Project #5 – V for Vendetta directions you will view, analyze, and critique the film, V for Vendetta



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I. Rise of Absolutism (14 points)

a. From approximately 1600-1650 what was going on in France?


b. Do you remember how well the Monarchy was able to control the situation?


c. The foundation for Louis XIV’s political __was laid by two advisers .


d. How did Richelieu and Mazarin help Louis XIV rule with absolute authority?


e. How would Richelieu limit the newly gained political rights/privileges of Protestants?


f. How do you believe the French nobles would react to power being taken away from them and centralized under the

Monarchy?


g. What lessons would Louis XIV learn from the Fronde?

Years of Personal Rule








    • He appointed no chief minister




      • Nobles who disagreed with Louis had to take him on directly (couldn’t go after a lower ranking minister)




  • Louis devoted a lot of energy to politics




    • He had councils control foreign affairs, the army, domestic issues, & economy









      • Louis made sure that nobles would benefit from his authority




  • He controlled foreign affairs & limited influence of nobles on monarchy, but he never interfered with noble’s local authority








    • Louis did, however, clash with Parlement of Paris (it had right to register royal laws)










II. Years of Personal Rule (12 points)

  1. Louis XIV would rule France with no __.


  1. Why would Louis XIV want no chief minister?


  1. How did Louis XIV rule?


  1. How did he choose the advisors?


  1. Louis XIV made sure that __ power was never limited at the __level.


  1. Why would Louis XIV not limit nobles’ local authority?

Versailles






    • Louis loved to impress the French people (and nobles) with symbols




      • Example:



    • He also dominated nobles by outspending them (putting on greater social displays than even richest noble)


The Palace

  • The most important aspect of the monarchy’s image was the palace at Versailles (was largest secular structure in Europe)









      • Built from 1676-1708 outside Paris




      • Became Louis’s permanent home after 1682








      • It housed 1000s of the most important nobles, officials, and servants




      • Stables alone held 12,000 horses




  • Some nobles had to pay to stay there (causing many to lose everything) or they relied on royal patronage














    • But it paid off politically


The Court of Louis XIV

  • Louis ruled personally – so all favors & patronage came directly from him











      • Nobles woke him up, dressed him, even held candle to escort him to bed




      • While they did this, they talked about government affairs & politics








Nobles Outside Versailles

  • Some nobles avoided Versailles – they stayed in their local areas




  • Others were too poor to afford to stay there




  • But they all knew that Louis would not interfere in a noble’s local authority








III. Versailles (12 points)

  1. How did Louis XIV use propaganda and money to reaffirm his authority?


  1. The main image of the monarchies riches and power was the __.



  1. How did Louis XIV use Versailles to control the nobility?


  1. What was life like at Versailles?


  1. Did all nobles live at Versailles?


  1. How did Versailles help Louis XIV politically?

King by Divine Right








      • To support his argument, he used verses from Old Testament in which kings were appointed by & answered only to God




        • Popes had said only God could judge a pope









      • Kings must reflect God’s will in their rule, but therefore cannot be bound to the same laws & boundaries as other men









  • Despite his power, Louis did not exert total control over his people like a dictator




    • He was absolutist only in certain matters – war & peace, regulating religion, overseeing the economy















IV. King by Divine Right (14 points)

  1. Where did Louis XIV’s ideas of Divine right come from?


  1. What historical evidence did Bousset use to justify divine right?


  1. How did this concept of Divine Right affect the King’s power?



  1. Was Louis XIV a tyrant like 19th and 20th century rulers?



  1. Where would one likely see him exert his authority?

f. Underneath absolutism did local institutions, controlled by nobles and townspeople lose their authority underneath absolutism?


  1. How long would this political arrangement last?

Louis’s Early Wars








    • Because of economic policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis could afford to raise & maintain a large army




    • His main foreign policy goal was not world domination – it was to secure international boundaries for France




      • He especially wanted to protect France’s borders –



      • Louis’s protection of his country, however, worried surrounding countries






  • Louis XIV’s early wars were with Spain and the Netherlands




    • 1st was War of the Devolution


      • He argued that through complicated legal arrangements, they should have “devolved” on her












        • In treaty ending war, he took control of towns bordering Spanish Netherlands




    • 1670, England & France became allies against Netherlands –









      • William III of Orange made an alliance with Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Lorraine, and Brandenburg against Louis




      • War ended with no clear victor – Peace of Nijmwegen (France gained more territory, including Franche-Comte)


V. Louis’s Early Wars (16 points)

a. By the late 1660’s __ was greater than any other European nation.


b. Due to the __ policies of __ Louis had a strong and large army.


c. What was Louis XIV’s main foreign policy goal?


d. Why did other European nations feel the need to form alliances against Louis?


e. Why did Louis XIV invade Flanders and French-Comte?


f. Who would defeat him?


g. France would invade the Dutch again this time with the __ helping when they signed the __.

h. Dutch under the Prince of Orange signed alliance with Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Lorraine and Brandenburg the war ended with __ side winning.

