Project Number: P070871
Project Name: Burkina Faso: Sahel Integrated Lowland Ecosystem Management, Phase I
Duration: 1st phase as part of a 15-year APL: 10/01/2002 – 12/31/2006
Implementing Agency: World Bank
Responsible Agency: Ministry of Agriculture
Requesting Country: Burkina Faso
Eligibility: Burkina Faso ratified CBD on 02/09/1993; UNCCD on 26/01/1996 and UNFCCC on 02/09/1993
GEF Focal Area: Multi-focal with strong relevance to land degradation, biodiversity and climate change
GEF Programming Framework: Operational Program #12 on Integrated Ecosystem Management and Operational Program #13 on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity Important to Agriculture
2. Summary: The proposed Sahel Integrated Lowland Ecosystem Management (SILEM) Program is designed to contribute to strengthen the capacity of the rural population to reduce and alleviate, in a sustainable manner, poverty and vulnerability by strengthening their natural resource base and by addressing identified root causes for the currently occurring resource depletion and defavorable livelihood strategies. SILEM aims to provide rural communities with sustainable livelihood opportunities as to improve their economic productivity through increased sustainable livestock and crop production mainly in lowland ecosystems. The global environment objectives of the program SILEM, based on the promotion of a landscape and lowland ecosystem approach, would be to generate multiple and interconnected global environmental benefits such as : (a) to build capacity for sound and sustainable integrated ecosystem management planning and implementation at local, regional and national level; (b) to reduce, stop and reverse land degradation and desertification with adequate soil and water management technologies and infrastructures in lowland and surrounding uplands of micro-basins as a means for improving the productivity and sustainability of plant and animal production systems, and for protecting natural habitats of local and global importance; (c) strengthen the natural resource base by better conserving and maintaining (agro-) biodiversity at ecosystem, species and genetic level, (d) decrease of vulnerability to climate change (drought and other stress factors), (e) stop and reverse to some extent the deterioration of international waters (Volta and Comoe) and (f) establish adequate common and private property management regimes to secure adequate access rights to all users of natural resources, the poor in particular, so as to maintain and strengthen social and economic peace.
3. Costs and Financing (Million US$):
GEF: -Project: 4.50
Subtotal GEF: 4.84
-Other International: 7.52
-Local communities: 2.20
Subtotal Co-Financing: 20.52
Total Project Cost: 25.36
Associated Funding 94.82
Total Program Cost 120.18
4. Operational Focal Point endorsement:
Name: J.B Kambou
Organization: Ministry of environment and Water
Title: Advisor to the Minister
Date: March 7, 2002
5. IA Contact:
Christophe Crepin, Regional Coordinator Africa
Tel. # 202-473 firstname.lastname@example.org
A. Program Purpose and Project Development Objective
1. Program purpose and program phasing:
Burkina Faso like many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has developed several long-term national strategies and action plans for environmental protection and natural resource management, such as the National Environment Action Plan (NEAP), the National Biological Diversity strategy and monograph, the National Desertification Mitigation Action Plan (PAN/LCD), the National Soil Fertility Management Strategy and Action Plan (PAGIFS), the national framework for climate change mitigation, national forestry strategies and national water plans, etc. All of the above plans and strategies recognize that they can be most effectively implemented only through adequate national policies, decentralized institutions and grass-root level activities that are demand-driven and managed by communities. To implement its poverty reduction strategy, the Government of Burkina Faso has launched a long-term National Program for Decentralized Rural Development (PNDRD) and has received the financial support of IDA to implement such a program through the Community-Based Rural Development Project (CBRDP, Credit #3436-BUR, credit agreement signed in June 2001).
The program SILEM originates from the idea that the Global Environment Facility (GEF) could seize the opportunity offered by the nationwide community-driven development (CDD) program to increase the capacity of the Government of Burkina Faso to implement elements of its national and global environmental strategies and action plans, especially those related to the focal areas of GEF, by providing, through a GEF financial window within the community-driven project (CBRDP), ear-marked funds to: (i) provide rural communities with greater incentives to request and implement environmental protection sub-projects;(ii) assist the Government to establish adequate decentralized environmental protection institutions and to undertake necessary policy reforms, all of which would contribute to the implementation of the national and global environment and NRM strategies and action plans.
