PROFILE OF FRANCE
550,000 sq. km
France is the largest country in Western Europe (almost one fifth of the total area of the European Union), with a vast maritime zone (exclusive economic zone extending over 11 million sq. km).
Plains cover two thirds of the total area.
Principal mountain ranges: the Alps (of which the highest peak, Mont Blanc, rising to 4,808 metres, is the highest mountain in Western Europe), Pyrenees, Jura, Ardennes, Massif Central and Vosges.
Coastline: Bordered by four seas (North Sea, Channel, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean), France has 5,500 km of coastline.
Three types: Oceanic in the west, Mediterranean in the south, and Continental in central and eastern France
Farms and forests cover 48 million hectares, i.e. 82% of the total area of metropolitan France.
Nearly 30% of French territory is covered by forests, placing France third in the European Union in terms of land under forest, behind Sweden and Finland. Forested areas in France have doubled in the last 200 years and have expanded by 46% since 1945.
France boasts 136 different kinds of trees – exceptional for a European country – and the number of large animals is on the rise: in 20 years, the deer population has doubled and the number of roe deer has tripled.
In order to conserve and develop France's natural heritage, the government has established:
7 national parks,
136 nature reserves,
516 designated areas for protected species
429 protected coastal areas
France also has 37 regional nature parks covering more than 7% of the country.
€28.8 billion is allocated to the protection of the environment - €469.00 per inhabitant. Three quarters of this goes on waste water management and waste disposal.
France is party to many international treaties and conventions concerning the environment, among them United Nations agreements on climate, biodiversity and desertification.
60 million inhabitants (2003)
Density: 111 inhabitants per sq. km
France has 73 urban areas with over 100,000 inhabitants.
The five largest are:
Population in 2002
The French Republic comprises:
Metropolitan France, divided into 22 regions and subdivided into 96 departments,
Four overseas departments (DOM) - Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane (French Guiana) and Réunion.
Five overseas territories – French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and the French Southern and Antarctic Territories,
and one territory with special status: New Caledonia.
The Constitution of 4 October 1958 provides the institutional basis for the Fifth Republic. It has been amended several times to institute election of the President of the Republic by direct universal suffrage (1962), incorporate a new title defining the criminal liability of members of the Government (1993), establish a single parliamentary session, enlarge the area of application of the referendum (1995), institute transitional provisions relating to New Caledonia (1998), establish European Economic and Monetary Union, ensure equal access of men and women to elective office and positions, recognise the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (1999) and shorten the Presidential term of office (2000).
The Constitutional Council, composed of nine members, is responsible in particular for overseeing the proper functioning of elections and for ruling on the constitutionality of organic laws and legislation submitted to it.
President of the Republic
The Head of State is elected for a five-year term by direct universal suffrage (establishment of the five-year term following the referendum of 24 September 2000). Jacques Chirac became the fifth President of the Fifth Republic on 7 May 1995 and was re-elected on 5 May 2002.
The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister and, on the latter's recommendation, appoints the other members of the Government (article 8 of the Constitution).
He presides over the Council of Ministers, promulgates Acts of Parliament and is Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He may dissolve the National Assembly and in an emergency exercise special powers (article 16).
Prime Minister and government
Under the direction of the Prime Minister, the government sets national policy and carries it out.
It is answerable to Parliament (article 20).
The Prime Minister directs the operation of the government and ensures the implementation of legislation (article 21). Jean-Pierre Raffarin was appointed Prime Minister on 6 May 2002.
Parliament comprises two assemblies:
the Senate, elected since 2003 for a six-year term, as against a nine-year one before, by indirect universal suffrage, and renewed by half every three years. The last election took place in September 2004.
the National Assembly, whose members (deputies) are elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term. The most recent general election was held in June 2002.
In addition to providing a check on the Government, the two assemblies draw up and pass legislation. In the case of disagreement on a law the National Assembly makes the final decision.
The Senate has 331 senators divided into the following groups since the September 2004 election:
Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP) group: 156
Socialist group: 97
Union centriste group: 33
Communiste, républicain et citoyen group: 23
Rassemblement Démocratique et Social Européen (RDSE) group: 15
Not registered in a group: 7
The National Assembly comprises 577 deputies divided into the following groups since the general election of 9 et 16 June 2002:
Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP) group: 352 (plus 10 affiliated)
Socialist group: 141 (plus 8 affiliated)
Union pour la Démocratie Française (UDF) group: 27 (plus 4 affiliated)
Députés communistes et républicains group: 22
Not registered in a group: 11
Vacant seats: 2
The "guardian of individual liberty" (article 66 of the Constitution), the French legal system is organized on the basis of a fundamental distinction between ordinary courts, with jurisdiction in disputes between private individuals or bodies, and administrative courts, with jurisdiction in all cases involving some form of dispute between citizens and public authorities.
