daily Roles

Students will be assigned rotating roles throughout the trip. In doing so, we hope to create a sense of ownership for the trip’s success as well as a positive learning environment for practicing leadership skills. The overview of each role can be found below the chart.






E

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P

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K

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PW Cameraman

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

PW Videographer

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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11

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PW Banner Carrier

3

4

5

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7

8

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11

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Water Person

4

5

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7

8

9

10

11

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Water Person

5

6

7

8

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11

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13

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15

16

First Aid Kit Keeper

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1

Cell Phone Keeper

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1

2

Attendance Taker

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1

2

3

Discussion Leader

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1

2

3

4

PW Videographer

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1

2

3

4

5

PW Banner Carrier

11

12

13

14

15

16

1

2

3

4

5

6




12

13

14

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16

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2

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7




13

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16

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15

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11



Daily Roles Defined

  • PW Cameraman – Take pictures for Project Wisdom (web site, documentary, publications). Charge camera when not being used. Bring it to breakfast next morning.

  • PW Videographer – Take digital film of our trip. Charge digital cameras when necessary. Set up during evenings for “reflection” times. Take down cameras after reflection time. Bring to breakfast next morning. This role will be especially important on the day with visit the slave castles.

  • PW Banner Carrier – Hold onto one Project Wisdom banner at all times. More importantly, arrange one (at least) group photo around our banner (front and back). Bring to breakfast next morning.

  • Water Person(s) – Make sure the group has water at all times. Get water during water breaks. Group must have at least two water bags at all times.

  • First Aid Kit – Keep first aid kit nearby at all times. Record items used. Notify chaperone if running low. Bring to breakfast next morning.

  • Cell Phone Keeper – Keep cell phone charged and close by at all times.

  • Attendance Taker – Take group attendance during breakfast, lunch, dinner, and departures. Report to chaperone.

  • Discussion Leader – Find location for evening discussion. Get group to discussion area. Think of an opening question for the night’s discussion. Lead discussion as needed.

The Buddy System



Each day you will be assigned a buddy. To figure out your buddy assignment, first identify your number assignment by referring to the chart above (Daily Roles). You will notice that the first row font is larger than the rest of the numbers. This large row indicates each student’s number assignment (Emily is 1, Maya is 2, and so on). Once you know your number, use the chart below to see your daily buddy assignment.

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

Day 7

Day 8

Day 9

Day 10

Day 11

Day 12

Day 13

Day 14

Day 15

Day 16

1, 2

1, 3

1, 4

1, 5

1, 6

1, 2

1, 3

1, 4

1, 5

1, 6

1, 2

1, 3

1, 4

1, 5

1, 6

1, 2

3, 4

2, 6

3, 6

3, 2

3, 5

3, 4

2, 6

3, 6

3, 2

3, 5

3, 4

2, 6

3, 6

3, 2

3, 5

3, 4

5, 6

5, 4

5, 2

4, 6

2, 4

5, 6

5, 4

5, 2

4, 6

2, 4

5, 6

5, 4

5, 2

4, 6

2, 4

5, 6

7, 8

7, 9

7, 10

7, 11

7, 12

7, 8

7, 9

7, 10

7, 11

7, 12

7, 8

7, 9

7, 10

7, 11

7, 12

7, 8

9, 10

8, 12

9, 12

8, 9

9, 11

9, 10

8, 12

9, 12

8, 9

9, 11

9, 10

8, 12

9, 12

8, 9

9, 11

9, 10

11, 12

11, 10

11, 8

10, 12

8, 10

11, 12

11, 10

11, 8

10, 12

8, 10

11, 12

11, 10

11, 8

10, 12

8, 10

11, 12

What do buddies do?

1. Your buddy will be your roommate for the night (when there are two people to a room).

2. Your buddy will be your partner during group work, other tasks for the day, and for exploring.

3. Always tell your buddy when you are going somewhere. That way if we are looking for you, someone will be able to locate you.