The rationale for supplemental funding of the CDD operation by GEF is that under CBRDP alone, communities are more likely to express demands for social and income-generating activities rather than for local and global environment protection related activities, because of market failure (environmental externalities not internalized in economic decisions), because of high time discount rates that render private short-term costs greater than benefits, etc. Resources from a GEF window could therefore help to temporarily lower the private costs and risks for communities to engage in environment protection activities and thereby provide them with a greater incentive to express demands for local and global environment related activities.
It was also realized that in the semi-arid conditions of Burkina Faso, the lowlands which possess greater water retention capacities than uplands have greater potentials for contributing to poverty reduction and to environmental protection (e.g. greater biological activities and biomass production/carbon sequestration potentials), and that improvement of lowlands would subsequently facilitate the improvement of uplands, via accumulation of capital and experience at the community level. The proposed project could then focus primarily on lowlands in order to have greater and more rapid impact in the short to long terms across the landscapes of Burkina Faso.
The proposed program SILEM is inspired by and designed under the Operational Program No 12 (OP12) of GEF, (the Integrated Ecosystems Management Program). It aims at providing local and central governments as well as rural communities with an adequate capacity for integrated lowland ecosystem management (IEM) as a means for improving sustainably and in an integrated fashion their natural resource base, for reducing poverty and vulnerability.
The SILEM Program is designed to supplement the Community Based Rural Development Program (CBRDP), hereto referred to as the base program, by filling some of its gaps. These include: (i) the lack of integrated lowland ecosystem management plans, as a basis for local investment decisions during the participatory diagnosis process, thus lack of instruments to insure an optimal utilization and management of natural resources, ecosystems and their interactions, at local (micro-basin), regional (watershed) and international (river basin) levels; (ii) the lack of mechanisms to promote key elements of the national and global environment action plans for their implementation within CBRDP or PNDRD, for example, the promotion of (agro-) bio-diversity ; (iii) the lack of investment in technical innovations that can significantly improve the sustainability of the natural resource and environmental investments of CBRDP, because they are unknown and unproven to the rural communities. SILEM could promote needed NRM innovations by covering their initial testing and implementation risks so as to jumpstart their widespread utilization in the medium to long term; (iv) the lack of support to private NRM/IEM enterprises with potential local and global benefits, not eligible for funding under CBRDP, SILEM could also cover the initial risks of such enterprises so as to jumpstart their widespread adoption; (v) the lack of a sufficiently enabling policy and regulatory environment for integrated ecosystem management; (vi) the lack of sustainable funding mechanisms for CDD, NRM and environmental protection in general.
By filling such gaps within CBRDP, SILEM aims to contribute to the four focal areas of GEF as outlined in OP 12, by removing pressure on fragile lowland ecosystems as to combat land degradation and desertification; promoting bio-diversity at ecosystem, species and genetic level, to decrease vulnerability and promote adaptation measures for climate change and lastly by protecting international waters.
The program SILEM is a fifteen-year APL-type program with three phases: (i) one four-year phase of testing of program components and instruments in selected 100 lowland village sites; (ii) a second phase of confirmation and consolidation in additional 200 lowland village sites, that is expected to last five years and (iii) finally, a third phase of expansion and replication in additional 300 lowland village sites expected to last about six years. This phasing allows the program SILEM to provide incremental support to each one of the three phases of CBRDP from 2002 to 2016.
The 600 intervention sites of SILEM over its lifetime (compared to the 8000 villages of Burkina Faso) will serve mainly as activity test and demonstration sites for CBRDP and PNDRD. The supplementary activities proposed under SILEM will be tested in the 600 villages with initial risks covered by the GEF funding. Once such activities and technologies are proven useful and their benefits well known to rural communities, they are likely to be demanded and adopted by the latter in other non-SILEM villages covered by CBRDP and PNDRD. The GEF grant would then serve for testing and sensitizing purposes, and will create in the long run a greater demand for the CBRDP.
2. Project development objective: (see Annex 1)
The basic development objective of the program SILEM is to strengthen the capacity of rural communities to undertake an integrated management of their lowland ecosystems, so as to stop and reverse the degradation of their natural resource base, and thereby alleviate, in a sustainable manner, poverty and vulnerability (see annex 4, table 1)
Global environment objective
The specific global environment objectives of the program SILEM would be to generate multiple and interconnected global environmental benefits such as: (a) to build capacity for sound and sustainable integrated ecosystem management planning and implementation at local, regional and national level; (b) to reduce, stop and reverse land degradation and desertification with adequate and innovative soil and water management technologies and infrastructures in lowlands as a means for improving the productivity and sustainability of plant and animal production systems, and for protecting natural habitats of local and global importance; (c) strengthen the natural resource base by better conserving and maintaining (agro-) biodiversity at ecosystem, species and genetic level, (d) decrease of vulnerability to climate change (drought and other stress factors), (e) stop and reverse to some extent the deterioration of international waters (Volta, Niger and Comoe) and (f) establish adequate common and private property management regimes to secure adequate access rights to all users of natural resources, the poor in particular, so as to maintain and strengthen social and economic peace.
