Project G. L. A. D. Early Man/Prehistoric



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GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


• Sentence Patterning Chart (Farmer-in-the-Dell)

- Reading

- Trading Game

- Flip Chant



READING/WRITING


• Personal interaction

• Learning Log

• Expert Groups

- Team Tasks



GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


• Mind Map

• Process Grid




READING/WRITING


• Coop strip paragraph – respond/revise/edit

• Writer’s Workshop

- Mini Lesson

- Write


- Author’s Chair

CLOSURE


• Interactive Journal

• Home/School Connection

• Read aloud

• Process inquiry chart


Sample Daily Lesson Plan

Page 4

DAY 4
FOCUS/MOTIVATION

• Cognitive Content Dictionary with “stumper word”, student

selected vocabulary

• Share Home/School Connection

• Re-read Big Book

• Chant/Poem

• Read aloud

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


• Story Map with Narrative

• Chant/Poem



READING/WRITING


• Flexible reading groups

- Clunkers and Links with SQ3R (at or above)

- ELD Group Frame - Story Retell (Narrative)

• Team Tasks

- Team Evaluation – oral

Model Strip Book

• Writer’s Workshop

• Memory Bank – Inventions and discoveries



CLOSURE


• Home/School Connection

• Interactive Journal

• Process charts
DAY 5
FOCUS/MOTIVATION

• Cognitive Content Dictionary with “stumper word”, student

selected vocabulary

• Process Home/School Connection

• Video: The Ice Man

• Chants/Poetry

• Read aloud

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


• L1 group discussion of “The Ice Man”

• Chants/Poetry


Sample Daily Lesson Plan

Page 5

READING/WRITING


Listen and Sketch

• Flexible Group Reading with Coop Strip Paragraph (struggling

readers)

- Team Tasks – written evaluations

- Team presentations

• Focused Reading with Personal Cognitive Content Dictionary

• Ear to ear reading poetry booklet

• Writer’s Workshop

• Found Poetry

CLOSURE


• Team exploration with rubric

• Personal exploration with rubric

• Process Inquiry Chart

• Evaluate week

• Letter home

Big Book Text

Did you know…Early Man
Page 1

Did you know that artifacts and fossils provide information on how early humans might have lived and looked like?



  • In 1974, Donald Johanson discovered bones from a female australopithecine that became known as “Lucy.”

  • This female was about 20 years old and about 4 feet tall when she died.

  • This discovery showed that early australopithecines could walk on two legs, leaving their hands free to hold things.

I just thought you should know that artifacts and fossils provide information on how early humans might have lived and looked like.
Page 2

Did you know that australopithecines lived in different kinds of surroundings?



  • Some australopithecines lived in the forests of Africa. They ate mostly plants, especially fruit, and perhaps small animals.

  • Other australopithecines learned to live on the open grasslands of Africa. They ate different plants and perhaps more meat than those living in the forests.

  • They also moved over long distances in search of food. This diet and movement caused them to be different than other australopithecines. Their brain size increased, and they grew larger and stronger.

I just thought you should know that australopithecines lived in different kinds of surroundings.
Page 3

Did you know that by 2.5 million years ago Homo habilis lived in Africa?



  • The Leakey family first discovered bones from the kind of hominid in 1960 in Olduvai Gorge.

  • Soon, scientists found more Homo habilis bones in other parts of Easterm Africa.

  • Near Homo habilis bones, scientists have found simple tools, making this hominid the first known toolmaker.

  • In fact, the name Homo habilis means “handy person.”

  • The appearance of the first chipped stone tools began what is known as the Paleolithic era, or Old Stone Age. (This period began about 2.5 million years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago.)

I just thought you should know that by 2.5 million years ago Homo habilis lived in Africa.
Page 4

Did you know that like australopithecines, Homo habilis walked upright?



  • However, it had a larger brain in a rounder skull, and its face and jaw were smaller.

  • Homo habilis chipped stones to make tools, which they used to chop, scrap and do other simple tasks.

  • Homo habilis lived only in Africa, mainly in grassy areas near water sources and trees.

  • They ate mostly plants and some meat. Experts believe that Homo habilis got meat by hunting or by eating pieces left behind by animals.

I just though that you should know that like australopithecines, Homo habilis walked upright.
Page 5

Did you know that about 1.9 million years ago, another kind of hominid appeared in Africa?



  • Today it is known as Homo erectus, meaning “upright person.”

  • The first discoveries of Homo erectus were made near Lake Turkana, in Kenya.