There are two types of courts:
- civil courts: ordinary (Regional Court) or specialized (district courts, commercial courts, social security courts and the conseils des prud'hommes for industrial relations disputes between employees and employers).
- criminal courts which distinguish three types of offence: contraventions (petty offences), tried by police courts, délits (misdemeanours), tried by criminal courts and crimes (serious indictable offences), tried by the Assize Court.
There is also a specific court, the Youth Court, for both civil and criminal cases.
The highest judicial body is the Cour de Cassation which is responsible for examining rights to appeal against the decree of courts of appeal.
- The Conseil d'État is the supreme administrative court and court of final appeal on the legality of administrative acts. The government also consults the Conseil d'Etat on draft legislation and on some draft orders.
National anthem and motto
The national anthem is the Marseillaise, composed in Strasbourg in 1792 and originally known as the Battle Hymn of the Army of the Rhine; it became the national anthem on 14 July 1795.
The motto of the French Republic is "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity".
The French flag
In 1789, La Fayette added the colour white, symbolizing royalty, to the red and blue cockade of the Paris National Guard. The tricolour is the official standard of the French Republic.
In 2004, the defence budget stood at €32.40 billion or 2.01% of gross domestic product (GDP) and 11.42% of the national budget.
Reflecting the determination of the President of the Republic and the government to equip France with defence resources to meet its requirements, the Defence Programme Law for the period 2003-2008 defines quantified targets for resources and personnel as part of an effort to adjust our defence system to present-day goals and issues. This is shown by:
a strengthening of the resources to combat terrorism,
the security and reliability of French nuclear deterrence,
France’s involvement in crisis prevention and resolution (operational deployment of 15,000 – 20,000 military personnel),
Military cooperation within NATO and the European Union.
In 2004, the French armed forces include 436,708 military and civilian personnel:
Air Force: 69,276
Joint services (health, social welfare, etc.): 46,620
On 1 January 2004, Metropolitan France had an estimated 60 million inhabitants. France thus accounts for more than 13% of the European Union's population. In 2003, life expectancy at birth was 75.8 years for men and 82.9 for women. Since 1994, this figure has increased by two years for men, but by only one year for women.
Demographic situation (2003)
The fertility rate is 1.91 children per woman.
The birth rate is 12.8‰.
Mortality rate: 9.2‰
Marriages: 280,300. Since the start of the 1990s, the number of married couples has fallen while the number of non-married couples has risen from 1.5 million in 1990 to 2.4 million - one couple in six today.
Structure of households:
Couples with at least one child: 32.4%
Couples without children: 27.9%
Single-parent family: 7.4%
Composite households: 3.3%.
Breakdown by age
20 to 59: 54.3%
Under 20: 25.1%
65 and over: 20.6%
Average age: 39.2 years
The French Republic is a secular state where all religious faiths and denominations are found.
In 2003, education spending amounted to €103.6 billion, 6.9% of GDP, and 37.8% of the national budget. This represents €1,690 per inhabitant and €6,500 per pupil or student.
Preschool, primary and secondary schools:
69,180 preschool and primary schools, collèges and lycées.
Pupil/teacher ratio: 16.2 to 1.
Baccalauréat pass rate (2003): 80.1%.
74,094 teaching staff
3,600 higher education establishments.
Student/teacher ratio: 29.8 to 1.
France has a total labour force of some 27.1 million. Within this category, 23.9 million are wage and salary earners and 2.68 million, 9.9% of the total labour force, are job seekers (January 2003). 62% of men and 48.8% of women are in employment.
Breakdown by type of employment:
Clerical, white-collar workers: 7,809,000, 30.1% of the total labour force
Manual workers: 7,062,000, 26.7% of the total labour force
Intermediate occupations: 5,763,000, 20.7% of the total labour force
Managerial and professional occupations: 3,700,000, 13.9% of the total labour force
Self-employed craft tradesmen, shopkeepers, heads of businesses: 1,500,000, 5.7% of the total labour force
Farmers, farm workers: 642,000, 2.4% of the total labour force
Unemployed individuals who have never worked: 352,000, 1.3% of the total labour force.