3. Key performance indicators: (see Annex 1)
The performance of the program SILEM will be assessed through changes in the following indicators in intervention areas compared with non-intervention areas, and also over time for some of them. The linkages with specific component related objectives are shown in the project design summary in Annex 1.
The following indicators will be common to all three phases of the Program, as the second and third phases are mainly designed to scale-up geographically the activities of the first phase
Proportion of rural communities with integrated lowland ecosystem management plans under implementation
Strengthened policy, legal and institutional framework for integrated ecosystem management.
Increase in land surface with improved innovative and sustainable soil and water management infrastructure and agricultural practices as adopted by rural communities
Decrease in land conflicts (crop growers versus pastoralists, landlords vs. tenants)
Positive changes in biological diversity indicators at lowland ecosystem, species and genetic level
Decrease in vulnerability to climate change factors (drought) through increase in use of suitable adaptation measures
Positive changes in soil restoration parameters (declining erosion/soil loss, acidification, salinity, etc.)
Improved quality of international waters and protection of their shared basins
Increase in average rural income and particularly in the income of the rural poor and decline in inter-annual rural income variation (proxy for assessing vulnerability )
Increase in average crop and livestock yields per hectare and per day of work
An additional learning indicator such as the following will be assessed for moving from one phase to the other:
11. The number of amendments to the manual of procedures from one phase to the other.
B. Strategic Context
1. Sector-related Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) goal supported by the project: (see Annex 1)
Click here to get to the CAS Document
Document number: 21285-BUR Date of latest CAS discussion: 11/03/2000
1.1 This program SILEM will support the CAS objective of supporting opportunities for employment and income-generating activities for the poor (pages 13 and 18). It will in particular contribute to an increase in the productivity of rural assets (labor and land) through the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources (page 14).
1.2 The CAS also clearly and specifically mentions (page 19, paragraph 74) that this GEF-supported operation (SILEM) will be prepared as a 15-year APL to enhance the impact of the Community-Based Rural Development APL (CBRDP) on the national and global environment.
1a. Global Operational strategy/Program objective addressed by the project:
1a1 From a global environmental perspective, the proposed program SILEM aims to achieve synergies between several global objectives and GEF focal areas as outlined in the GEF Operational Programs #OP 12 on Integrated Ecosystem Management as well as #OP 13 on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity Important to Agriculture. Burkina Faso, one of the most vulnerable and less adaptable regions to global warming, faces serious land degradation and consequently loss of habitats and species, resulting in particular in loss in soil productivity, increased vulnerability of local communities to climate change related effects as drought and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, the recognition, understanding and use of linkages between land degradation and climate change; land degradation and its destructive impact on biodiversity, in particular agro biodiversity; and land degradation and international waters related to water quality (up-stream erosion, agrochemical pollution) and shared basins in any intervention are key requirements for integrated ecosystem management. The need to involve local communities in resource and ecosystem management in a more integrated manner is clearly reflected in the national environmental action plans and strategies of Burkina Faso, as well as in decisions from the Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and corresponds to the strategic objectives of the GEF OP#12 and OP#13. Furthermore, the December 2001 GEF Council Meeting decided to designate land degradation as a new GEF focal area. The design of the program SILEM follows in this regard the above listed objectives, priorities and guidance provided by the conventions and GEF.
2. Main sector issues and Government strategy:
Rural natural resource base and environmental issues
Erratic and declining rainfalls
Burkina Faso as a semi arid country is subject to low, erratic and declining rainfalls, particularly in its northern Sahel region. The country as a whole has suffered several drought periods and consequent famines since the 1970s to date
Land degradation and desertification
The deterioration of the natural resource base, in particular land degradation and desertification is the main environmental issue facing the Burkina rural economy. The consequence of which has been during the last three decades an increase in anthropic pressures on natural habitats and ecosystems that has resulted in an increase in poverty among rural communities, migration patterns, increased loss of soil and arable land, loss of biological diversity, increased vulnerability to climate change and loss of natural carbon sinks, as well as a deterioration of international waters along the Volta and Comoe rivers (see annex 4, table 1 for threats, root causes and mitigation measures).