  • It was larger and stronger than earlier hominids.

  • It also had shorter arms and longer legs. Its brain was much larger too.

  • Flexible hands allowed Homo erectus to make better tools, including stone axes for chopping and digging up roots to eat.

  • Later, Homo erectus made spears from wood for hunting.

I just though you should know that about 1.9 million years ago, another kind of hominid appeared in Africa.
Page 6

Did you know that Homo erectus was the first-known hominid to master the use of fire?



  • Homo erectus learned to start fires. With fire, Homo erectus cooked food, kept away wild animals, and stayed warm in colder places,

  • With a larger brain, homo erectus may have developed some speech.

  • With speech, Homo erectus could live and travel farther in groups.

  • Members of these small groups hunted together, shared food, and solved problems.

I just though you should know that Homo erectus was the first-known hominid to master the use of fire.

Page 7


Did you know that most experts believe that Homo sapiens appeared in tropical Africa by 200,000 years ago, which represents the beginning of human kind?

  • The physical development of Homo sapiens, or early modern humans was superior to that of earlier hominids.

  • With fingers and hands like ours, early humans could handle things with more skill.

  • Also, their bigger, rounder skulls held larger brains, giving them greater intelligence.

  • In fact, the name Homo sapiens means “wise person.”

I just though you should know that most experts believe that Homo sapiens appeared in tropical Africa by 200,000 years ago, which represents the beginning of human kind.
Page 8

Did you know that using their greater intelligence, early humans advanced the development of tools with new technology?



  • They developed more complex tools for specific purposes.

  • They made tools from antler, bone, wood, and stone for cutting and scraping.

  • They also crafted bone needles for sewing animal skins into clothing.

  • Early humans designed weapons such as stone points attached to wood spears as well as spear throwers.

  • They also used their greater intelligence in other ways, such as improved communication.

  • They also went on to create jewelry, cave paintings, and sculptures, and to form religious beliefs.

I just though you should know that using their greater intelligence, early humans advanced the development of tools with new technology.


Pictorial: Australopithecines


Location/Dates

  • May have lived in Africa

  • About 1 million years ago

  • Found by the Leakey family in 1974

    • Donald Johnson

      • Lucy

Adaptations

  • Ate mostly plants, small animals

  • Learned to live on open grasslands

  • Lived in forests


Physical Development

  • About 4 feet tall

  • Could walk on two legs

  • Hands free to hold things

  • Brain size increased b/c of movement

  • Grew larger and stronger



Achievements

Interesting Facts

  • Hominid: species with human like characteristics

  • Discoveries of them provide strong evidence that human life began in Africa

  • Donald Johnson named “Lucy” after a song

Narrative Input


Adapted from Boy of the Painted Cave

By Justen Denzel


Tao winced as he saw the worn face, the pinched cheekbones. He was worried, but he knew the old man would not want him to show concern. “The cave is ready,” Tao said. “But first you must eat and rest.” He took some dried meat and fish from his leather pouch and they sat with their backs against an old red oak and ate their meal. Tao wondered if Graybeard remembered his promise.
When they finished, they started across the valley. Graybeard stopped many times, poking around the streambeds and gravel banks with the shaft of his spear, searching. Then he found what he was looking for. He picked up a stick and dug out a handful of bright red earth.
“Here,” he said, as he poured it into empty leather sack. “This will make good red paint. Now we must find yellows and whites.”
“I have yellow clay,” said Tao. The old man did remember. “Good. We can dig up some limestone powder near the foot of the cliffs. That will mix well for the lighter colors.”
When they had all the red, white and yellow earth they needed, they went up to the top of the cliff, using the easy path that Graybeard had found. They reached the tunnel to the Hidden Cave and removed the cover of branches to let in the sunlight.
In the cave Graybeard sat on the ground and Tao squatted beside him. The old man poured some of the red earth into one of the saucer –shaped rocks that Tao had collected. Then, using a smooth, round stone, he began grinding it into a fine red paint. He poured a small amount of this into three other shallow stone dishes. In the first one he added a lump of yellow clay, in the second he sprinkled limestone powder and the third he added charcoal dust. Using a small, clean stick for each, he mixed them well, ending with three different colors: a bright orange, a salmon pink, and a dark brown.
Tao was amused. He sat quietly, watching. This too was magic, he thought. Graybeard spread out more saucers and began blending shades of yellows, browns, grays and blacks. Some he mixed with honey and some with the boiled fat and clotted blood from the boar.