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies



  • Louis believed if you wanted political unity & stability, you needed religious conformity







Suppression of the Jansenists

  • French crown & French Catholic Church had long guarded their independence (“Gallican Liberties”) from pope’s authority




    • But after Henry IV became Catholic 1593, Jesuits (loyal to pope) took over education of upper-class men in France









  • Catholic religious movement called Jansenism started 1630s in response to rising authority of Jesuits




    • Jansenists lived by teachings of St. Augustine









      • Believed original sin so corrupted mankind that there was nothing an individual could do to achieve salvation




    • Founder of the movement –




      • Criticized Jesuit teaching about grace and salvation as immoral









      • So they were dedicated Catholics, but they acted similar to Puritans







  • 1653, Pope Innocent X declared 5 Jansenist religious ideas on grace & salvation to be heretical









    • Jansenists now either abandoned their ideas or went into hiding




  • 1713, Pope Clement XI issued the bull Unigenitus




    • Louis XIV told the French church to accept pope’s order




      • This contradicted the king’s long tradition of protecting Gallican Liberties









    • After death of Louis XIV, Parlement of Paris & other French authorities would stand up against the monarchy




    • These courts & the Jansenists then had something in common –




      • Jansenism’s moral image also contrasted with the immorality & corruption of French royal court


Revocation of the Edict of Nantes





    • There were 1.75 million French Huguenots in 1660s (out of 18 million people), but numbers were declining




      • French Catholic church supported their persecution








    • His mistress (and later 2nd wife) – Madame de Maintenon – influenced his decision (she was a fanatical Catholic)












      • 1681, he bullied them by quartering French troops in their towns




  • 1685, Louis finally revoked Edict of Nantes –




    • Protestant churches & schools closed, ministers exiled, nonconverting laity were sentenced to be galley slaves, & Protestant children were baptized by Catholic priests









    • Protestants all over Europe were completely against Louis









    • France now became symbol of religious repression



VI. Louis Repressive Religious Policies (14 points)

a. What are Gallican liberties?

b. How did Henry IV affect these liberties?


c. What were Jansenists?


d. How did Louis XIV deal with the Jansenists in France?


e. Why was this a political mistake for Louis XIV to persecute the Jansenists?


f. Why did Louis XIV revoke the Edict of Nantes?


g. How was the revocation a mistake in the eyes of other European powers?

Louis’s Later Wars






  • His armies continued to scout outside France’s borders


The League of Augsburg and the Nine Years’ War

  • 1681, Louis’s forces occupied Strasbourg – causing new alliances to form against him




    • One was the League of Augsburg



      • Habsburg emperor (Leopold I) also supported the league




    • 1689-1697, France battled with League of Augsburg in Nine Years’ War







I. The League of Augsburg and the Nine Years’ War (8 points)

a. What is the League of Augsburg?


b. What did it do?

c. Who won the fighting?


d. The __ ended the war and __ Holland’s borders and stopped Louis from going into __.

War of the Spanish Succession






    • Before he died, negotiations began to divide his inheritance to maintain balance of power




    • But Charles left inheritance to Louis’s grandson Philip of Anjou –




      • Spain’s trade & empire in America now seemingly belonged to France




  • 1701, England, Holland, Holy Roman Empire formed Grand Alliance to preserve balance of power












    • France went to war for first time in Louis’s reign without enough money, a badly equipped army, & bad generals








      • John Churchill – Duke of Marlborough – beat Louis’s soldiers in every big battle









    • France made peace with Utrecht 1713 & with Holland & Holy Roman Empire 1714









    • England took over Gibraltar and island of Minorca (powerful in Mediterranean now)




    • Louis also recognized the right of House of Hanover to English throne


II. War of the Spanish Succession (16 points)

a. Hapsburg King of Spain __ dies without male or femaile heirs.


b. Charles II left his kingdom to Louis XIV’s __ Philip of Anjou who would change his name to Philip V of Spain.


c. How would this benefit France economically?


d. The __ consisting of England, Holland and the Holy Roman Empire was created to keep the __in Europe.


e. France would not be __ for this war.


f. England would be ready. They had __ and were led by John Churchill the Duke of Marlborough.


g. The war ended with nobody winning. France and England sign the Peace Treaty of __.


h. What were the results of the peace treaty?
France After Louis XIV

  • Despite not performing well in War of the Spanish Succession, France remained a great power











  • Louis XIV was succeeded by his great-grandson (5 years-old) –




    • His uncle – duke of Orleans – became regent until he died 1720








John Law and the Mississippi Bubble

  • Duke of Orleans put John Law in charge of financial management of France









    • He set up bank in Paris that issued paper money




    • Law then set up the Mississippi Company




      • Mississippi Company also took over management of France’s national debt




      • Company issued shares of its stock in exchange for government bonds (cheap)








  • 1719, price of stock rose




    • Good investors took their profits – sold their stock for paper money from Law’s bank









    • But bank didn’t have enough gold to exchange for all paper money brought in









    • Law then left France




    • Mississippi Bubble – as this scandal was called – had burst











Renewed Authority of the Parlements

  • Duke of Orleans made another decision that weakened monarchy









      • Set up councils – nobles & bureaucrats would both serve on




      • But years at Versailles had left many nobles unwilling or unable to govern




  • But nobles now decided to use their power to try to limit power of monarchy








      • Duke of Orleans reversed policy of Louis XIV - reinstituted power of Parlement of Paris to allow or disallow laws