The processes of land degradation and desertification have led to severe declines in arable lands as well as to a severe decline in agricultural productivity. About 20 percent of arable lands have been lost to agriculture during the past three decades, and yields have declined by 50 to 100 percent. In addition, due to the high dependency of agricultural production on highly variable rainfalls, the variability of agricultural output and incomes have increased as a result of the natural resource base degradation, thereby increasing the economic vulnerability of the poor
National Strategies and Action Plans
The government has developed specific strategies and action plans to deal with the issues of soil fertility and land degradation, desertification, loss of biodiversity, and deforestation. They include:
the National Environment Action Plan (NEAP);
the National Soil Fertility Management Strategy and Action Plan (Strategie Nationale et Plan d’Action de Gestion Integree de la Fertilite des Sols: SNGIFS/PAGIFS of January 1999) which has been presented by the Government in its Document Operational Strategique (DOS) as its top priority action plan for the agricultural sector. The national soil fertility management strategy and action plan focuses mainly on replenishment of soil nutrients in the Sahel and on the Mossi plateau using the local rock phosphate (Burkina Phosphate),
National Desertification Action Plan (PAN/LCD(07/99)): one of the major roles of the PAN/LCD is to encourage promote and stimulate process of participatory and decentralized planning (i.e., elaboration process of Local Development programs) and the use of the community based development approach as the most effective approach for combating desertification
National Biodiversity Strategy ( 2001) and the National Biodiversity Monograph (1999)
NPLM: National Program for Land Management (aims at integrating agriculture, forestry and fisheries)
NVFP: National Village Forestry Program
The National Desertification Mitigation Action Plan (PAN/LCD)
The priority domains of intervention of the Plan include:
Sustainable management of natural resources
Improvement of the living conditions of the rural and semi-urban population
the creation of an enabling policy- legal- and institutional environment
the development of competences
scientific and technical cooperation
strengthening of the economic and negotiation capacities of vulnerable groups
The National Soil Fertility Management Action Plan
The main actions proposed are:
Increase investment in the production of agro-minerals (rock phosphate, lime)
facilitate the processing of industrial and urban wastes into organic fertilizers
facilitate the transformation of crop wastes and residues into organic fertilizers
Promote the participatory development of technologies adapted to various agro-ecological and economic conditions;
extension of adapted technological packages towards various social groups
The National Strategy and Action Plan for Biological Diversity
Proposed actions for the conservation of biological diversity are:
Increase the participation of local communities in conservation activities with particular attention to women as users of biological resources and as transfer agents of knowledge to the youth;
development of agro-sylvo-pastoralism
improve the organizational capacity and increase the literacy rate of communities for them to better take into consideration conservation activities
intensify the search, inventory and collection of varieties of agricultural and forestry species for their conservation
promote political and administrative decentralization
preservation of fragile or threatened ecosystems of pronounced global and national interest
strengthening of the land management and land use planning process
reinforce the struggle against poverty
put in place a framework for prevention of bio-diversity related risks
3. Sector issues to be addressed by the project and strategic choices:
The main sector issue to be addressed by the Program is the deterioration of the natural resource base of the Burkina rural economy, in particular land degradation and desertification. The land being the carrier and nurturer of ecosystems and biological activities, the mother of all natural resources, improving the land degradation issue will necessarily help advance closely interlinked NRM issues.
The program SILEM will help the government with the implementation of key elements of the above listed IEM related strategies and action plans at the local or decentralized community as well as national level. In particular:
The strengthening of the land management and land use planning process (#7, Biodiversity AP)
Promote the participatory development of technologies adapted to various agro-ecological and economic conditions (#4, soil fertility AP)
intensify the search, inventory and collection of varieties of agricultural and forestry species for their conservation (#4, Biodiversity AP)
Increase the participation of local communities in conservation activities with particular attention to women as users of biological resources and as transfer agents of knowledge to the youth (#1, Biodiversity AP);
Increase investment in the production of agro-minerals (rock phosphate, lime) (Soil fertility AP)
facilitate the processing of industrial and urban wastes into organic fertilizers (Soil fertility AP)
extension of adapted technological packages towards various social groups (Soil fertility AP)
the creation of an enabling policy- legal- and institutional environment (Desertification AP)
the development of competences (Desertification AP)
strengthening of the economic and negotiation capacities of vulnerable groups
3.3 By focusing on lowland ecosystems as entry points, the program SILEM attempts strategically to assist the poor to first stabilize its most reliable resource base (lowlands) where moisture availability is highest and least variable, with improved and integrated land management systems and technologies. The expected increase in productivity will generate savings, a capital and experience accumulation process that will help the poor to stop land degradation also on uplands, in the medium to long run, and thereby improve the sustainability of dryland and wetland agricultural production systems in general across the country.