Standard of living
Net average annual earnings: €20,440
Gross average household savings: €1,900 or 16.1% of disposable income.
Consumption (% of household spending):
Housing, electricity, heating: 23.9%
Food, drink and tobacco: 18.2%
Transport and communications: 17.6%
Leisure and culture: 9.4%
Household goods and home upkeep: 6.2%
Other goods and services: 15.8%
On 1 July 2003, the guaranteed monthly minimum wage (SMIC - salaire minimum interprofessionnel de croissance) was €1,090.48 gross for a working week of 35 hours at an hourly rate of €7.19.
Mean fiscal annual salary
Executives, management staff: €39,360
Technical and supervisory personnel: €21,190
Farmers, farm workers: €21,114
Other intermediate professions: €20,000
Skilled workers: €14,960
Clerical, white collar workers: €14,850
Statutory paid holiday entitlement: five weeks a year.
69% of people take a holiday away from home.
Approximately two million people in France – 8% of the working population – are union members. This is the lowest percentage in the European Union.
The main centralised trade unions are: the CGT (Confédération Générale du Travail), the CFDT (Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail), FO (Force Ouvrière), the CFTC (Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens) and the FSU (Fédération Syndicale Unitaire).
The French Social Security system was introduced in 1945. Benefits are financed on a "pay as you go" basis.
67% of total social security spending (29% of GDP) comes from employers and employees' contributions and 20% from taxes, including earmarked taxes such as the CSG (Contribution sociale généralisée - social security contribution levied on virtually all sources of income) or the CRDS (Contribution pour le remboursement de la dette sociale – contribution to the repayment of the social debt) which apply to all income other than that deriving from work. This is virtually the sole source of funding for the Social Security system. Public financing accounts for 13% of total resources.
Benefits break down as follows: pensions (49.2%), health (27.2%), family allowances (12.8%) and employment aid (unemployment benefit, vocational training and social integration) (8.4%).
However, the growing number of pensioners compared to the labour force, combined with medical advances and longer life expectancy, has led to a deficit in the French Social Security system and in 2003 to reform of the pension contribution system.
Health is a major concern of the French: in 2003, they spent €147 billion on medical care and goods.
75% of this was covered by the social security system, with an increasing proportion being met by households and insurance companies. A major programme of reform was instituted in 2004 to balance the accounts of the health insurance branch of the Social Security system.
CULTURE AND LEISURE
The Ministry of Culture's budget for 2003 was €2.63 billion. The financing of cultural activities costs some €13 billion, half provided by the State and half by local authorities.
On average, households spend €1,075 a year on culture, leisure activities, sports and games.
In 2002, 60,258 books were published including 30,714 new titles and 29,544 reprints; 401 million copies were printed by 350 publishing houses.
Publishers’ annual net sales (2002): €2.7 billion.
30% of the French read a daily newspaper every day.
There are 10 national newspapers and 65 regional papers (dailies and weeklies).
Total annual circulation: 2.3 billion.
Among the top 100, six have a circulation of over one million and eight over 500,000 copies.
With 1,354 copies sold for every 1,000 residents, France ranks first in the world for magazine readership.
Watching television remains the favourite leisure activity of the French, with an average of 3 hours 15 minutes per person per day.
There are over 180 television channels.
Four national public channels: France 2, France 3, Arte (Franco-German cultural channel) and France 5 (educational channel);
Three national private channels: TF1, M6 and Canal Plus (pay channel with 6.4 million subscribers in France and 6.7 million abroad);
Over 20 national and local cable channels (40% of households are connected to a cable network). 7.5% of households subscribe to specific cable channels;
Multichannel satellite packages (Canal Satellite, TPS).
TV5 and Canal France International (CFI), are the two operators in France's external radio and television network.
Radio France is the umbrella company for the country's public service radio stations: France Inter, France Info (24-hour news), France Culture, Radio Bleue and FIP.
The private sector is represented by the general interest stations RTL (France's most popular radio station), Europe 1 and Radio Monte Carlo (RMC) and a host of music, specialist, community and regional stations broadcasting on FM.
Radio France Internationale (RFI - 45 million listeners worldwide), RMC-Moyen Orient aimed at the Middle East and Medi 1 aimed at North Africa, the Maghreb, form France's overseas radio broadcasting network.