About This Packet

“The world is a book and those who do not travel read only one page.” 
 Augustine of Hippo

If you are reading this, you are officially on your way to West Africa! To make your time in Ghana as successful as possible, Project Wisdom has put together a packet of learning resources. The packet is broken down into sixteen “lessons,” the same number of days you will spend in country. Before you get depressed about learning in the summer, let me assure you that these are not typical “lessons.” You do not have to fill out diagrams; you will not be quizzed on your comprehension; there is no busy work. Lessons were made with the sole intention of helping you – helping you understand what you are seeing; helping you engage people in better conversation; helping you formulate better questions; helping you appreciate a foreign culture. For the most part, the daily lessons will have four components:



Read – Reading passages have been carefully selected to enhance your experience. For example, lesson 7 deals with gender equality issues in Ghana. It is not a coincidence, then, that this is the day we have “planned” (I use the word loosely) to visit ABAN and learn about what a group of UNC students is doing to help single mothers in Ghana. The reading will provide context to our visit and allow us to ask better questions. It will also show our hosts that we are interested in their mission. It is recommended, therefore, that you read the passages as early as possible (i.e. in bed the night before, in the morning like a newspaper, with breakfast, etc…), so you can use the information throughout the day.

Task – Tasks have one of two purposes: 1) to force students to interact with their host country, and/or 2) to reinforce reading concepts. You should record task results in your journal and be ready to discuss them each evening.

Reflect – All students are encouraged to use their journals to jot down their thoughts, their notes, and their ideas throughout the trip. In addition to your personal reflections, we will often provide a prompt for each lesson. These prompts will most often be the foundation for a specific topic during our evening discussion.

Discuss – Following dinners, Project Wisdom students will meet to discuss the day’s events. These discussions aim to foster a more positive learning environment, build relationships among students, and explore the nuances of volunteering in a place like Ghana.

On top of the daily lessons, students will also be working together on a group project throughout their time in Ghana. This project will be due at the end of the trip -- it does not need to be fancy. You are not graded on this final project. You are, however, assessed on your ideas. Besides being adopted by Project Wisdom, the winning project will be recognized and the group members will receive a reward. Good luck! Go to lesson 11 for more details.

Table of Contents

Ghana Map………………………………………………………………2

Sample Itinerary…………………………………………………………3

Roles/Buddies………………………….………………………………...5

About This Packet………………………………………………………..7

Pre-Flight Reading (& Student Survey)…………………………………8

Lesson 1 – Welcome to Ghana…………………………………………26

Ghana Scavenger Hunt…………………………………………………29

Lesson 2 – Global Giving Projects……………………………………...30

Lesson 3 – Project Wisdom: Past, Present, Future……………………...38

Lesson 4 – The Power of Education…………………………………….48

Lesson 5 – The Power of Positive……………………………………….54

Lesson 6 – Water, Water, and Water…………………………………..60

Lesson 7 – Being a Woman in Ghana…………………………………..68

Lesson 8 – Young People Making A Difference………………………...76

Lesson 9 – The Pros and Cons of Tourism…………………………...…83

Lesson 10 – Environmental Issues (Surviving the Sahel)……………....91

Lesson 11 – Service-Learning Project……………………….…………100

Lesson 12 – Health Issues………………………………………………106

Lesson 13 – Slavery, Then and Now……………………………….…..116

Lesson 14 – Service-Learning Project (2).................................................123

Lesson 15 – Service-Learning Project (3)………………….…………..124

Lesson 16 – Reflections……………………………………………...….125

Pre-Flight Reading

Students are expected to read the following materials before arriving in Ghana. These pieces aim to provide students with important context and knowledge for a successful trip. Haven’t started yet? Now worries. You have a long flight to catch up.

1. Abina and the Important Men (Entire Graphic Novel) by Trevor Getz

Students were asked to order this book on-line (via Amazon) or borrow it from Mr. Macleod. We will refer to this book during the later stages of our trip. This is the only reading material NOT provided in this packet.



2. (A Very Brief) “History of Ghana” by History World

Ghanaians are both proud and knowledgeable about their history. Learning a bit might open doors for conversations and relationship building. If you show an interest in people’s lives, they will reciprocate – a lesson learned from many years of travel.



3. “10 Interesting Facts About Ghana” by Buzz Ghana

Did you know Ghana is one of the world’s most peaceful countries?



4. CARE Country Snapshot: Ghana

This brief overview touches upon some of the developmental challenges in Ghana.



5. Introduction to Twi

Homework: Memorize at least ten! More than anything, a good hearted attempt at speaking their language will illicit smiles and respect. We will practice upon arrival!



6. Easy Track and Project Wisdom Rules and Expectations

Read ‘em carefully. Put ‘em to memory. Ask questions.