4. Program description and performance triggers for subsequent loans:
4.1 Program Description
The corner stones of the program SILEM will be:
(i) capacity building for adequate integrated (lowland) ecosystem management, at local, regional and national levels using micro-basin-, watershed-, and river basin- management planning tools;
(FN: Integrated lowland ecosystem management is here defined as natural resource management aiming to maintain in particular the condition of the lower positioned and most humid lands in view of their multiple functions as sub-components of larger local, national and international ecosystems. The following four major interacting functions of the lowlands indicate their keystone role in the functioning of larger ecosystems and justify their selection as entry points to support overall integrated ecosystem management withing the context of a broader national rural development program:
(a) the relatively high potential for stable and increased agricultural productivity related to the moisture availability and most favorable soil conditions,
(b) the crucial role as dry season water and fodder providers for local and migrating human populations, livestock and wildlife,
(c) the inclusion and/or proximity of particularly valued and less common natural habitats such as gallery forest, sacred forests, nature reserves and wetlands,
(d) the role of many lowlands as water collection sources for international waters.)
(ii) Promotion or marketing of enabling environment (policies, institutions, etc.) and investment activities proposed in the national NRM/environmental action plans, for effective implementation of some of them under CBRDP and PNDRD;
(iii) promotion of innovative soil fertility restoration techniques for sustainable land use intensification on a portion of the arable lands so as to spare marginal lands and natural habitats from destruction and/or degradation; this includes: (a) the promotion of innovative conservation agriculture techniques with initial significant financial risks such as zero or minimum tillage, and of cropping-livestock husbandry- fishing integration techniques, as sustainable agricultural intensification technologies; (b) the promotion of agro-biodiversity in order to improve the sustainability and adaptability of rural production systems;
(vi) Promotion and funding of private-sector and community-based NRM and environmental enterprises, not eligible under CBRDP;
(v) Promotion of sustainable funding mechanisms for CDD, NRM and global environment protection;
(vi) Support to civil society pressure groups (CBOs), local and central governments for effective NRM/Env policy dialog and institution building; .
The program SILEM will initially, during its first phase, focus its attention primarily on the lowlands of the Sahel provinces as entry points as well as on the lowlands located in the neighborhoods of natural habitats of global importance across the country (see maps and tables in Annex 1). As related to the particularly valued habitats, these are known to include a significant portion of the native species traditionally used as sources for fodder, food, household energy, construction material and medicinal and veterinary care. Accordingly, they are relatively rich in biodiversity while they also have a relatively high carbon storage capacity. The program SILEM will selectively intervene in some adjacent uplands if needed to stabilize the management of lowland ecosystems.
The success of the program SILEM depends on a successful achievement of the political and administrative decentralization process. Communities will have to get organized and gradually learn to manage their own development by doing. Thus a need for flexibility and chances for adaptation to unpredictable circumstances using an adaptable program loan approach (APL). Phase 1 will consequently be a phase of learning or capacity building in the areas of governance, economic management and most importantly integrated ecosystem management (IEM) through a landscape approach at the local and regional levels. Pilot investment program implementation activities will take place as well during the first phase in about 100 villages, particularly in lowland areas around global environment hot spots across the country (see Tables and maps in Annex 1). Consolidation of experience and lessons learned is expected to take place during the second phase in 200 additional villages. Phase 3 will consist of a rapid expansion of activities to additional 300 villages using lessons learned during the first two phases to speed up program implementation.