Information technology and multimedia
While computers are considered primarily as tools for work and are used as such by 79% of the French, an increasing proportion, currently 43%, of French households now have one.
The French have rapidly taken to the Internet, the new form of access to knowledge, with 17 million users at school, work or home.
Internet use in France has grown swiftly and remarkably in a few years: every institution, daily newspaper, government department and business now has its own website and there are sites of all kinds (sport, education, services, films, etc.).
The most visited sites are portal sites, ISP websites (such as France Telecom's Wanadoo) and service sites.
France, which invented the cinematograph in 1895, is still very active in this sector. 212 films were produced in 2003, making France second in the world for film investment.
58.4% of the French population goes to the cinema at least once a year, and 34.6% at least once a month. With a network numbering over 5,240 cinemas – 97 of which are of multiplex type – France is among the countries with the densest cinema coverage.
Music and dance
France is home to some 11,300 dramatic artists and dancers, 16,200 musicians and singers, 250 music, opera and dance festivals, 8,700 variety performers; etc. In addition, amateur performers are increasing in number as teaching in these fields has grown apace (more than 4,300 institutions specialize in music alone).
Every year, some 50,000 performances put on by the national theatres, national drama centres, other subsidized playhouses and private theatres attract a total audience of eight million. In addition to the great theatres in Paris, its suburbs, in smaller cities and at world-renowned festivals such as Avignon, over a thousand independent theatre companies have sprung up.
Museums and monuments
Around 1,200 museums draw more than 70 millions of visitors each year.
The Louvre, the Chateau de Versailles and the Musée d'Orsay alone welcome nearly 15 million people annually.
Most cities outside Paris have at least one museum. In addition, more than 1,500 historic buildings are open to the public (eight million visitors a year), with the Eiffel Tower the most popular attraction with 6 million visitors a year. Moreover, some 38,000 buildings are classified as historic monuments and as such are protected by the Ministry of Culture.
Participation in sporting activities has grown rapidly in recent years. Almost 10 million people are enrolled in sports federations, with football and tennis the largest. Judo, pétanque, horse-riding, badminton and golf have recorded notable success in recent years. In addition, adventure and discovery activities such as mountain biking, hiking, climbing, hang-gliding and canoeing are winning increasing numbers of followers.
Internet Festival, Heritage Days, Music Festival, the literature festival Lire en Fête, and Science Week are all cultural and leisure events in which the French love to take part, and whose success is growing every year: on the Heritage Days, historic buildings (ministries, embassies, firms, banks) usually closed to the public open their doors. The aim of Science Week is to inform the public about developments in science and their implications for society. Focusing on books and reading, Lire en Fête organizes meetings with writers, writers' workshops and short story competitions and introduces visitors to trades within the book industry. Finally, the Internet Festival raises public awareness about the information society.
France is the world's fourth largest economic power in terms of GDP. The country's assets are varied and include its transport and telecommunications sectors, its agrifood and pharmaceutical industries, along with banking, insurance, tourism and the traditional luxury products (leather goods, ready-to-wear fashion, perfumes, fine wines and spirits, etc.).
In 2003 France had a trade surplus of €19.3 billion; it is the world's fourth largest exporter of goods (mainly durables) and ranks second in services and agriculture (cereals and agrifood in particular). It is the leading producer and exporter of farm products in Europe.
France does 70% of its trade with its European Union partners (50% within the euro area).
France ranks fourth worldwide for direct inward investment. Foreign investors appreciate the skills of French workers, the advanced level of research, the mastery of high technology, the stable currency and control of production costs.
Gross domestic product - GDP (2003): €1.551 billion
GDP growth (2003): 0.5%
Inflation (2003): 2.2%
Trade surplus (2003): €19.3 billion
Agricultural holdings: 664,000
Agricultural labour force: 916,000
Utilized agricultural area: 27,856, 000 hectares, 51% of the area of metropolitan France.
Principal agricultural products in France
Cereals: 1st in the EU, 5th worldwide (69 million metric tons, including 37.3 million metric tons of soft wheat and 16.4 million metric tons of grain maize)
Wine: 2nd worldwide and in the EU after Italy (52 million hectolitres)
Milk: 2nd in the EU, after Germany, and 5th worldwide (24 million litres)
Sugar beet: 1st in the EU, 2nd worldwide (33.4 million metric tons)
Oilseeds: 1st in the EU (5 million metric tons)
Cattle: 20 million
Pigs: 15.3 million
Sheep: 9.3 million
Goats: 1.2 million
Beef: 1.9 million metric tons in carcass weight equivalent (cwe)
Pork: 2.4m metric tons cwe
Sheep/goat: 1.4m metric tons cwe
Poultry: 2.2m metric tons cwe.