“Next we must make our brushes,” he said. He took a handful of twigs from his pouch and began mashing the ends with a stone until they were soft and ragged. He held one up in the shaft of the sunlight beaming through the cave entrance. He turned it around for Tao to see. “These are small,” he said, “for painting eyes and fine lines of hair and fur.”


He made larger brushes by tying feathers and boar bristles around the ends of long sticks with strings of vegetable fiber.
When all the paints and brushes were made the old man go to his feet. “Now,” he said, “we are ready to paint.” Tao held out the shoulder blade of the horse, while Graybeard poured spots of the colored paints onto its broad white surface. He handed the boy one of the large brushes and pointed to Tao’s pictures of the rhinos, bison and mammoths.
The boy held his breath. He never had a brush in his hand before. “Which one will I paint?”
Graybeard smiled. “You are the image maker. Paint the one you like the best.” “The mountain that walks,” said Tao. Graybeard nodded. “Then begin.” Tao hesitated, glancing at the paints on the shoulder blade, uncertain. “You saw the mammoths,” said Graybeard. “What color were they?”

“Reddish brown.”

“Good,” said the old man. “Then mix a little black with red until you have the color you wish.” Tao dipped his brush into the spot of black, then mixed it with red. He lifted his hand and touched it to the drawing. It was still too light, so he dipped in another dab of black. Again his brush touched the drawing. He smiled. It was a deep reddish brown, the color he wanted. He continued to dip and touch.

Graybeard watched as Tao repeated the motion again and again. He reached out and stopped the boy’s hand. “You are not painting on an antler or a seashell,” he said. “You are painting on a wall. Do not dab. Swing the brush with your whole arm.”

Graybeard took the brush and began sweeping it across the drawing, following the lines of the mammoth’s body. Tao saw the old man’s face brighten as he worked, laying on great swaths of color. He felt the excitement as the picture came alive. “Do not be afraid,” said Graybeard, his eyes glowing. “You can always go over what you do not like.” He gave the brush back to Tao and the boy tried again. This time he let his arm go free, swinging the brush across the wall. He mixed gray with yellow to fill in the light areas around the chest and stomach. He painted dark shadows on the shoulder and back to add shading. He saw his mammoth begin to breathe as he filled in the eye and the waving trunk.
When the painting was finished, Graybeard cracked open the duck eggs. He separated the yolks and set them aside. He poured the whites into a clean cockleshell, stirred them a stick and handed the shell to Tao.
The boy was puzzled. “What is this for?”

“Spread it over your painting and you will see.”

With a feather brush Tao washed the egg white over the picture. This time the mammoth came alive with bright new colors. He stared at in surprise. This had been done by his own hand. He smiled. Never had he felt so happy.
Super Archaeologist Awards


Australopithecines


  • Walked upright

  • Estimated to live about 4.5 million years ago

Homo Habilis

  • Walked upright

  • Said to have a larger brain than australopithecine

  • Smaller face/jaw

  • Made tools

  • Handy person = Homo habilis

  • Lived about 2.5 million years ago




Homo Erectus

  • Larger, stronger than other hominids

  • Shorter arms, longer legs

  • Made spears, more tools

  • Mastered making fire

  • Lived about 1.9 million years ago

Homo sapiens

  • Lived about 200,000 years ago

  • Called the modern human




Prehistoric Poetry Booklet




Name :__________________________

Yes Ma’am
Is this an australopithecine? Yes Ma’am!

Is this an australopithecine? Yes Ma’am!

How do you know? Hands held things

How do you know? Walked on two legs

Give me some examples… Moved long distances
Give me some examples… Ate mostly plants
Is this homo habilis? Yes Ma’am!

Is this homo habilis? Yes Ma’am!

How do you know? “handy person”

How do you know? Larger brain

Give me some examples… First known toolmaker

Give me some examples… Did simple tasks


Is this homo erectus? Yes Ma’am!

Is this homo erectus? Yes Ma’am!

How do you know? Shorter arms

How do you know? Longer legs

Give me some examples… Flexible hands

Give me some examples… Mastered the use of fire


Is this homo sapien? Yes Ma’am!

Is this homo sapien? Yes Ma’am!

How do you know? “wise person”

How do you know? Fingers like ours

Give me some examples… Better communication

Give me some examples… Traveled long distances


Is this a Neanderthal? Yes Ma’am!

Is this a Neanderthal? Yes Ma’am!