4.2 Performance Triggers for Subsequent Loans
From Phase 1 to Phase 2
The following triggers will be set for moving from Phase 1 to Phase 2 of the program SILEM:
(i) Phase 1 evaluation results for both CBRDP and this program (SILEM) are satisfactory, with a particular emphasis on the following:
Community based organizations are in effect and are involved in IEM at the community or micro-basin level with legal recognition in at least 60% of the Phase 1 project sites;
There are well developed and effective IEM planning and implementation tools and capacity building instruments at the end of Phase 1;
IEM Policy and institutional reforms identified as necessary for creating a good enabling environment for integrated ecosystem management are in effect (e.g., land tenure security, cropping and livestock integration incentives, inputs policy reforms, etc)
There are well identified possibilities, instruments or mechanisms for south-north sustainable IEM financing partnership contracts;
There is a well performing implementation and impact M&E system;
Monitoring and Evaluation results confirm positive impact on lowland ecosystems and global environment, such as positive effects on soil conservation, on desertification, on biodiversity (hot-spots and protected habitats), on vulnerability/adaptation and on protection of international waters.
(ii) The Phase 2 triggers of CBRDP are satisfied;
(iii) There are well identified intervention sites for Phase 2;
(iv) There are well identified service providers and terms of contract for Phase 2;
(v) Definition of an exit strategy (after lifetime of SILEM) to increase reliability effects and cost-efficiency by building on reduced need in the medium-long term for capacity building and capacity reform.
From Phase 2 to Phase 3
Similar triggers will be set for moving from Phase 2 to Phase 3 and will include:
Phase 2 evaluation results for both CBRDP and this program (SILEM) are satisfactory;
CBRDP triggers for moving from Phase 2 to Phase 3 are satisfied
There are well identified intervention sites for Phase 3;
Phase 2 M&E results have consistently demonstrated a likely positive effects or impact of the program SILEM on integrated ecosystem management patterns and global environmental benefits.
C. Program and Project Description Summary
1. Project components (see Annex 1):
The Base Project The Community-Based Rural Development Project (CBRDP)
The Burkina Faso Community-Based Rural development Project (CBRDP) is the base project to which the Project (first phase of the Program SILEM) will provide incremental support. It is a community-driven development (CDD) project with local investment funds managed by the communities targeting to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in rural areas. CBRDP is funded by an IDA APL supplemented by additional funds from IFAD, Denmark, Norway, etc. The whole program is expected to be implemented in all 45 provinces over a 15-year period, consisting of three 5-year phases. Each of these phases will be designed flexibly. In the first phase (2001 – 2006), CBRDP will intervene in 26 provinces with an ambitious target of 2,000 villages. In the second phase an additional 2,000 villages would follow (2006-2010). The overall national program (PNDRD) funded by several donors is expected to cover about two-thirds (5,000) of the 8,000 villages in Burkina Faso during the first phase of CBRDP. All villages in the country are expected to be covered by the PNDRD by the end of the second phase of CBRDP. In addition to investment tranches to finance micro-projects executed by the village communities themselves with the help of local service providers, CBRDP will act as a financier of last resort for other community-based development projects operating in provinces outside its direct intervention zone.
[Note: the terminology "Program" refers to the long term (15 years) APL program, while the terminology "Project" refers to the first phase (4-5 years) of the program]
The Five Project components
The baseline project (CBRDP) has the following five components. SILEM will provide incremental support to each one of the five components as described below:
(1) local capacity building,
(2) local investment fund,
(3) Institutional capacity building,
(4) land tenure security pilot and
(5) program coordination,
in the following manner:
Component I: Local Capacity Building
A. Local Capacity Building under the IDA-funded Baseline CBRDP
The local capacity building elements of the baseline project include:
1. Awareness raising .
It includes all communications, promotions, information activities. It aims to disseminate the project objectives, explain the modalities for participation and encourage the regrouping of villages into village clusters. It supports the emergence, the organization and the training of the Comité Villageois de Gestion de Terroir (CVGT) and the Comité Inter-Villageois de Gestion de Terroirs (CIVGT) , which are the local governance organizations at the village terroir and inter-terroir levels under the decentralization process. The emergence, the organization and the training of sub-committees of these organizations for specific activities ( the Comités d’Action Spécifique (CAS)) are also supported by the base program. It also provides an awareness-raising program about HIV/AIDS, an alphabetization program is also undertaken to accompany the establishment and strengthening of local level organizations.
2. Technical support to community organizations.
Technical support is provided to the CVGT and the CAS for carrying out their annual investment plans. This support was provided by provincial teams under the previous project but will be increasingly delegated to third parties (service providers) when and where capacity exists. The service providers support the community organizations in preparing project proposals, in selecting contractors, in supervising the execution of projects, in setting up maintenance programs and mechanisms for cost recovery.