Wooded areas cover some 16.3 million hectares, 30% of France's total area, placing France third in the EU countries in terms of forest land.
Forest area in France has increased by 46% since 1945 and continues to grow by about 74,000 hectares each year. Most trees are deciduous (two-thirds), while the remaining third consists of conifers.
The National Forestry Office (Office national des Forêts - ONF) is responsible for managing national forests (1,760,000 hectares) and those belonging to local authorities (1,810,000 hectares).
The remaining 11,700,000 hectares belong to some 3,500,000 private owners. Forests in France are a source of biological and scenic wealth, a place for excursions and relaxation; they also yield an annual harvest of 52 million cubic metres of timber. They also make an irreplaceable contribution to rural development by supplying the raw material for a number of industries which provide numerous jobs.
And lastly, forest land contributes to the efforts to combat climate change by storing atmospheric carbon. The extra carbon stored annually by French forests is estimated at 10 million metric tons.
Energy independence: 50.5%
Primary energy consumption: 274.6 million metric ton oil equivalent (TOE)
Main companies in this sector: TOTAL, EDF, GDF.
Breakdown of energy consumption:
Primary electricity: 42%
Thermal renewable energies: 4.7%
Net electricity production: 566.9 billion kWh, of which 77.8% is nuclear-generated
Energy bill: €22.7 billion.
Leading industrial sectors in France
Construction and civil engineering:
Annual net turnover: €113.04 billion.
Three French groups: Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage, rank among the top European construction firms.
Annual net sales: €131.2 billion
Leading sectors: meat and dairy production, cereals, confectionery, soft and alcoholic beverages. Leading exporter and second largest producer in the EU.
Trade surplus: €7.8 billion
Number of firms: 4,250
Main groups: Danone, Eridania Beghin-Say, Nestlé France, Besnier, Pernod-Ricard, Sodiaal, Socopa and Bongrain.
Annual net sales: €85 billion
Main firms: Air Liquide, Rhodia, Hutchinson.
This sector includes haute couture, jewellery, luxury leather goods, perfumes, cosmetics and fine glassware.
Annual net sales: €28.8 billion
Main groups: LVMH, PPR/Gucci group, Chanel, Baccarat, Hermès, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Dior, Cartier.
Annual net sales: €32.85 billion
World's fourth largest producer and fifth largest exporter.
Main firms: Sanofi-Synthélabo, Pierre Fabre, Servier and Aventis.
Annual net sales: €106 billion
France is the world's third largest exporter of cars and, in 2002, had a surplus on its trade in this sector of €11.2 billion.
PSA (Peugeot-Citroen) and Renault are the two main groups in the sector.
5,646,500 vehicles were produced in 2002.
Materials processing (steel, aluminium, glass, plastics, rubber)
Annual net sales: €59.19 billion
Among the main firms are the Usinor group (steel processing), Alcan (aluminium) and Saint-Gobain, the world's largest producer and second largest exporter of glass; Plastic Omnium and Sommier Allibert are the two French leaders in plastics processing and Michelin is the world's leading tyre manufacturer.
. Telecommunications and information and communication technology:
Annual net sales: €73 billion
Installed base: 35 million lines.
France Telecom has 48.2% of the market, Cegetel-SFR 34.2% and Bouygues Telecom 17.6%.
There has been a sharp rise in the number of mobile phones, with 37.3 million subscribers in May 2003.
In the telecommunications sector, Alcatel is the fourth largest manufacturer of telecommunications equipment, and the world leader in transmission systems and submarine cable networks.
Digital television is represented by Thomson Multimédias, which produces digital television decoders.
In 2003 e-commerce generated net sales of €3.4 billion.
Annual net sales: €24 billion
Main firms: EADS (Airbus, Eurocopter, Astrium, MBDA, ...), Dassault Aviation, Snecma, Arianespace.
The Internet showcase for French industry and technology:
Research and development
National R & D expenditure amounts to €31.44 billion i.e. 2% of GDP, the fourth highest in the OECD.
The public sector finances 43% of this and is responsible for running the major national research facilities (building maintenance, salaries and laboratory equipment), which include the CNRS (all fields), INSERM (medicine), INRA (agronomy), etc.