How do you know? 5 to 6 feet tall

How do you know? Slightly larger brains

Give me some examples… Made and used tools

Give me some examples… Adapted to the environments

Did you tell me true? Yes Ma’am!

Is this chant through? Yes MA’AM!


-E. Sperling

5/19/09



Here, There


Hominids here, hominids there,

Hominids, hominids everywhere!


Strong hominids migrating,

Determined hominids hunting,

Clever hominids making tools,

and witty hominids creating fires.


Hominids in Africa

Hominids in Olduvai Gorge

Hominids near Lake Turkano

And hominids in Asia and Europe.


Hominids here, hominids there,

Hominids, hominids everywhere!

-E. Sperling

5/19/09



I Know an Early Human




I know an early human,

an ancient early human,

an ancient early human,

known in prehistory as an australopithecine.
The earliest early hominid

was discovered in 1974.

She was as “Lucy”

and was only about four feet tall


The fossils of australopithecines

were found in Africa.

These discoveries provide strong evidence

that human life began there.


-E.Sperling

5/19/09

Early Human Cadence


We don’t know what we’ve been told

The Paleolithic era is really old

It started with the finding of the first stone chipped tool

Homo habilis was no fool!


Sound off-early

Sound off-humans

Sound off -1, 2, 3, 4

Paleolithic Era!


It was also known as the Old Stone Age

Making tools was all the rage

Homo erectus mastered the use of fire

Staying warm, and protecting their hearts desire


Sound off-early

Sound off-hominids

Sound off-1, 2, 3, 4

Old Stone Age!
Archaeologists study the past

Found fossils in Africa’s grass

Early humans migrated to Europe and Asia too

During the Ice Age moving to where it’s warm was the thing to do


Sound off-early

Sound off-humans

Sound off-1, 2, 3, 4

Survival!
Homo sapiens appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago

With bigger skulls and brains-they had much more to know

They made tools from antlers and wood

Designed weapons to hunt what they could


Sound off-early

Sound off-modern

Sound off- 1, 2, 3, 4

Early modern humans!

-E. Sperling

5/19/09


Archaeologist BUGALOO!

I’m an archaeologist and I’m here to say

I excavate sites everyday

Sometimes I dig a plot

Sometimes I record a lot

But when I find a fossil, I’ll examine what I’ve got


Excavating, shoveling, labeling too,

Doing the archaeologist BUGALOO!


I clean and label everything I find

Then I send it to the lab for scientific research this time

When the artifacts are just too old

Radio carbon dating can give the story to be told

(for fossils 40,000 years or younger)

Estimating, measuring, testing too,

Doing the archaeologist BUGALOO!
I work at sites all over the world

Finding fossils to help educate boys and girls

The earliest human fossils were found

By the Leakey family in Africa’s ground


Discovering, studying, examining too,

Doing the archaeologist BUGALOO!


-E. Sperling

5/19/09





Name: _____________________________________


Home School Connection #1
Talk to your parents about the Paleolithic Era. Tell them about what started the Paleolithic era.

Parent signature: _______________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nombre: __________________________
Conexión entre Hogar y Escuela #1
Discute con sus padres el Paleolithic era. Diles lo que empezo el Paleolithic era.

Firma de padres: _______________________________________________________

Name:__________________________________
Home-School Connection #2
Tell your parents the story of Boy of the Painted Cave. Sketch or write what your favorite part was. How did it relate to what we are learning about in Social Studies?

Parent signature: ______________________________________________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nombre: __________________________
Conexión entre Hogar y Escuela #2
Discute con sus padres el cuento Boy of the Painted Cave. Dibuje algo de su parte favorito.

Firma de padres: _______________________________________________________

Name: ________________________________________
Home-School Connection #3

Tell your family about the Leakey family. What was their famous discovery? Sketch or write what you told them.

Parent signature: _______________________________________________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Nombre: __________________________
Conexión entre Hogar y Escuela #3

Dile a sus padres de la familia Leakey. Que era su discubramiento famosa? Dibuja o escribe loe que les dijiste.

Firma de padres: _______________________________________________________
Name: __________________________________
Home-School Connection #4
Discuss the different types of hominids that you have learned about. Which one do you find the most interesting. Sketch or write what you told them.

Parent signature: _______________________________________________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nombre: __________________________
Conexión entre Hogar y Escuela #4

Discute con tus papas los tipos diferentes de hominids de que tu aprendriste. Cual encontraste mas interestante? Dibuje o escribe lo que tu les dijiste.

Firma de padres: _______________________________________________________

Expert Groups


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