(A Very Brief) HISTORY OF GHANA




The Gold Coast: 15th - 19th century

Little is known of the small African kingdoms in the region between the Tano and Volta rivers until the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century. Portuguese navigators, working their way down the west African coast, reach this area in 1471 and build a fortress at Elmina in 1482. But others follow fast. As early as 1492 a French buccaneer, marauding off the coast, deprives a Portuguese ship of its precious cargo.

That cargo is gold, and the Gold Coast becomes the European name for this part of Africa. The trade in gold with the Europeans makes possible the development in the early 17th century of Akwamu, the first African state to control an extensive part of the coast. 



 












During the 18th century the dominance of Akwamu is replaced by that of a much more powerful group, the Ashanti, with their capital inland at Kumasi. By this time the British, Dutch and Danes are the main European traders on this part of the coast, and the most valuable commodity for export is not gold but slaves.

Trading slaves for muskets, among other western commodities, the Ashanti acquire great local power. Their king, the Asantehene, enthroned on a traditional golden stool, holds sway over the entire central region of modern Ghana. But the Ashanti suffer a series of major blows between 1804 and 1814, when the Danes, British and Dutch each in turn outlaw the slave trade



 












The resulting tension leads to warfare in the 1820s (with the defeat of a British force in 1824) and again in the 1870s. In 1874 a British army briefly occupies Kumasi. 

Meanwhile, in the coastal regions, the British are gradually emerging as the main European power. The Danish fortresses (including the impressive Christiansborg castle in Accra) are bought by the British government in 1850. The last Dutch merchants abandon the coast in 1870. And in 1874 the southern regions are formally proclaimed a British colony, under the name Gold Coast. But it takes another three decades before the Ashanti kingdom, and its dependencies in the north, are finally brought under British control. 



 






Colonial period: 1902-1957

In 1901, taking effect from 1 January 1902, Ashanti is declared a British crown colony. The regions further north become at the same time the Protectorate of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. 

The colonial years are relatively prosperous and untroubled. At first little is done to involve the African population in the political processes of the colony. But in the years immediately after World War II events move so fast that the Gold Coast becomes the first colony in sub-Saharan Africa to win its independence. The turning point is the return home in 1947 of Kwame Nkrumah after twelve years of study and radical politics in the USA and Britain. kabaka-and-colonists.jpg



 












Nkrumah is invited back to the Gold Coast to become general secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention, an organization campaigning for self-government. The UGCC has won the right (in 1946) for an African majority in the colony's legislative assembly, but the fight is now on for a share in executive power.

Nkrumah rapidly extends the movement's popular base, with the result that there are widespread riots in February 1948. The older UGCC leaders are alarmed by this (and by their brief arrest with Nkrumah). A split within the movement leads to Nkrumah founding in June 1949 the Convention People's Party, committed to immediate self-government. 



 












From January 1950 Nkrumah organizes a campaign of nonviolent protests and strikes, which lands him back in gaol. But in the colony's first general election, in February 1951, the CPP wins convincingly even in the absence of its leader. Nkrumah is released from prison to join the government. In 1952 he becomes prime minister.

During the years of preparation for independence the neighbouring British Togo votes, in a 1956 plebiscite, to merge with the Gold Coast. It is therefore a slightly extended territory which becomes independent in 1957 under Nkrumah's leadership. A new name of great resonance in African history is adopted - Ghana (although the ancient kingdom of that name was far to the north, in present-day Mali). 



 






Independence: from1957

Nkrumah, well aware of his status at the head of the first west African nation to emerge from colonialism, dreams of leading the continent into a Marxist future. This requires a republic, which Ghana becomes in 1960 with Nkrumah as president for life. It also needs only one political party, the CPP. However Nkrumah's authoritarian rule, combined with a collapse in the nation's economy, prompts a coup when the president is away in China in 1966 (he goes into exile in Guinea).statue.jpg

It is the first of several such coups in Ghana's short history, but the nation remains true to the hope of democracy. In four decades Ghana establishes as many new republics. 



 












A general election launching the second republic, in 1969, brings to power Kofi Busia, a university professor with a long track record in Ghanaian politics as an opponent of Nkrumah. But he is unable to improve Ghana's economic performance (weakened by low cocoa prices), and he is removed by military officers in 1972.

For a few years from 1972 a military regime rules with repressive brutality, under the successive leadership of two generals, Ignatius Acheampong and Frederick Akuffo. But by 1979 a group of younger officers has had enough. Led by Jerry Rawlings, a flight lieutenant in the air force, they take power. Acheampong and Akuffo are executed. Arrangements are put in place for speedy elections. 