Research financed by private enterprise (57%) focuses on advanced technology sectors such as aerospace, pharmaceuticals, car manufacture, communications equipment and precision instruments. France ranks fourth among OECD countries for research, after Japan, the United States and Germany.
Densest in the world and longest in the EU with a total of 985,902 km of local, secondary and main roads and motorways, including 10,225 km of motorways (second in Europe).
While 73% of freight is carried by road, use of combined transport is sharply increasing.
France had 31,986 kilometres of track on 1 January 2003. France holds the world speed record (515 kph) with its high-speed train (TGV), which runs on 1,547 kilometres of special track allowing trains in normal commercial operation to travel at 270 kph or more.
Annual traffic: 315 million passengers on the main network, 83 million on the TGV network, 560 million on the Île-de-France regional network and 126 million metric tons of freight.
Each year almost 100 million passengers and 4.7 billion tonne-kilometres of freight are carried. 904 aircraft (planes and helicopters) fly under the French flag.
Paris airports (ADP):
709,200 annual commercial aircraft movements (2003), 71,5 million passengers (sixth in the world) and 1.83 million metric tons of freight and mail (2003).
Annually 210 ships (total tonnage of 4.1 million) transport 91.5 million metric tons of freight. France's fleet ranks 28th in the world in tonnage. Marseilles is the largest port in France and on the Mediterranean, and the fifth largest in Europe, handling 92.4 million metric tons of goods.
Financial services and banking
Market capitalization of shares listed on the Paris stock exchange totals €884 billion, 50% of French GDP, ranking Paris seventh in the world.
The leading French banks are BNP Paribas, Crédit Agricole, Société Générale, and Crédit Lyonnais.
The French insurance sector has consolidated its position as the fourth largest in the world, with net sales of €210 billion. Axa, Europe's second largest insurance company, CNP and AGF are the three main French insurance companies. Life and health policies are continuing to expand (+3%). Property-casualty insurance (including third-party liability) is growing by 7%. The insurance sector provides some 200,000 jobs.
With 75 million foreign tourists in 2003, France is the most visited country in the world. France has 18,375 hotels, 8,330 camping sites, 900 holiday villages, 190 youth hostels, 63,158 gîtes (self-catering holiday facilities) and 29,030 chambres d'hôtes (bed and breakfast). France's income from tourism (€34.5 billion) is the third largest in the world, after the United States and Spain. The trade surplus in this sector is over €13.1 billion.
France is the world's second largest exporter of services and farm products and fourth largest exporter of goods (principally durables).
The 2003 trade surplus stood at €19.3 billion. French exports, which totalled €401.9 billion in 2003, account for 26.5% of GDP. Imports amounted to €382.6 billion.
These figures show a decrease in the surplus in durable goods (€7.8 billion) and a stable €6.9-billion surplus in farm products.
France's current trade surplus (excluding the defence industry) stands at €10.1 billion.
France's European Union partners absorb 70% of its trade.
The country had a trade surplus of €2.2 billion with the rest of the EU in 2003. France's main customers are Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain and the United States.
The broadest meaning of this term covers the whole range of actions directed at the promotion of the French language and the values for which it is a vehicle. In the institutional sense – it is given a capital ‘F’ in this case – it relates to the international organisation, the OIF, which brings together the 56 States and governments that have chosen to adhere to its Charter.
Who are the francophones?
This is a fast expanding community.
French has never been spoken by so many around the world. It counts among the planet’s great languages. Although it is spoken by less people than Chinese or Hindi, it is, alongside English, the only language spoken on all continents.
Why speak French?
In North America, speaking French is an affirmation of cultural identity.
In sub-Saharan Africa, French opens the door to basic education. French is the language of development and modernity in this region.
In Central and Eastern Europe, knowledge of French is associated with a sense of belonging to a united Europe: its three capitals, Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg are francophone cities and in the institutions of the European Union, French is a working language.
French is one of the two UN working languages, one of the two official languages of the International Olympic Committee, the only universal language for the postal services, and the main language of the African Union.
French language is increasingly present on the Web.
Who teaches French?
The agents of the Francophonie, in close consultation with France and the 900,000 teachers of French around the world, estimate demand and extend teaching to reach new audiences.
French lycées and approved educational establishments abroad make a major contribution to the spread of the French language. This unique network of over 400 establishments based in 130 countries welcomes over 250,000 foreign and French students.