  • Over time, local parlements appealed to average citizens









    • Soon, Parlements instead of monarchy seemed to represent the nation




  • 1726, politics of France under control of Cardinal Fleury




    • He tried to maintain monarchy’s authority while also preserving interests of nobility









5. Central and Eastern Europe

Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority







    • Polish monarchy was elective




    • But nobles distrusted & competed with each other – so did not elect king among themselves




      • Most Polish monarchs were foreigners (so loyal to foreign countries)









    • Included only nobles – excluded everyone else (even local authorities)




    • Diet had practice called liberum veto



      • Foreign powers could pay off a noble to do so




      • This practice – “exploding the diet” – usually done by group of angry nobles (not one man)









    • Liberty of the nobles would cost Poland greatly –

The Habsburg Empire








    • They had hoped (with help of Spain) to control all of Germany & make it all Catholic




      • They failed









  • After 1648, Habsburg family had firm grip on title of Holy Roman Emperor







      • Large German areas (Saxony, Hanover, Bavaria, Brandenburg) & many small German cities, territories, etc.









    • 1714, in Treaty of Rastatt, Habsburgs extended their influence – received Spanish Netherlands & Lombardy (Italy)









  • Habsburg rulers had different titles in different areas (king, duke, etc.)




    • But they all needed cooperation of local nobles (not always easy to get)








      • Religion couldn’t even be used to bind them together




  • Habsburgs set up councils to organize common policies throughout the empire (but they never managed to organize more than a few areas)


Keeping the Empire Together





    • Took over Hungary in 1699 & most of Balkans & western Romania




      • Now Habsburgs hoped to start trading in the Mediterranean




  • When Charles VI came to power, new problem arose –




    • Charles afraid that when he died, Habsburg lands might be taken over by surrounding countries







The Pragmatic Sanction





    • Other members of family recognized her as rightful heir




    • Nobles and foreign rulers recognized her as well









    • However, he failed to leave his daughter with strong army & a full treasury meant her crown was open to foreign aggressors








      • Maria Theresa would have to fight to keep her inheritance

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns








    • Through inheritance, family gained control of several German territories




    • None of these lands bordered Brandenburg




    • East Prussia was in Poland (outside of authority of Holy Roman Empire)









  • Still, by late 1600s, Hohenzollern land was 2nd biggest block of territory in Europe (behind Habsburgs)


Frederick William





    • He established himself as the main uniting power by breaking local noble estates, setting up royal bureaucracy, & building an excellent army




  • 1655-1660, Sweden & Poland fought each other across Great Elector’s lands









      • 1655, local nobles refused to grant him new taxes – so he collected them by military force




      • 1659, a different set of taxes elapsed – Frederick William continued to collect anyway




      • He used money to build an army –


The Junkers

  • But the Elector & his nobles did work out a deal








      • As a result, peasants & urban classes ended up paying bulk of taxes




  • As time went on, most army officers were Junkers









    • Army & the Elector gave the empire some sense of unity








Frederick I

  • House of Hohenzollern did not have a crown, however












      • He built palaces, founded a university, patronized art, & lived a lavish lifestyle




    • In War of the Spanish Succession, he allowed Habsburg emperor to use his army








Frederick William I

  • Frederick I’s successor – Frederick William I




    • He organized bureaucracy like the military











        • Prussia’s population, however, was only 13th in Europe




    • Separate laws applied to the army & civilians









      • Military service, therefore, attracted sons of Junkers




      • Army, Junker nobles, & monarchy united in a single political unit




        • Military priorities & values dominated government, society, & daily life












  • Although he built best army in Europe, Frederick William I avoided using it




    • The army was a symbol of Prussian power –




    • When he died 1740, his son – Frederick II, later known as Frederick the Great – took over








      • After taking over, Frederick the Great invaded Silesia




Directions: Using the notes from section 5, fill in the following chart about the rulers of Eastern Europe. Worth 32 points.

Poland

Hapsburgs

Prussia

Why is King John III Sobieski of Poland important to Vienna?

What was the goal of the Austrian Habsburgs prior to the end of the Thirty Years’ War?

How did the Hohenzollerns gain control of their territory that would eventually be Prussia?

How did Poland choose it’s King?

After 1648, how was the power of the Holy Roman Emperor changed?

How did Frederick William (The Great Elector) build a strong army?

What was liberum veto and how did it make Poland’s government weak?

Why did the Austrian Habsburgs find it difficult to politically unify their domains?

How did Frederick William break the local noble estates?

Who would you say is to blame for Poland being a weak country?

How did Leopold I help the Habsburgs economically & politically?

How did Frederick I get a royal title for the Hohenzollern family?




Why did Charles VI spend so much time on the Pragmatic Sanction?

How did Frederick William I build the best army in Europe?




Explain the Pragmatic Sanction and who would rule because of it?

How did Frederick II upset the Pragmatic Sanction?
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