 












The third republic, in 1979, lasts only two years before Rawlings and his fellow officers intervene again. After his second coup Rawlings takes personal power, ruling through a Provisional National Defence Council which has the specific brief to organize a renewal of the nation's political and economic life down to village level.

Rawlings proves an efficient leader, winning international support for his economic policies, and the 1990s demonstrate that he has popular approval as well. In the prevailing fashion for multiparty democracy, Ghana holds elections in 1992 in preparation for its fourth republic. 



 












Rawlings transforms his ruling council into a political party, the National Democratic Congress. The NDC wins nearly all the seats in parliament and Rawlings is elected president. But only 29% of the electorate vote, and most of the opposition parties boycott the election. The 1992 result can hardly be taken as a popular mandate.

However elections in 1996, at the end of the four-year term, are altogether more significant. There are other presidential candidates, at least one of them enjoying wide support. Yet Rawlings astonishes observers by winning 57% of the vote, to his nearest rival's 40%. And the NDC retains its absolute majority in parliament. 



 












After two terms as an elected president, Rawlings stands down for the presidential election of December 2000. It is won by the opposition leader, John Kufuor.

Since then, Ghana has enjoyed (or endured depending on who you ask) two more successful democratic elections. In 2008 John Atta Mills was elected. Four years later, current President John Dramani Mahama was elected under much election tension.









10 Interesting Facts about Ghana

The Republic of Ghana has a total surface area of 238, 837 square kilometres, extending inland on the western bulge’ of Africa from the Gulf of Guinea. It is bordered by Cote d’Ivore to the west, Togo to the east, to the south is  the Atlantic Ocean, and Burkina Faso to the north. The Greenwich meridian bisects the country, while it also lays entirely the northern tropics. Here is a look at 10 remarkable  facts about Ghana that would interest any tourist wishing to pay a visit.



The People

The population of Ghana is estimated at 20 million, about 20% of whom live in and around Accra, the capital city. Kumasi, Tamale, Cape Coast and Takoradi are the other major urban centres. Over 70 major dialects and languages are spoken, classified in four linguistic groups; Mole-Dagbani, Akan, Ga and Ewe. Twi is the most popular Akan language, spoken by about half the population. 75% of Ghanaians are Christians, 15% Muslims, and the rest adhering to traditional animistic beliefs.



Recent History and Politics

Initially settled by Africans, Ghana was occupied by Europeans since 1492, but it was not until 1874 that external rule was imposed. Britain claimed a land strip that extended less than 50 kilometers inland, naming it the Gold Coast. The Gold Coast was granted independence in 1957, eventually renamed Ghana under the rule of Kwame Nkrumah. In 1991, a multiparty democracy and constitution was introduced, with Jerry Rawlings winning the first ever democratic elections in 1992. He stepped down in 2000 after serving the maximum two terms, succeeded by John Kuffuor.



Climate

Ghana is essentially a tropical country, and location of the South Western part is in the warm and wet forest zone. The capital Accra is located within the dry equatorial zones, and Kumasi in the west savanna. The range of rainy season in northern Ghana is April to October, while the rest of the year remains hot and dry. In South Ghana, it rains from April to June and then from September to October.



Currency

The official currency is the Ghana Cedi, converting to about $ 0.80 for 1 GC. Despite the currency being denominated in July 2007, most street vendors and traders still operate in terms of the defunct old Cedi, quoting prices by the thousands much to the chagrin of the new currency users. 10000 is now equal to 1 Cedi, same as 100 pesewas, equivalent to cents for a dollar. The current conversion rate shows that $1 USD equals about 3 Ghana cedis.



ghs-1-ghana-cedi-2.jpg

Oil Discovery

In 2007, oil was discovered off the Ghana coast. In layman’s terms, the country may take roughly 38% of the oil to be pumped, in oil or in cash. After production commences, 200, 000 barrels could be produced daily, giving the nation approximately $1.6 billion in total revenue annually.



Elmina Castle

One other fascinating  fact about Ghana  is the Elmina Castle.Ghana boasts Elmina Castle, the oldest European building within sub-Saharan Africa. It was built by the Portuguese in 1482 and is located in the central region on the Atlantic shores. The Portuguese named it Elmina, which means the gold mines, due to the abundant supply of gold found along the coasts of modern day Ghana. Sadly, the Castle was at the center of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, used to store slaves about to be taken to the Americas.