TV5 also provides support for teachers of French with its course “Learning and teaching with TV5”.
TV5 – the international French-language channel
With over 147 million households receiving TV5 on all five continents and 59 satellite links, TV5, ranking second among international TV channels, offers a diverse range of viewpoints on the world around the clock.
264 million people have the French language available to them.
North Africa (Maghreb)
Excluding the francophone area
Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (International Organisation of the Francophonie)
28, Rue de Bourgogne 75007 Paris
Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie (Intergovernmental Agency of the Francophonie)
13, Quai André Citroën 75015 Paris
Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (University Agency for Francophonie – AUF)
4, Place de la Sorbonne 75005 Paris
Association Internationale des Maires Francophones (International Association of Francophone Mayors and City Officials – AIMF)
9, Rue des Halles 75001 PARIS
Université Senghor d’Alexandrie (Senghor University, Alexandria)
1, Place Ahmed Orabi, BP 415
Alexandrie – Égypte
19, Rue Cognac-Jay 75007 Paris
Assemblée Parlementaire de la Francophonie (Parliamentary Assembly of the Francophonie – APF)
235, Boulevard Saint-Germain 75007 PARIS
Forum Francophone des Affaires (Francophone Business Forum)
3, Place de la Coupole, BP 88,
94223 Charenton Cedex
Jeux de la Francophonie (Francophonie Games)
95, Avenue de France 75650 Paris Cedex 13
Union Internationale de la Presse Francophone (International Forum of the Francophone Press)
3, Cité Bergère 75009 Paris
Service des Affaires Francophones (French Foreign Ministry Francophone Affairs Department)
Ministère des Affaires étrangères
57, Boulevard des Invalides
FRANCE'S FOREIGN POLICY
France's foreign policy is founded on several centuries of diplomatic tradition and some fundamental principles: the right of peoples to self-determination, respect for human rights and democratic principles, respect for the rule of law and cooperation among nations. Within this framework, France's concern is to preserve its national independence while at the same time working to foster regional and international solidarity.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF EUROPE
From as early as 1945 European construction has been at the heart of French foreign policy. There have been several major reasons for this: the desire to restore peace and guarantee the security of the States, strengthen democratic government and build an integrated economic and monetary area able to ensure prosperity for the peoples of Europe.
Given this, General de Gaulle and Presidents Pompidou, Giscard d'Estaing, Mitterrand and Chirac have striven unceasingly to make the European edifice a reality and develop it into an economic power and respected political forum.
With its GDP of €9,710 billion in 2003, the European Union is the equal of the North American continent and leads Asia.
On 1 May 2004, ten new members joined the European Union. Strengthened by twenty-five countries, the European Union forms the third largest grouping on the planet, occupying 3% of its dry land and holding 7.5% of its population and a quarter of global wealth.
Enlargement: a historical dynamic
Accessions to the European Communities and subsequently to the European Union.
The Europe of ___
25 March 1957
The Treaty of Rome is signed by France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
1 January 1973
Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom
1 January 1981
1 January 1986
1 January 1995
Austria, Finland, Sweden
1 May 2004
Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia
Milestones in European enlargement
9 November 1989
The Fall of the Berlin Wall
21-22 June 1993
The Copenhagen European Council: approval in principle for the enlargement of the European Union and definition of the criteria to be met by candidates for accession.
30 March 1998
Negotiations begin for the accession of the first candidates.
24-25 March 1999
Berlin European Council: definition of the financial timetable for enlargement.
7-9 December 2000
Nice European Council: changes to European institutions with a view to the functioning of an enlarged Union.
12-13 December 2002
Copenhagen European Council: conclusion of the negotiations for the ten candidate countries.
16 April 2003
The accession treaty is signed in Athens.
The accession treaty is ratified in the 25 countries.
1 May 2004
The ten new members join the European Union.
Elections for the European Parliament in the 25 countries of the European Union.
In the area of security, the Cold War years and the succeeding period of instability have placed heavy responsibilities on all the democratic nations, including France. Party to the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO), France also belongs to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Eurocorps, in which France has nearly 13,000 troops.
As one of the five nuclear powers – alongside the United Kingdom, the United States, Russia and China – France is ensuring the maintenance of its deterrent force and its adaptation to the new strategic realities, taking into account the European dimension of its defence, while working towards a total ban on nuclear testing and committing itself to arms control and disarmament.