B. The GEF-funded SILEM support (27% of total GEF funds)
The incremental local capacity building elements that SILEM will provide include:
Integrated Ecosystem Management
The Project SILEM will provide local communities and local governments with IEM planning tools such as GIS maps of micro-basins, watersheds and river basins and with an inventory of all natural resources that are of local and global importance. The construction of the GIS data-base was initiated during project preparation and will be completed during project implementation. A group of experts (from INERA, IGB, CONAGESE, Ministry of Planning, etc) will provide planning guidelines or base-plans and will train the PCU staff and service providers to use the GIS maps (hard copies and video formats) to assist communities to plan for an integrated management of their ecosystems during the participatory diagnosis process which leads to integrated local development plans. By using such planning tools the communities will, with adequate technical advice from the service providers, be able to better visualize their natural resource base and related stakeholders (social groups) across space and time, and to better plan for the management of their natural resource base in a more holistic and integrated fashion, with optimal or near-optimal allocations of land and water resources to various uses, so as to maximize social, economic and environmental outputs, and to minimize negative externalities.
The integrated ecosystem management (IEM) planning approach that such tools will promote is likely to result in more ecologically sound community-based organizations, grouping of villages into clusters and rural municipalities according to their ecosystem base, more ecologically sound locations and design of social and economic infrastructures such as clinics, roads, schools and better conservation measures and decisions (land and water management infrastructures, forests,, etc..) This will constitute a significant incremental contribution of the Project to CBRDP that will help to maximize both economic, social, and environmental (including global) benefits. The Project will pilot the use of the GIS tools in its intervention sites (100 in first phase), but will provide the training to all service providers and CVGTs of CBRDP for use in non-SILEM villages as well.
2.. Information and Education relative to National Environment Strategies and Action Plans
The Project will, in collaboration with the National Environment Management Council (CONAGESE) educate policy makers and the general public, rural communities in particular, on environment issues and solutions proposed in the national and global environmental strategies and action plans using the following types of activities: workshops, theatrical plays in villages, video productions, publications in local languages, introduction in school curricula, study tours of CVGTs for exchange of experience between communities, etc. The main purpose of the information and education campaign will be to instruct the demand of communities and local governments for activities that can be financed by the Local Investment Fund (LIF). The Project SILEM will assist communities and local governments with the identification, drafting and presentation of local investment proposals that would contribute to the implementation of elements of the national and global environmental strategies and action plans that are related to integrated lowland ecosystems management.
3. Sustainable IEM financing capacity building
(i) International South-North Sustainable IEM-financing Partnerships ( Finance Facilitation Office)
In order to insure sustainability of its achievements at the end of the fifteen years period the Project will assist and train community leaders with respect for mobilization of national and international funds for environmental protection and local development. . The Project will support a Partnership and Finance Facilitation Office (PFO) (or public relation office) within the PCU or an equivalent contractor. The latter will initiate and support contacts between the communities and potential environmental management and business partners such as the local and international private sectors, NGOs, northern hemisphere cities, bilateral donor agencies, etc and help the parties reach mutually benefic contractual arrangements. The PFO will also explore opportunities for partnerships offered by the Kyoto Protocol and in general the Convention on Climate Change, in particular partnership opportunities offered by the emerging carbon trade markets and other mechanisms (twinning, etc.) that rural communities and NRM institutions in Burkina Faso could benefit from. The PFO will also provide training and tools to the CVGTs, central and local governments, policy makers, to enable them to effectively engage in global financial resources mobilization and in global environmental negotiations
(ii) Local IEM Financing Mechanisms
The Project will through its partnership and finance facilitation office (PFO) help private and communal promoters of IEM commercial activities to acquire adequate funding by helping them temporarily to cover initial financial risks through mechanisms such as credit lines, guarantee funds, etc, via local decentralized financial institutions. The Project will assist with the initial funds (seed money) of revolving funds schemes that can benefit several communities or private sector operators and jump-start a local sustainable IEM financing system. The Project will similarly contribute to local and national IEM public funds that are capable of making significant contributions to a sustainable financing of IEM (e.g. desertification mitigation fund or environment fund). Fiscal tools or mechanisms that can help local governments mobilize resources to finance IEM will also be designed and implemented under the Project.
Component II. Local Investment Funds (LIF)