Kejetia Market

Kejetia market is the largest open air market in West Africa, located in Kumasi, the Ashanti region’s capital. Everything under the Ghanaian sun can be found there, from local crafts such as cloth, sandals and beads, to second-hand clothing and jeans. There are also meat corners and a wide variety of fruits and vegetables.



wpid868-mtallman_kajetamktpan.jpg

Freedom of Worship

In Ghana, freedom of worship is a constitutional right. There is virtually no conflict at all between Muslims, Christians, traditionalists as well as other minority religions. In fact, children in school are taught to tolerate others from different religions.



Corruption Index

In terms of corruption, Transparency International ranked Ghana in position 67 during the 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index. In comparison, New Zealand, Denmark and Sweden were ranked equal first as the least corrupt, while Somalia is the most corrupt country at position 180.



The Economy

Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources and has about twice the per capita output of West Africa’s poorest countries. Despite this fact, the country still depends heavily on international technical and financial assistance. The main sources of foreign exchange are cocoa and gold production.



Global Peace Index

Ghana is Africa’s most peaceful country according to the Global Peace Index, having been ranked 40th in the world. By comparison, African countries like Somalia and Sudan are ranked 139 and 140 respectively.



peace ghana.jpg

CARE Country Snapshot: Ghana

Introduction to Twi

Easy Track and Project Wisdom Rules and Expectations



Ghana Cultural Etiquette

  1. Always greet people from right to left, always with your right hand. Remember that your palms are always properly aligned for greeting people when going right-to-left. Always follow this order, regardless of the age or gender or status of the people you are greeting. This will seem very awkward when you enter a room where everyone is lined up on the left wall because you will have to walk past everyone to start greeting from the furthest person. 

  2. The West African handshake is used in Ghana, where the middle finger snaps the middle finger of the person you are shaking. The louder the snap, the better, and it is acceptable to try the snap a second time if you miss it.

  3. Always use your right hand to give and receive items, and to eat. In this culture, your left hand is considered your 'toilet hand'. It is a common practice to give money with your right hand while at the same time receiving your purchase into the same hand. 

  4. Always greet people first when you enter an area. Otherwise, you may wonder why people are just looking at you when you enter a room. They are waiting for you to offer a greeting, which will be received with a big smile and a warm reply. 

  5. Never make derogatory remarks about any religious, political or ethnic group or behavior. Ghana is tolerant and respectful of all its diverse tribes, religions and customs. 

  6. Always be respectful, especially to elders. The older the person, the more respect. But always greet in the correct order, right-to-left, regardless of age or gender. (see #1 above) 

  7. Remember to share. People in Africa do not live the independent lives of Western cultures. Sharing food and sharing stories are two of the best ways to join this culture of interdependence. It is acceptable to give small amounts of money ($2 maximum) to children or the disabled, but usually not to beggars. 

  8. You should not be wasteful. Africa is a land where every little thing has value. Your guide will never ask you for anything, but throwing away just a piece of paper that has a blank side would be a painful sight for him to see. (Notice how small the rubbish cans are in homes and hotels.) Feel free to offer anything that has no value to you to any person anywhere. 

  9. Direct, “let’s get to business” conversation is considered rude. Always exchange pleasantries and inquire about family before beginning to transact any business. Even if you are just purchasing an orange. 

  10. Keep your demeanor and dress proper. For men, lightweight trousers are more proper than shorts during the weekday. Shirts with a collar are also the preferred dress during the weekday. Non-native men should not go shirtless except at the beach or poolside. Shorts and T-shirts are fine after the workday hours or on weekends, when it is casual time. For women, modesty is preferred. Always try to keep your shoes clean of dirt and dust. 

  11. Realize that starting times for events are not exact. An event will usually not begin until at least one hour after the noted starting time. We call it "Africa time", and if you arrive at the posted starting time, people will jokingly say you are following "European time". 

  12. When in rural areas and small villages, a visit to the local chief is the first stop you should make. When in the presence of the chief, remove your hat, keep your hands out of your pockets and do not cross your legs. When invited to greet the chief, approach just short of where they are seated and bow slightly. Do not offer your hand unless the chief invites you for a handshake. Always be sure to bring a small gift. Usually a bottle of schnapps is perfect. 

  13. Knowing just a couple words of the local language makes a huge impact. Ask your guide to teach you to say 'Thank you' (may da say) and 'How are you' (wo ho te sane) in Twi.
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