Action at the UN
France's foreign policy is conducted in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations, purposes and principles which in fact comply with the ideals underlying France's republican tradition.
Thus, since 1945 France has constantly supported the UN, to which it is the fourth largest contributor. In 2004, it contributed a total of €84.35 million to the UN's regular budget and €107.57 million to the UN system's specialized agencies.
As a permanent member of the Security Council, France has participated directly in many UN peacekeeping operations (in the Middle East, Cambodia, the former Yugoslavia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Haiti, etc.). French contributions to peacekeeping operations stood at €140.34 million in 2003.
France also supports the action of the UN in the area of development aid, in particular through contributions and technical assistance that it provides to the main programmes for fighting poverty (UNDP), child protection (UNICEF) or fighting drugs (UNDCP).
France's international cooperation policy relies on the exercise of both influence and solidarity.
The Directorate-General for Development and International Cooperation (DGCID) implements this policy around four main lines:
France intends to continue its effort of solidarity towards the poorest countries and in 2003 devoted €6.4 billion to official development assistance. This sum represents 0.41% of French GDP.
The major part of the funds provided by France for development aid is devoted to bilateral assistance provided directly to the beneficiary countries by French government departments or those acting for them.
In 2003, development in Africa continued to be a priority for French foreign policy. The proportion of bilateral aid going to sub-Saharan Africa thus rose from 49% in 2002 to 57% in 2003.
Encouraging cultural exchanges and the use of the French language
France has 151 French cultural establishments abroad, located in 91 countries, and a network of 283 Alliances françaises.
The policy of promoting the French language concerns 82 million learners in 130 countries and relies on 900,000 teachers. The Agency for French Studies Abroad (AEFE) coordinates the activities of the 268 French schools in the world.
Promoting scientific and academic cooperation
France intends to both support the internationalisation of French research and to disseminate information on the scientific systems of partner countries.
The Science and Technology Observatory and the 28 French research centres abroad are responsible for implementing these objectives.
As regards academic cooperation, France manages more than 200 French-speaking degree courses throughout the world and reinforces in particular its relations with partners such as Germany and the United States. An increasing number of foreign students are welcomed to France: they total 220,000.
Ensuring a French presence on the world audiovisual scene
The French audiovisual presence abroad is increasingly strong and support for major operators in this sector, such as the French-speaking channel TV5 and Radio France International (RFI), is now a government priority.
France also supports the distribution of French films and documentaries.
France gives humanitarian action a specific place in its foreign policy, and also demonstrates its loyalty to the values it has inspired. France has played a vital role in the development of humanitarian action and international humanitarian law.
The French Foreign Ministry's Humanitarian Action Delegation implements the emergency humanitarian relief actions abroad decided by the government. The Delegation therefore coordinates the action of its various institutional partners such as the Sécurité civile (emergency services dealing with natural disasters, bomb disposal, etc), Samu mondial (mobile emergency medical service - international branch), the French Defence Ministry, Emergency NGOs, and so on. The funds earmarked for these programmes totalled €9.3 million in 2004. French NGOs working abroad receive about 40% of these funds in the form of grants.
In this area France also provides support to the activities of multilateral organisations.
In 2004, €49 million was paid to various UN humanitarian agencies: Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNICEF, World Food Programme (WFP), United Nations Relief and Work Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA), International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and so on.
Finally France's contribution to programmes implemented within the European framework amounts to more than €100 million. Through ECHO (European Community Humanitarian Office), France assists countries or peoples in need, suffering the effects of natural disasters or political crises.
THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM
As a victim of international terrorism both at home and abroad, France has for many years shown its determination to combat terrorism in all its forms and irrespective of its source.
France, which considers that an uncompromising fight to eliminate terrorism must be conducted without prejudice to human rights and public freedoms, has put in place specific anti-terrorism legislation.
The United Nations resolutions adopted following the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States stepped up international cooperation against terrorism.
France is an active participant in the work of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC).
The French in the world
Nearly 2 million French citizens live abroad:
52.9% in Europe
19.1% in America
12.5% in North Africa and the Middle East
10.3% in sub-Saharan Africa
5.3% in Asia and Oceania
Half are temporary overseas residents (average stay four years). In most cases they are employees of French companies, civil servants on overseas assignment or members of humanitarian organizations.
The other half are permanent residents, among them those with dual French and foreign citizenship, whose numbers swelled by 85% between 1984 and 2002.